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Kobe, Japan: 

The Korean Conspiracy Trial. 

By the Special Correspondent of the " Japan Chronicle." 



Seoul, June 28. 
To-day the long-expected trial of the 
123 Koreans charged with being con- 
cerned in a conspiracy to assassinate 
Count Terauchi, Governor-General of Ko- 
rea, was commenced, and will be con- 
tinued day by day until the conclusion 
of the proceedings. 

The Akbival of the Prisoners. 
It was about seven o'clock this morn 
ing that small groups of prisoners began 
to arrive at the Court, each group of 
about ten men being escorted by three 
or four warders. The prisoners were 
manacled, and were tied together by a 
long cord. It was more than an hour 
before all the prisoners and their escorts 
had arrived and passed Into the Court, 
which was strongly guarded by police 
and gendarmes. Several policemen stood 
at the entrance-gates, and the prisoners 
passed through a double row of police on 
their way from the gates to the Court 
In front of the entrance there was a big 
crowd of Koreans waiting patiently to 
see their fellow-countryjnen about to be 
tried on a most serious charge. The ex- 
citement and confusion among these 
spectators was considerable, and mount- 
ed police and gendarmes were kept busy 
in their efforts to prevent the curious 
crow^d from swarming round the entrance 
to the Court. As soon as the prisoners 
began to arrive, the spectators were 

driven back as far as possible from the 
gates, and eventually were kept at a dis- 
tance of about 200 yards from the en- 
trance, after a good deal of hustling and 
pushing. There was also considerable 
confusion at the entrance among those 
Koreans who had obtained permits to 
enter the Court. Each was anxious to 
get in before his neighbour, and the police 
had their work cut out to maintain order. 
Only about 200 persons were admitted, 
and when a party of about 20 women, 
relatives of some of the accused, came 
up to the gates at 8.10 they were refused 
admittance, but some of them were after- 
wards allow-ed to enter. All those Ko- 
reans who gained admittance by ticket 
were searched one after another at an 
inner gate before being allowed to enter 
the Court. About 20 foreigners, includ- 
ing three members of the Salvation Army, 
were among those admitted to the 

The Scene in Court. 
A special building had been erected be- 
hind the District Court for the hearing 
of this case. It was about 84 feet long, 
and 30 feet wide, and covered about 70 
tsubo. The cost of building this Court, 
I was told, was about ¥7,000. When the 
public was admitted the accused were 
seen sitting in the middle of the Court, 
divided into two groups of 67 and 5S 
men. On either side were the seats for 
counsel and the Press. At one end were 
the Judges' seats, and right at the other 
extreme end of the Court were the seats 
provided for the public. A barrier was 
erected across the Court between the 


[ J ] 

Judges and the accused, and another bar- 
rier separated the prisoners from the 
public sitting behind them. About 30 
policemen and half-a-dozen gendarmes 
guarded the prisoners, while a number 
of police and gendarmerie were scattered 
among the spectators at the back of the 
Court. During the proceedings the 
Court was guarded outside by police and 

On entering the Court it was noticed, 
now that the straw hats worn by the 
prisoners had been removed, that the 
hair of each man had been closely crop- 
ped, as Is done with prisoners in Japan. 
Four of the accused, who are already serv- 
ing sentences for other offences, wore 
the usual red convict garb. 

Lengthy Prelimi.nabies. 

About an hour after the public had 
been admitted the Judges took their seats, 
shortly after nine o'clock. Judge Tsu- 
kahara presided, with two Associate 
Judges. There were two interpreters, one 
of whom was a Korean. Instead of tak- 
ing their places near the persons whose 
evidence is to be interpreted, as is done 
In Japanese Courts, the interpreters sat 
near the Judges. Big piles of documents 
•were placed on the table in front of the 
Judges, together with two boxes and an 
old-fashioned long sword. An array of 
16 barristers — nine Japanese and seven 
Koreans — appeared for the defence ; 
among the Japanese counsel was Mr. 
Ogawa Hciklchi, of Tokyo. 

The whole of the morning's proceed- 
ings was taken up by preliminaries. The 
accused answered one by one to their 
names, and gave their ages, residence, 
profession, etc. All this Information had 
to be interpreted, and occupied nearly 
two and a half hours. Then the Chief 
Procurator, Mr. Mataudera, read the In- 
dictment, which took 50 minutes to 
recite, and about the same time to Inter- 
pret. The outline of this Indictment has 
already appeared in the Chronicle (June 
13th) and need not now be given. Vpon 

the conclusion of the interpretation of 
the indictment, the Court adjourned for 


On the Court reassembling at 2.30, the 
trial proper commenced. The first man 
to be examined was Sin Hyo-pyom, aged 
32, who said he was formerly a corporal 
in the Korean Army, and afterwards be- 
came gymnastic instructor at the Shia 
Seung Academy. He denied having 
joined the Sin Min Hoi (New People's 
Society), the object of which was to re- 
store the independence of Korea and to 
kill the Governor-General and others. 
He denied having ever heard of the or- 
ganisation, nor had he heard that Baron 
Yun was at the head of the Society. 
Accused also denied having been urged 
to join by Kim Heung-yang in Mr. Mc- 
Cune's room (the principal of the mis- 
sion school at Syen Chuen). He Joined 
the academy as instructor in September 
1903, but had never heard from any- 
one that, whenever called upon, he 
must turn out to assassinate the 
Governor-General. Questioned as to 
why he had admitted these allega- 
tions before the Procurator, accused said 
he did so simply because of the torture 
to which he had been subjected by the 
authorities. The Court asked how a man 
in the position of a teacher could have 
said what he did not mean, no matter 
what torture he might have be«i sub- 
jected to. Accused replied that he could 
not hold out any longer, and had to say 
things against his will. He had never 
been visited by any of those regarded 
as ringleaders in the alleged consi)iracy, 
nor had he ever taken part in discus- 
sions with anyone in regard to carrying 
out the alleged plot. He had not men- 
tioned any such scheme to Mr. JlcCune, 
the head of the mission school, or any- 
one else. He was not aware that a party 
of conspirators, armed with 80 revolvers, 
had gone to the railway-station at Syen 
Chuen in October (old calender), but hud 

[ 5 ] 

been unable to ascertain the actual date 
and time of the Governor-General's ar- 
rival. Neither did he know whether Mr. 
McCune had cautioned the conspirators 
to be more careful regarding their move- 
ments, as otherwise their plans would be 
detected Accused denied having gone 
to a wealthy widow at Kwak San to ob- 
tain money to carry out the plot. State- 
ments to the above effect which he had 
made were due, accused now said, to the 
torture to which he was subjected by the 

Foreigners and Assassination. 
In answer to further questions by the 
Court, accused denied having consulted 
two members of the New People's Society 
from Pyong-yang in regard to the con- 
templated assassination at Syen Chuen. 
He denied that one of these men. Ok 
Kwan-pin, had told him and others that. 
Count Terauchi was passing shortly, nor 
had he been told by anyone of the neces- 
sity for getting revolvers in readiness 
to execute the plans which were made. 
He did not know that some representative 
men from Wiju had met men from Pyong- 
yang and other places, and after discus- 
sing the conspiracy had appointed cer- 
tain men to buy more revolvers. He was 
not aware that after preparations had 
been made at Syen Chuen Ok went up to 
Wiju, and on returning to Syen Chuen 
had met a number of conspirators in the 
mission school, where Ok addressed a re- 
mark to the students suggesting the as- 
sassination of the Governor-General. He 
did not know whether a further meeting 
took place at the academy, attend- 
ed by about six foreigners, to talk over 
the assassination, neither did ho know 
whether some of the conspirators had re- 
quested Mr. McCune to instigate the stu- 
dents at his school to take part in the 
plot. Neither did he know whether Mr. 
McCune had assembled the students, tea- 
chers, and some local members of the 
New People's Society and had suggested 
to them that they should join the con- 

spiracy, quoting in support of the sugges- 
tion a passage from the Old Testament 
which showed that even a weak man cou'd 
get thj advantage of his superior. 

By thi> Court: Later on about .^0 men, 
including An Tai-kuk and one other, 
came from Pyong-yang to Syen Chuen and 
called a meeting that night at the mis- 
sion school. An announced that the 
Governor-General was coming the follow- 
ing day, and they must get ready to carry 
out their plan against him. About 50 
boys were also selected, whom the leaders 
instructed that when the Governor- 
General's train was heard coming they 
should get ready by laying hold of their 
revolvers, which should be concealed 
under their clothes. Then those who had 
the best opportunity should fire at the 
Governor-General. Is that so? 

Accused: I do not know. 

r.y the Court: The following morn in;? 
(the 28th of same month) revolvers were 
distributed among the studont;3 of the 
mission school in the presence of the 
principal, Mr. McCune. The men and the 
boys then proceeded to Syen Chuen 
station, but the Governor-General's train 
passed through without stopping. Is 
that so? 

Accused: 1 do not know. 

By the Court: A great meeting was held 
that evening, when Yi Seung-hun, an- 
other one of the accused, said that al- 
though they had missed their object that 
day, they would find it next day at the 
station when he alighted. This was an 
order from Yun Chi-ho and Yang Ki-tak 
from the head office of New People's So- 
ciety at Seoul, and which represented 13 
provinces of Korea. Mr. McCune then 
told them there might be some one among 
them who did not know the Count, so they 
should watch to see whom he (Mr. Mc- 
Cune) shook hands witlT, and fire at him. 
Is that so ? 
Accused: I do not know. 
By the Court: Did the conspirators 
give revolvers to the students and the 

[ 6 ] 

men in the presence of Mr. McCuue, and 
proceed to that station under your com- 

Accused: We went to the station, but 
there was little possibility of anyone 
carrying weapons, since we had been 
first subjected to a search. 


Accused further said that he lined 
up the men and boys on the platform 
in double fl!e, at the top of which was 
Mr. McCune and other teachers. There 
were also a number of Japanese. The 
Governor-General's train arrived at the 
station at about noon from Wiju. He 
alighted from his car and walked along 
the lines of the men and boys, saluting 
as he passed. He then went up to Mr. 
McCune, the principal of the school, but 
accused did not know whether the Count 
shook hands with him or not. The Count 
then walked back along the lines to his 
car, passing at a distance of five or six 
paces. The train then started for Hyong- 
yang. It was impossible for him or his 
companions to carry revolvers, as the 
examination of their persons was strictly 
carried out. Accused did not know whe- 
ther in the evening, the men and boys 
assembled at the mission school, with 
feelings of great regret in the minds or 
every oner nor did he hear Mr. McCuno 
Bay that the Korean had very little 

Accused was not aware that meetings 
were also held at the school on the two 
following days, at the last of which Yl 
Seuug-hun, one of the accused, expressed 
his regret at the failure of their plans, 
but urged his fellows to make themselves 
happy by pretending that things had 
turned out as they had expected. 

Allegations of Torture. 
By the Court: All the questions asked 
■were based upon your statements before 
the police and the Procurator at the pre- 
liminary examination. Why do you now 
deny your own statements? 

Accused: At the police office I said so 
on account of the hard treatment, and the 
reason I said " yes " at the Procurator's 
Office was that they told me if I should 
say " no " I would be carried again down 
to the police office and be teased (i.e. 
tortured) again. 

By the Court: It is an extraordinary 
thing that all these statements are now 
disavowed; it cannot be on account of 
the force alleged to have been applied by 
the authorities in taking the original 
statements. Was it not because you 
wanted to join the New People's Society 
that you Joined the mission school? 

Accused: The statements originally 
made were obtained as the result of force 
used upon me and others by the authori- 
ties. I only went to the mission school to 
teach gymnastics. 

Pointing to a large box, the Court ask- 
ed accused whether he knew it had been 
kept at the mission school, and had con- 
tained revolvers. 

Accused replied that he knew nothing 
about the box. This closed the examina- 
tion of the first accused. 

The next prisoner to be examined was 
Yl Pong-cho, aged 38, who said he had no 
connection with the New People's Society, 
nor did he know the objects of the body. 
He did not know whether Baron Yun Chl- 
ho and Yang Kl-tak were the leaders of 
the movement, nor did he know the local 
representative of the Society at Syen 
Chuen. He knew nothing of the alleged 
meetings In the mission school to dis- 
cuss the assassination of the Governor- 
General and other high officials. He had 
no knowledge of the members of the 
Society purchasing revolvers, nor did he 
know of their failure to discover what 
time the Governor-General was to arrive 
at the railway-station. He denied having 
given ¥100 towards the fund for buying 
revolvers. He did not know whether two 
men from Hyong-yang had delivered In- 
flammatory speeches at Syen Chuen, nor 
did he know whether foreigners (Mr. Mc- 


Ciine and two others) had taken part 
in the discussion of the plot. He was not 
aware that about ¥4.000 had been collect- 
ed from members of the New People's 
Society, and that a large number of re- 
volvers had been bought, and denied hav- 
ing given three or four revolvers to be 
put with the others. 

Questioned by the Court as to why he 
had admitted these statements to the 
police, accused said he had been forced 
io do so by the authorities. 

D.Win .\M) G0LI.\TH. 

In reply to further questions, accused 
said that he had never heard that the 
conspirators, being of opinion that the 
mission school students should be in- 
cluded in the plot, had asked Mr. McCune, 
the principal of the school, to do what 
he could to help the cause, and that Mr. 
McCune had assembled the students and 
related the story of David and Goliath as 
an example of what could be done by 
strength of resolution. Accused had no 
knowledge of a meeting of conspirators 
at Syen Chuen to discuss plans, the selec- 
tion of 50 strong boys from the school 
and their being armed with revolvers. A 
series of questions similar to those put 
to the other accused, relating to what 
was alleged to have happened at the 
railway-station when Count Terauchi left 
the train, were put, and were all answered 
negatively by accused, who said he had 
admitted these statements to the police 
under pressure, and it was because he 
wanted to save his life that he also ad- 
mitted these statements to the Procurator 
at the preliminary examination. 

Mr. Miyake, one of the counsel for the 
defence, made an application to further 
investigate this point, but it was not 
allowed, the Court announcing that a 
more opportune time would present itself 
later . 

The next prisoner to be examined was 
No Hlo-Wook, aged 35, a rice-dealer. He 
denied knowing anything of the New- 

People's Society or its members. He had 
never been urged by anyone to assassinate 
the Governor-General, nor was he pre- 
sent at a meeting of members of the 
Society at Syen Chuen to discuss the 
method of assassinating the Governor- 
General. Yang Ki-tak was a stranger to 
accused. He had not given ¥100 to the 
funds of the New People's Society, and 
knew nothing of the Society's scheme for 
collecting money. He was not at the rail- 
way-station wheH the arrangements wero 
alleged to have been made to attack the 
Governor-General. He did not know 
whether Kim Il-Chom one of the accused, 
went to Port Arthur early in 1909 to meet 
the man who was under arrest tor tie 
assasination of Prince Ito. He knew 
nothing of Kim being instructed to buy 
revolvers at Mukden, nor did he go to 
Syen Chuen station with 50 other men, 
all armed with revolvers. A number of 
questions similar tc those put to the other 
prisoners were asked by tne Court, in- 
cluding one as to whether ^accused knew 
that Mr. McCune had instigated the stu- 
dents at the mission school to join the 
allt^.ged conspiracy by delivering inflam- 
matory speeches. Prisoner denied all 
knowledge of the alleged facts. 

The' Court asked why It was that ac- 
cused had admitted the truth of all these 
statements to the police and to the Pro- 
curators, and now flatly denied them. 

Accused, in reply said that the police 
ofllce he could not help saying " yes," 
" yes," owing to the severe torture when 
the questions were put to him. 

The next prisoner to be examined, Kim 
Chang-whan, aged 31, in reply to tne 
Court, admitted having heard of the New 
People's Society, but denied being advised 
to join it by Yang Chom-miung. Accused 
said he had not been appointed by the 
Society to collect money and revolvers. 
He did not know of the members of the 
Society going to Syen Chuen to assas- 
sinate the Governor-General, and of their 
being 'misled owing to a wrong report re- 
garding his Excellency's arrival. He had 

[ 8 ] 

not heard of two men afterwards golnp 
to Syen Chuen with the correct Informa- 
tion as to the Governor-General's arrival, 
which information had been obtained by 
Baron Yun from an official in the Govern- 
ment-General. Questioned as to the alleg- 
ed assembling of the conspirators at tlie 
mission school, and of Ok urging his 
hearers to emulate An, the assas- 
sin of Prince Ito, accused said he knew 
nothing of the incident, nor had he heard 
Mr. McCune tell the conspirators to 
shoot at the officer with whom he 
would shake hands at Syen Chuen. Ac- 
cused did not know whether 50 students 
from the mission school were given re- 
volvers before proceeding to the railway- 
station to meet the Governor-General. 

On the prisoner being asked by the 
Court why he had admitted all thesu facts 
when questioned by the police and by the 
Procurators, he made the same reply as 
the other accused — that he had been 
forced to make a confession on these 
lines. ' 

It was now 5.30 p.m., and the Court 
announced that the proceedings would 
be adjourned till the following day. So 
ended the first day's hearing of this re- 
markable case. The prisoners were again 
manacled, and attached to each other by 
cords, and were led out of Court back 
to prison in the way that they had been 
brought down in the morning. All Ko- 
rean passers-by were kept a good dis- 
tance off as the prisoners were taken 
filong. During the proceedings In Court the 
accused had sat very quietly, and j.erfect 
order was maintained. Some of them 
looked raflicr tired and dejected, due to 
some extent to the Intense heat and 
stuffiness of the Court. There were win- 
dows In the building, but these were 
not allowed to be widely opened at the 
bottom, with the result that the at- 
mosphere of the Court was most oppres- 
sive, and It was extremely exhausting 
for nil concerned to sit for the whole 
d!iy in such a hot and close building. 



Seoul, June 30. 
! Yesterday was the second day of 
the trial, and the proceedings re- 
lating to the admission of the public and 
30 on were just the same as on the pre 
i vious day. As before all the Koreans 
[ were searched before being admitted to tne 
I Court, and the place was again closely 
' guarded by a force of police and gendarmes. 
The prisoners were brought to the Court 
manacled, as described In my previous 
letter, but their guards seemed to me to 
be rather less strict to-day, probably 
. owing to the quiet demeanour shown by 
1 the prisoners yesterday, and the unlike- 
' lihood of any trouble or disturbance l)e- 
Ing caused by them. 

The main feature of to-day's proceed- 
ings was the examination of Baron Yun, 
whose pale face and slight figure, combin- 
ed with his refined and dignified manner, 
made a favourable impression upon thoso 
at least who were disDoscrt to give 
him a hearing before judging him. He 
replied to the questions of the Court in 
fluent .Tai.anese, spoken with an accent 
and In a style obviously well-bred. 
j In reply to questions by the Court, 
Baron Yun said he studied Japanese In 
Japan from ISSt to issn, studio:! Chin- 
ese in Shanghai, and English in America. 
j He was of the Christian faith. He re- 
turned to Korea about 1899, and wa^ 
[engaged In the Government service as 
secretary to the Privy Council, and was 
also subsequently appointed Prefect of 
Chlnnampo and later of Gensan. He 
afterwards went to Russia, and on his 
return to Korea entered the Foreign De- 
partment at Seoul about li'no. He w;\a 
appointed VIce-Mlnlster of Forelgu 
Affairs at the commencement of the 
Russo-Japanese War, and retained this 
post until Japan declared a Protectorate 
over Korea. For about six months he 
I was out of office, and was then appointed 

[ 9 ] 

Director of the Hanyong Suhwan Mission 
School at Kaisong — a school founded and 
maintained by the Methodist Church. 

By the Court: What were your feelings 
when you were compelled to retire from 
the Foreign Department? 

Accused: I was overwhelmed with grief 
to think of the subversion of my country 

Did you not think of plans for recover- 
ing Korean national rights? — I knew that 
it was impossible to do so. It appeared 
to me that the restoration of the crushed 
national dignity of the country was an 
absolute impossibility for the Korean 

In reply to further questions, Baron 
Yun said he once occupied the post of 
sub-director of a flour milling company, 
but the position was an honorary one 
Later on he entered a school at Kaisong 
as a teacher; he had many friends con- 
nected with Christian churches. He had 
known Yang Ki-tak, formerly of the Dai 
Han Mai-il Shinpo, of Seoul, for more 
than fen years, and he also knew An Tal- 
kuk, of Seoul, whom he met for the first 
time at the Taisoiig School, of which in- 
stitution he was the honorary director. 
This school was opened about five years 
ago. Neither Yang Ki-tak nor An Tai-kuk 
wei-3 intimate acquaintances of his. He 
also knew Yl Seung-hun, by whom accus- 
ed had first been consulted about the 
formation of the Young Men's Associa- 
tion, the forerunner of the New People's 
Society. Yi explained that the Young 
Men's Association would not make any 
discrimination regarding the religion of 
its members, and was to be established 
as a rival concern to the Y.M.C.A. Yi 
also told accused that the object of this 
Young Men's Association was to incul- 
cate patriotic ideas in the minds of 
young Koreans, and to improve their 
moral conduct. A magazine was publish- 
ed by the Association in which the bio- 
graphies of the world's greatest men were 

By the Court: Had this Association no 
other object beyond those you have stat- 

ed? — No; and no other object has since 
been added, nor has any change been 
made in the objects of the Association. 
About a year later the Taisong School 
amalgamated with the New People's So- 
ciety, the objects of which were similar 
to those of the Young Men's Association 
— to foster patriotism in the minds of 
young men, improve their education, and 
encourage good behaviour. There was 
absolutely no oth-ir object. 

Baron Yun added that he had made a 
great mistake in accepting the position 
of head of the Association, and said that 
he had not heard anything about the 
objects of the organisation from Yang 

By the Court: Do you not mean that 
the objects of the Association underwent 
a change on the annexation of Korea be- 
ing carried out by Japan? — Not at all. 
It was, however, a pity that I could not 
decline to assume the Directorship of tho 
Society. I reminded the members that 
I would not accept the post if there 
were to be very violent acts con- 
nected with the newly amalgamated body. 
I heard Yi Seunghun remark that it was 
a shame for the Koreans to do nothing 
against the Japanese Protectorate; he 
maintained that the people should be urged 
to show their feelings in the matter. Kill- 
ing high officials was one way, he said, of 
doing this. I never heard anyone 
speak of assassinating the Governor- 
General, but I heard Yang Ki-tak say that 
as the Koreans were being dispossessed 
of their country, they should let the for- 
eign Powers see that they were not satis- 
fied with their condition. Yang urged the 
publication of a newspaper of their own 
in order to keep the minds of the people 
at home and abroad continually stimulat- 
ed by prinling articles dealing with poli- 
tical affairs of Korea, but he never sai;t 
anything to me about killing Count Tera- 
uchi. Yang spoke some four years ago 
about taking the foreign Powers by sur- 
prise, but never said a word about as- 
sassinating the Governor-General. 

[ 10 ] 

Denial ok Inflammatobt Speeches. 

When tht Taisoni; School held an athle- 
tic rneetlng at Minchang-dan Just outsid-; 
the walls of Pyons-yang, did you niaki.' 
a siwech urging that the Korean Mini- 
sters, including Count Yi ^\'an-yong an'l 
two others, who were responsible for 
the signing of the Treaty of Annexa- 
tion should be i)ut cut of the way? 
— I did not, and even had I thought so 
1 could not have publicly made such a 
suggestion. What I did say was that 
the Society was not in the control of any 
one individual In Pyong-yang, but that It 
was under the control of the Korean peo- 
ple in general. I avoided touching upoi. 
any political questions in my speech. 1 
did not hoar Ok Kv.nii-pin n-niark to th.' 
audience that they should act as the 
name of the place— the " Alta.;- of the 
Peoples Fidelity " — suggested. About the 
samo time as this athletic meeting was 
held, the ceremony of closing the Taisoiig 
School for the holidays was held, but 1 
made no political speech then, nor did 
I urge the destruction of the men who 
signed the Treaty with Japan, and sug 
gest that bachelors should be entrusted 
with the task of removing them. Any 
man who says that he heard me utter 
such thought, is saying what is grossT". 
untrue. Nor is it true that Yi Chal- 
myoug came to me and offered to execute 
this special mission. I did not hear Yi 
Seung-hun and An Tai-kuk i)ropose to 
select men from their own respective dis- 
tricts in support of Yi Chai-myong to 
execute the mission. Neither did I ex- 
press my opinion that the plot should not 
bp placed In the whole charge of Yi Chai- 
myong and his young assistants, nor 1 
gave any instruction holding that the 
matter should be supervised by Yi Seung- 
Uun and An Tai-kuk. As for tlie meet- 
ing itself, 1 had no authority over it, 
as An and Yi were the promoters. 1 
do not know whether the members of 
the New People's Society used to carry 
weapons, or whether weapons were 
stciri'd at the olTlces of tlie Tui Ilan Jdai-il 

Shinpo. I do not know if members of 
the New People's Society were respon- 
sible for the attack on Count Vi, the 
Korean Premier, some months before tne 
annexation, but if anyone says tnat this 
attack was the result of what was said 
at the meeting at Pyong-yang, he is com- 
mitting perjury. 

You must have been indignant at the 
annexation being carried out; did you 
not form a plan to restore Korean na- 
tional rights ? — I would never have founl 
myself in this Court if I had possessed the 
power at that time to prevent Japan be- 
coming lord over my native country. 

Is it not reasonable to assume that 
anyone filled with a spirit of indignation 
would try to form a plan either to remove 
the cause of his displeasure or amend it 
to his satisfaction? — I was rather too 
old to do more than I did; but it is quite 
true I felt bitterly indignant at the posi- 
tion of my country. 

In reply to further questions. Baron 
Yun said that shortly after the annexa- 
tion he met In Kaisong An Talkuk and 
another man who had tome from Pyong- 
yang, but he did not meet these men at 
Im Chi-chong's house outside the wes: 
gate of Seoul. Baron Yun said he went 
to Kaisong to give An the balance (¥400) 
of a donation of ¥500 which he had pro- 
mised to give to the Taisong School. 

By the Court: Did you have aay con- 
versation about the annexatioi ?-^No. 
An did not tell me that he and his com- 
Iianion could not resist doing something 
' to oppose the annexation. 

Does that mean that you. An, and the 
other man discussed what steps should 
; be taken to resist the annexation? — No, 
not at all. 

Did you tell them that no demonstra- 
tion of an extreme nature should be car- 
ried out, but that a secret plan should 
be formed, and that the object of the 
New People's Society, which was to as- 
sassinate the Governor-General, should 
also be taken as the object of the secret 

[ '1 ] 

plan? — No, I did not make any such stat? 

Replying to further questions, Baron 
Yun said he had never met Yang Ki-tak 
and Im Chi-chong at the latter's house. 
His confession to the police that he had 
frequently met them at Im's house was 
false. He had sent a man to Kaisong 
and Pyongyang to investigate means for 
organising branches of the Young Men's 
Association, but had not instructed him 
to communicate with the New Peoples 
Society ordering them to send a repre- 
sentative to Seoul to meet him (Baron 
Y'un) to talk over the proposed assassina- 
tion of the Governor-General. He had 
no knowledge of representatives from 
the provinces assembling at the head- 
quarters of the New People's Society, 
nor had he urged them to kill the Go- 
vernor-General wherever they found an 
opportunity during his journey on the 
railway. He denied having informed the 
members ol the Society that the Governor- 
General was leaving Seoul for New Wiju, 
nor did he report the subsequent move- 
ments of the Governor-General. He 
also denied having sent a teacher of 
Chinese classics In a certain school in 
Seoul to meet the provincial leaders of 
the New People's Society and arrange 
certain details in connection with the 
proposed assassination. It was also uu- 
true that An Tai-kuk and Yi Seung-hung 
went to Seoul and met accused at a 
certain house, and were told by him 
that the news of the Governor-General's 
forthcoming departure was authentic, as 
it had leaked out from the Government- 
General. The statements made to the 
police by accused that he had met men 
from the provinces three times since 
August and discussed the conspiracy 
were not correct, and were due to mis 
understanding. Baron Yun added that 
his " confession " at the Procurator's 
Office was also false. 

By the Court: It is very strange that 
a man should admit what, in any cir- 
cumstances, is a crime in the eyes of 

the law.— That is so, but I had very 
good reason for admitting things I was 
not responsible for, and I should like 
to state those reasons now. 

The Court: There is no necessity for 
you to do so for the time being. 

In reply to further questions, Baron 
Yun said he knew Mr. McCune, Mr. Under- 
wood, Mr. Gerdine, Mr. Harris, and other 
missionaries. He believed it was at Kai- 
song that he met two Koreans who were 
on their way to his house, en route to 
Japan, where they were going to pur- 
chase a printing plant, which was to be 
established at Pyong-yang. These men 
were not messengers sent to him 
by Mr. Underwood. The statement made 
by his servants that he (Baron Yun) 
frequently met Yang Ki-tak when he 
came to Seoul v.'as incorrect. He was 
acquainted with several foreigners 
living in Seoul and at Syen Chuen, 
but he had never consulted them, 
in regard to an attempt to assassinate 
the Governor-General, nor did he give 
instructions to the provincial members 
of the New People's Society to kill that 

By the Court: Did you not tell the 
Public Procurator that you were in the 
position of adviser to Yang Ki-tak and 
others, that these men consulted you in 
regard to the objects of the New People's 
Society, but you could not tell them 
not to proceed to extremes, and that la 
short you were regarded by the mem- 
mers as the Director of the New People's 
Society, against your own will ? — At any 
rate, I was not the leader of any or- 
ganisatioi plotting to kill the Governor- 

Did you not, on more than one oc- 
casion, make plans to assassinate thj 
Governor-General ? — No. 

The leaders of the Society have all 
admitted that you were the leader of the 
movement. — It is untrue. If men have 
given evidence to the effect stated, iu 
my opinion the explanation is this. I 
am a man who is well known among the 

[ 12 ] 

Koreans, and who Is known to have been that meeting the failures he and the 
opposed to the changes which have taken members of the New People's Society had 
place in Korea. Consequently, they may ' met with in their attempts to kill the 
have thought it advisable to use my name Governor-General. It any of the men 
in order to better carry out their plans, now under arrest had stated to the con- 
It Is mere supposition to say that I was 1 trary, it was untrue. 

■with Ok Kwan-pin, Im Chichong, anal By the Court: You still deny that 
Yang Ki tak to discuss the alleged con- which is evident — a fact which shows 
spiracy. When these three and An Tai- that the Koreans are a people dlflBcult 
kuk were arrested last year on a charge ' to understand? — Yes. 

of conspiracy, I declared myself to be in 
no way connected with the case, but In 
vain. I was also arrested. Seeing that 
1 was regarded by the authorities as be 

Baron Yuu proceeded to say that the 
statement made by him to the Procura- 
tor during the preliminary examination 
that the object of the New People's So- 

ing connected with the alleged plot be- ciety had been changed and was aimed 
cause I was always resentful at (he poli ' at the aosassination of the Governor- 
tlcal changes which had taken place in General was untrue. The statements 
Korea, I thought I might be released it ' that he had notified the people along th** 
I said I was the head of the Society and jjne to prepare for action when the Gov- 

had given orders to assassinate the Gov- 
ernor-General much against my own will. 
T thought the case would be concluded 
if I made such a confession, and was 
punished in accordance with the law.* 

ernor-General was on his way to the 
opening ceremony at the Yalu bridge, that 
he had sent Lyu Tong-sol to places along 
the railway advising the people to form 
" die-hard " parties so as not to repeal 

It seems that you have confessed to foxier failures, and other " confessions ' 

being the chief mover in the conspiracy, 
but as a man cannot you give details of 

were also untrue. He greatly regretted 
having to deny what he had once admit- 

the underlying circumstances, just as you (g^j ^)^Jt the admissions were made on 
stated to the police and the Procurator ? 1 certain conditions. He denied being 

— I was forced to confess to that eftect. 

Was it not because you thought you 
might be released that you confessed the 
real facts of the conspiracy, and now — 
as you have been detained in prison in- 
stead of being released — you attempt to 
deny your own confession? — It is for the 
Court to judge. 

The Court here stated that the charge 
against Baron Yun was based first on the 
evidence given by members of the New 

the ringleader of the conspiracy, anO 
said that if any members of the New Peo- 
ple's Society had so described him, it 
was a malicious use of his name. He did 
not retract his former statements mere- 
ly because he was now face to face with 
the members of the Society in Court. 

By the Court: Apart from the question 
of your guilt or innocence of the charge 
made against you, it is really disgraceful 
that a man of your rank and ability 

People's Society at Pyongyang and else- [ should retract statements previously 
where, and was endorsed by the evidence , ^^^^^1^ before the police and judicial autho 
given In Court by Baron Yun himself. | rities.— That is so, but I am obUgea to 
In reply to further questions. Baron ; ^^ ^^ ^^.^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ,. ^^^j^^. 

Tun said that a Bible meeting was held 
at Kaisong, but he did not mention at 

sion " was obtained as the result of cer- 
tain circumstances. 

Mr. Ogawa, counsel for the defence, 
begged leave to interpose. The Court as- 
report of his remarks '"l'I'<^»';'"K *" '1:^ senting, counsel said he wished to ascer- 
appendix) his meaning is madi much "• ^ , j .u 

j)l,iin^.r. I tain from accused why he now denied the 

• Baron Yun's statement as given here 
is rather confused; from a summarised 

[ l.-i ] 

truth of his former statements, as this 
point might be of importance in decid- 
ing the case. Counsel said he had al 
ready had an interview with accused and 
questioned him on this point, but had 
failed to extract from him the real 
reason for his retraction. Baron Yun had 
apparently " confessed " certain state- 
ments thinking that by so doing he would 
be released. Counsel understood that his 
client had decided to retract the state- 
ment made by him on April 6th last, and 
he (counsel) wished to ask the reason 
for this step. 

Baron Yun, in reply, said: — "When 
first arrested I meant to deny the charges 
made, but my denials were not accepted. 
The charges were based on evidence 
given by the other accused, and 
I came to the conclusion that there 
was no hope of clearing myself 
and had to admit what was charged 
against me. In short, these other men 
dragged me into crime and disgrace. It 
is true that I was greatly surprised at 
learning on April 6th that the examina- 
tion of the present case had not beeu 
completed. Many of accused being still 
under examination then a public examina- 
tion of the case still nendine. i thought 
my ' confession ' — which had been mado 
with the object of procuring lenient treat- 
ment for myself when the case was de- 
cided — would involve others in trouble, 
and so I resolved to withdraw my pre- 
vious statement on being brought into 
open Court." 

At this point the proceedings were 
adjourned for tiffin. 

The first man to be examined 
after the Court re-assembled was 
Kim Il-chom, aged 29, a farmer living 
at Syen Chuen, in North Pyongan-do. 
In reply to the questions addressed 
to him by the Court, accused made some 
extraordinary statements regarriing his 
own plans and those of his associates. 
So remarkable, in fact, were his state- 
ments that it seems almost certain that 
the man is mentally deranged. However, 

in the course of his examination he made 
a number of grave statements of whiclx 
probably more will be heard later. 

The New People's Society and 

Kim at once admitted that he was a 
member of the New People's Society, 
which he said he joined on the advice 
of a friend. The Society was establish- 
ed with the object of promoting the spirit 
of patriotism among the Korean people, 
of restoring the national rights, and of 
establishing a military school for young 
Koreans. The members of the Society 
intended to carry out their first object 
on the occasion of Japan being engaged 
in war with another country. It waa 
not one of the avowed objects of the 
Society to kill the Governor-General and 
other high officials, but some of the 
members were of opinion that such as- 
sassinations were advisable. Accused 
could not recall any occasion when sucH 
action was discussed among thom, but 
prior to the annexation the members of 
Society had made plans to ascassinate 
the Resident-General and the Ministers of 
the Korean Government. 

Asked to state who were the leaders 
of the Society, the accused said Barou 
Yun and Yang Ki-tak were the prin- 
cipals. In North Pyongan-do a man 
named Yi Seung-hun was the local leaaer, 
but at Syen Chuen (where accused lived) 
there was no recognised leader, though, 
accused himself had consideraDle In- 
fluence among the members. In the winter 
of 1909 he went to Port Arthur with the 
intention of visiting An Chung-keun (the 
assassin of Prince Ito) who was in prison 
there awaiting trial. Accused said his 
object in joining the New People's So- 
ciety being to further the welfare of hi» 
country, he wished to see An when b« 
heard that this man had killed Japan's 
greatest statesman. The journey to 
Port Arthur was made on his own initia- 
tive, and at his own expense; he did not 
consult the other members of the So- 
ciety in regard to his journey, nor did 

[ 14 ] 

e go 83 their representative. On arrlv- 
ig at Port Arthur, however, he found it 
npossible to obtain permission to meet 
.n. On his way back he bouphl 25 re- 
olvers at Mukden for about ¥300; this 
lonoy he had borrowed, but did not ch- 
ain it from Yang Chom-mlung Th" 
tatement to this effect made during the 
reliminary examination before the Pro- 
urator was false. In addition to the re- 
olvers he bought at Mukden 250 rounds 
f ammunition, which he brought back to 
:orea in a sack. The statement that he 
ad hidden the weapons and ammunition 
a the ceiling of a class-room at the Syen 
!huen mission school (conducted by Mr. 
IcCune) was also falsfe. 

The Judge then drew the attention 
if accused to a large box tapping It 
lervously several times with a pencil 
ls he did so, and asked him if he re- 
nembered having seen it before. Accused 
aid he saw it for the first time during 
lis preliminary examination in the Pro- 
uralor's Office. He denied having ad- 
nitted that he had kept revolvers in 
he box. 

A Mad TniBST fob Reven'qe. 
In reply to further questions, accused 
enied all knowledge of the leading mem- 
ers of the New People's Society having 
ttempted to proceed from Korea to 
apan, in the guise of a special envoy 
rom the Korean people to express re- 
ret at the assassination of Prince Ito, 
ut having as their real object tlie mur- 
er of certain other high Japanese olll- 
ials. Accused, however, admittea that he 
imself thought of going over to Japan 
nd killing Prince Katsura (who was then 
'remier), thinking that by so doing he 
•ould restore Korea's national rights, 
le mentioned his plan to several others, 
ncludinp YanK rhom-niiuiiK, who on- 
orsed the scheme. Accused had got as 
ir as Seoul on his way to Japan when 
he annexation of Korea was formally 
nnounced, whereupon he gave up the 
lea of going further and returned to his 
latlve village. Disgusted at the failure 

of his attempt to see An at Port Arthur, 
and at the abandonment of his scheme to 
proceed to Japan to kill Prince Katsura, 
he came to the conclusion that his desire 
to kill people was the effect of modern 
civilisation brought into his country from 
Europe and America, so he resolved to 
proceed to Europe with the object of as- 
sassinating the President of the Hagu*- 

This extraordinary statement caused 
the whole Court — from the Judges to the 
journalists — to smile. Accused, however, 
went on to say that he consulted Yang 
Kl-tak in regard to this new scheme, who 
told him it was quite impossible and 
ridiculous, but as he persisted in urging 
the scheme Yang at last consented to his 
setting out to carry his plan Into effect. 
Eventually, however, he had to abandon 
the idea, as he was unable to get the 
money to pay for the expenses of sucti 
a journey. 

By the Court: What were your feelings 
when the annexation of Korea was effect- 
ed two years ago? — I had no particular 
feelings about the matter, but I had some 
lingering regret that I had been unable 
to carry out my original plans. I then 
began to think about earning money as 

The Svf\ Chtfn R \ti,\v \---St\ti«:n 


In reply to further questions regarding 
the plan to kill the Governor-tleneral, 

accused said his desire to carry out this 
'p.ssassinatlon became very keen after the 
I annexation, and It was with this plan 
in mind that he went to the railway- 
' station at Syen Chuen on August 20th, 
1910, as admitted by him in his prelimi- 
nary examination by the Procurator. He 
had never been told by anyone that Baron 
Yun and Yang Kl-tak had planned the 
assassination of the Governor-General. 
MeiHings of members of the New People's 
Society had been held at Mr. McCune'c 
! mission school, at Yang Chom-mlung's 
' house, and other places In Syen Chuen, 

[ )5 ] 

and accused admitted having attended 
them. At one of these meetings it was 
decided (o purchase more revolvers. On 
September 20th accused and a number of 
others, all armed with revolvers, went 
to Syen Chuen Station under the pretence 
of welcoming Count Terauchi, but the 
Governor-General failed to appear. On 
two subsequent occasions they went to 
the railway-station, but each time found 
that the reports they had received of the 
Governor General's arrival were inac- 
curate. About November 15th Ok Kwan- 
pin arrived at Syen Chuen from Pyong- 
yang, and at a meeting of the Now- Peo- 
ple's Society which was called hf told 
those present that the Governor-General 
really was coming, and that the news ha;l 
been obtained by Baron Yun from an 
official in the Government-General. 

Questions Implying Com'-'licitt op 
Foreign Missionakies. 
Ok then went on to Wiju, and address- 
ing the students of the Taimyong 
mission school and a number of people 
interested in the New People's Society, 
urged them to cultivate the same way of 
thinking as An, the assassin of Prince 
Ito. Accused did not know whether about 
20 men came from Whanghai-do to Syen 
Chuen on November 23rd and consulted 
the local leaders of the movement; neither 
did he know whether the local members 
of the Society were of the opinion that 
the students of the Syen Ctiuen mission 
school should be urged to support the 
movement, or whether the Principal, Mr. 
McCune, had been requested to address 
his students to that effect. Accused also 
said he did not know whether Mr. Mc- 
Cune had uttered inflammatory state- 
ments based upon the story of David and 
Goliath, nor did he know if Kim, upon 
arriving at Syen Chuen, had called upon 
Mr. McCune and another foreigner to 
seek their protection and assistance Jn 
realising the object of the conspirators, 
and to ask them (Mr. McCune and the 
other foreigner) to send the news abroad 

when the plans laid were successfully 
carried out. 

Another Scene at the Railway- 
Accused denied any knowledge of An 
Tai-kuk bringing a number of men from 
Pyong-yang to Syen Chuen on or about 
November 26th with the object of assas- 
sinating the Governor-General, and also 
denied all knowledge of Kim bringing a 
number of men down on the same errand. 
He admitted that An Tai-kuk had come 
down, and that a meeting of members of 
the New People's Society had bficn called, 
at which revolvers were distributed to 
those present. No weapons were given to 
the students of the mission school. Tha 
following day, just as accused and others 
were going to the railway-station, a party 
of about 30 members of the Society from 
Pyong-yang arrived, and joining the Syen 
Chuen men the whole party proceeded 
to the station. Accused gave the Syen 
Chuen people 25 revolvers to distribute 
between them. 

How A Salote Peevented a Suot. 
The Governor-General, however, did 
not alight from the train on this occa- 
sion, and the conspirators met at a cer- 
tain place — not the mission school, as 
alleged — when Yi Seung-hun, the lead-"? 
from Pyongan-do, delivered a speech. He 
said that the assassination of Count Tera- 
uchi had been ordered by Baron Yun 
and Yang Ki-tak, who were also represent- 
ing the voice of the thirteen provinces 
of Korea. Yi therefore urged his hearers 
to carry out their plans successfully. Ac- 
cused said he did not know of any 
statement made by Mr. McCune that 
they would be able to recognise the 
Governor-General when he (Mr. Mc- 
Cune) shook hands with him at the sta- 
tion. Yi Seung-hun instructed An Tai- 
kuk and one other to take charge of the 
arrangements at Syen Chuen, and sent 
some other members of the Society to 
Kwaksan and Chyongju to repeat the at- 

[ <*5 ] 

tacks on the Governor-General in the 
event of the men at Syen Chuen failing 
to execute their designs. Next morning 
the conspirators again went to the rail- 
way-station, carrying rpvolvers concealed 
under their clothes. The students of the 
mission school also went to the station. 
The arrangement decided upon among 
the conspirators was that as soon ae the 
Governor-General's train was heard ap- 
proaching they should grasp their re- 
volvers, and those who found themselves 
in the most advantageous position for 
carrying out the plot should fire at their 
intended victim. When the train stopped 
the Governor-General alighted and walk- 
ed along the platform, saluting the rows 
of Japanese and Koreans as he passed. 
Accused said he was all ready to shoot, 
but upon saluting the Governor-General 
his mind changed, and he failed to carry 
out the pre-arrangod plot. Accused also 
said that he did not see the Governor- 
General shaking hands with Mr. McCune. 

The Presiding Judge, holding up a 
Jong Japanese sword, asked accused if 
O Taik-eui, also one of the accused, haw 
brought this sword from Whanghai-do 
and exchanged it with accused for a re- 
\olver just before the conspirators pro- 
ceeded to the railway-station. 

Accused replied in the negative, ad- 
ding that his previous admission that the 
exchange was made was false. 

The Court then read out a list of names, 
and asked if all these men belonged to 
the New People's Society. 

Accused said that all those whose 
names were read were members of the 
Society, but denied that any of the stu- 
dents from the mission school were mem 
bers. In reply to a further question, ac- 
cused said that the revolvers he had 
bought on his way back from I'oit Ar- 
thur were all disposed of by himself. 

.Mr. Mori (counsel for the defence) 
asked permission to question accused on 
certain points, but counsel's application 
was over-ruled. 


The next man to be examined was 
Y&ng Chom-miung, aged 34, a mer- 
chant, of .\orth Pyongan-do. He denied 
being a member of the New People's 
Society, denied having heard anything 
of its objects, and denied being the -local 
leader at Syen Chuen. He had heard 
that An Chung-keun had killed Prince 
Ito, but denied having sent Kim 11-chora 
(the man just previously examined) to 
Port Arthur to inquire after An's health, 
and denied having given him ¥400 tor 
travelling expenses. Accused said lie had 
no particular feelings himself on learn- 
ing of the annexation, and he had never 
planned any extreme measures to be 
taken by his countrymen. He did not 
instigate the members of the New 
People's Society to assassinate the Gov- 
ernor-General, nor did he comniissior. 
Chai Tauk-yun to purchase revolvers. 
He knew nothing of the coming of the 
Governor-General to Syen Chuen on any 
of the occasions referred to. He did not 
convene a meeting of members of the 
People's Society and report to them that 
he had already collected 40 revolvers ana 
¥4,000 towards the expenses of the plot. 
He did not consult any foreigners about 
the conspiracy, nor had he heard Mr. 
McCune address inflammatory remarks to 
his students and to the local people in- 
terested in the Society. Finally, accus- 
ed denied having gone to the raHway. 
station to make an attempt on the life 
of the Governor-General. 

Asked by the Court why he now re 
tracted all the statements made by him 
to the police and before the Procurator at 
the preliminary examination, accused re- 
plied that he was forced to confess. He 
added that he called upon Baron Yuu 
at Kaisong on his way to Seoul, but this 
visit was not the result of advice given 
him by Mr. McCune. About this time, 
accused added, he bought a dozen pocket 
electric lamps, but later on disposed of 

[ 1' ] 

Pocket Electric Lamps tor Qonspibators. 

Shown by the Court one large and one 
small electric lamp for carrying in thu 
pocket, accused said they had not been 
purchased by him. The lamps he bought 
were not inte'nded to be used in connec- 
tion with the attempt on the life of the 
Governor-General, but had been purchased 
by him in the ordinary course of busi- 

In reply to further juestions, accused 
said he did not advise the members \a 
organise " die-hard " parties in order 
to kill Count Terauchi, neither did he 
order men to proceed to Chyongju and 
Kwaksan to make further attacks on the 
Governor-General if that at Syen Chuea 

Pointing to the large box already men- 
tioned, the Court asked accused if h^ 
had stated at the police station and at 
the preliminary examination before th. 
Procurator that this box had formerly 
contained a number of revolvers, and had 
been concealed in the ceiling of a class- 
room at Mr. McCune's school at Syeu 

In reply accused admitted that he haa 
made such a statement, but explained 
that the admission was the result of the 
unsoundness of his mind at the time — 
with which enigmatic remark today's 
proceedings came to a close, and tne hear- 
ing adjourned until Monday, July 1st. 




Seoul, July 2nd. 
Yesterday (Monday) was the third 
day of this remarkable trial, and the 
most important feature of the pro- 
ceedings was the fact that practically 
all those who were examined were either 
teachers or students at Mr. McCune's mis- 
sion school at Syen Chuen. Another im- 
portant fact was that several of the ac- 

cused were able to protest to the Court 
through the interpreter that their pre- 
vious " confessions " were obtained ironi 
them by the application of torture. At 
previous hearings statements of this kind 
have been made by the accused, but 1 now 
learn that the interpreter has substituted 
other and much milder terms for the 
word meaning " torture " used by the 
Koreans in their statements in Court. 
The question of interpretation, in fact, 
and also of the general attitude of the 
Court towards the accused, is the sub- 
ject of considerable comment among those 
who are acquainted with both the Korean 
and the Japanese language. 

Yesterday fourteen men were examined 
by the Court, their names being as 
follows: — Kil Chin-hyong, aged 21; Chal 
Tauk-yun, aged 30; No Chung-heun, 
aged 39; Kang Keui-chan, p.ged 39; An 
Chun, aged 46; Chang Si-ook, aged 32, 
Son Chong-ook, aged 25; Hong Song- 
ik, aged 31; Kwok Tai-chong, aged 25; 
Yang Chun-hui, aged 28; Yi Chang-sik, 
aged 19; Chyng Tokyun, aged 24: 
Kim Yong-whan, aged 21; and Yi Kiu- 
yong, aged 21. The first six were ex- 
amined before the Court rose for tifBn. 

David and Goliath Again. 

The first man to be examined, Kil, is 
a graduate of the Syen Chuen mission 
schuol. He said, in reply to questions 
by the Court, that he knew nothing about 
the New People's Society, and was not a 
party to any conspiracy to assassinate 
Count Terauchi. He denied having ever 
approached Mr. McCune or other foreign 
missionaries on behalf of the Society, as 
a result of which (it was suggested by 
the Court) Mr. McCune had delivered an 
inflammatory address to the students of 
the mission school and to those interest- 
ed in the Society's alleged scheme. Ac- 
cused also denied having collected 70 re- 

* Reference to this important question 
is made in an article received from an- 
other correspondent in Seoul, and ap- 
pearing in the Appendix. 

r 18 ] 

volvcrs and several thousand yen for the 
funds of the Society. 

By the Court: Did you meet m.'mbers 
of the Society from Whanghai-do ? — No. 

Di<l you hear Syon Oo-hyok (a teacher 
at the Syen Chuen mission school) sug- 
gest that Mr. McCune should address the 
students with the object of Inducing them 
to support the conspiracy, as a result of 
which suggestion Mr. McCune spoke to 
the Ijoys. making reference to a certain 
story in the Old Testament? — No. 

Is it true that in the Bible there is a 
story of a weak man killing a mighty 
warrior? — Yes; he was killed by the sling- 
ing of a stone. 

-Accused went on to Say that hip state- 
ment to the police and before the Pro- 
curator at the preliminary examination 
to the effect that he did remember Mr. 
McCune making a speech in which this 
reference was made was false. He hod 
to admit the statement because of the 
" pressure " brought to bear by th'' 
authorities. Accused denied having ex- 
])lained to the Procurator that there 
were two opinions as to which was 
the brave man .David or Goliath, 
but that It was correct to regard 
the former as being the brave man. 
Accused also denied having said that Mr 
McCune was of this opinion, and added 
that if he had made such a statement, 
he must have been mentally ^erangea 
at the time. 


By the Court: Do you know whether 
Mr. Roberts (a missionary) delivered an 
address to the students, urging them to 
be boldflj^ atteuiiitiug a great uudertak- 
iu).'^ — No, I do not know. 

l>o you know whether Mr. McCune told 
tlic- students and others concerned in the 
plot to shoot at the man with whom lie 
would shake hands on the platform at 
the railway-station ? — No, I do not know. 

Did .vou go to Syen Chuen station that 
day, disguised as a student of the mis- 
sion srluull? — No. 

Did you not say in your examination 
at the police headquarters and at the 
Procurator's office that when the Gov- 
ernor-General walked along the station 
platform saluting those who were gather- 
ed there, Mr. McCune and Mr. Roberts 
signalled by their looks to the conspira- 
tors, suggesting that they should hurry 
up and make the contemplated attack 
upon the Governor-General? — I may have 
said so. but if I did it was the rasult of 
being forwd by circumstances [i c. tor- 
tured] to reply in the aflBrmative to 
every question put to me by the police. 

Did you meet Lyu Tong-sol in October 
last year to discuss plans for killing the 
Governor-General, who was then pro- 
ceeding to the ceremony held to celebrate 
the opening of the Yalu bridge? — No, 1 
did not. 

This concluded the examination of the 
accused, and the next five men of those 
above-mentioned were examined. Their 
statements are not worth quoting in full, 
and may be easily summarised. They all 
denied being members of the New Peo- 
ple's Society, denied having had any Idea 
of assassinating the GovernorrGeneral, 
or having been instructed to do so by 
Baron Yun and Yang Ki-tak, denied hav- 
ing proceeded to Syen Chuen station to 
carry out the assassination, and denied 
knowing or having heard that Mr. Mc- 
Cune and other missionaries were cou- 
nectod with any such plot. Upon the ex- 
amination of these five men bein^^Cou- 
cludcd, the Court adjourned for tiiliii. 

The first three men examined after the 
recess — Son, Hong, and Kwok — mad; 
statements practically the same as those 
of the five men examined immediately 
before them. The next accused to be 
called up was Yang Chun-hui, a younger 
brother of Yang Chom-iuiung. This man 
too, denied being a member of the New 
People's Society, and denied being con- 
cerned In any attempt on the life of tl>e 

By the Court: Did you tell the stu- 
dents of the Taiuiyong school to each go 

[ 19 ] 

along insiiired with the same ideas as 
An Chung-keun. the assassin of Prince 
I to?— No. 

Did you distribute revolvers among 
them at the Syen Chuen mission school 
before going to the railway station to 
meet Count Terauchi?— I did not. 

Can you not remember the names of 
the men to whom revolvers were given? 
— I cannot give any names, since I know 
nothing of the Incident. My previous 
statement at the preliminary in'<estiga- 
tion that I did distribute revolvers was 
the result of mental affliction [ie. tor 

Accused further denied that his bro- 
ther — Yang Chom-ihiung — was the ring- 
leader at Syen Chuen of the conspiracy. 


The next prisoner examined was ^i 
Changsik, a good-looking youth who is 
a student in the 4th year class at Syen 
Chuen mission school. The salient por- 
tions of his examination are as follows: — 

By the Court: Has the principal of 
your school (Mr. McCune) ever addres- 
sed you and other students, urging you 
to shoot the Governor-General? — No. 

Do you know that Yang Chom-miun* 
collected about 70 revolvers and money 
amounting to about ¥4,000 ? — No. 

Were you selected from among the 
students of your school and given a 
revolver, with which you were to act 
against Count Terauchi ? — I was not. 

Did you know that Count Terauchi 
was passing through Syen Chuen in 
October last on his way to the Yalu 
bridge opening ceremony ? — No. 

The next prisoner to be examined was 
another student from the Syen Chuen 
mission school, namea Chyong, who 
stated that he went to work in order 
to earn money to pay his school expenses. 
He said that he had never even heard 
of the New People's Society. The fol- 
lowing is the most important part of 
his examination: — 

By the Court: Have you ev=r heard 
Mr. McCune, the Principal of your 
school, say that Count Terauchi, the 

Governor General, was detrimental to 
the welfare of Korea, and should there- 
lore be killed ?— I have never heard him 
say so. 

Why did you tell the police that you 
had heard him make such a statement ' 
— If I made such an answer it was the 
reply of a man whose feelings were 
paralysed [i.e. a "confession " obtained 
by torture]. 

Did you receive a revolver from Mr. 
McCune before proceeding to the railway- 
station to await the Governor-Generals 
arri\al ? — No. 

Do you know whether Mr. McCuua 
advised his students to shoot the man 
with whom he would shake hands on 
the platform ? — I do not know. 

Have ycu ever seen this box [already 
mentioned in the examination of pre- 
vious accused] concealed in the ceiling 
of a class-room at the mission school ? — 

Did Mr. McCune ever ask you to take? 
this box to Mr. Roberts' house, and did 
Mr. Roberts take out the contents and 
out them in a drawer in his room ? — 

Why did you make these statements 
to the Procurator ? — It was a mere story 
on m,y part (i.e. was forced by torture]. 

On returning to the school in Septem- 
ber last, after the summer vacation, did 
Mr. McCune tell you that you had better 
go away, as otherwise you would be 
summoned by the police ? — No. I told 
the Procurator that Mr. McCune did say 
so, hut the statement was false [i.e. was 
elicited by torture]. 

Kim, another student of the mission 
school, on being examined, denied being 
connected with the New People's Society. 
No one had instructed him to assassinate 
the Governor-General at Syen Chuen. 
Accused went to the station to welcome 
the Governor-General, and did not carry 
a revolver. 

By the Court: Why did you make 
different statements to these at the pre- 
liminary examination ? — To escape fur- 
ther torture. 

The last of the accused to be examined 
vesterday was YI, also a student at thi? 
mission school at Syen Chuen, and who 
had been entrusted with the koya of 
the school. His examination disclosed 
some striking " facts " and the manner In 
which they were procured. He denied all 
knowledge of the New People's Society, 
and said he heard for the flr.^t time 
from the police tne alleged fact that about 
November 15th, 1910, he had been told 

[ 2" ] 

by Syoii Oo-hyok and Kwok Tai-chong 
(both teachers in the mission school) 
that the Governor-General waa coming to 
North Pyongan do, and that he (accused) 
should take advantage of the good op- 
rortunity thus afforded for killing tlie 
Covernor General. These allegations he 
had admitted, but now retracted. 

By t)'e Court: Did Mr. McCune quote 
an instance from a popular history of 
Europe an event in which an humblo 
countryman executed a great thliig for 
the sake of his country ? Did he sug 
gested then that his students should fol- 
low the example 7 — No. 

Are you aware that An Tal-kuk came 
to Syen Chuen from Pyong-yang to warn 
the members of the New People's Society 
of the expected arrival of Count Terauchi 
the following day?— I do not know. 

Did you proceed to the railway-station 
■with a five chambered revolver concealtd 
under your clothes? — No. 

Do you know whether a meeting of 
members of the Society was held in the 
evening at the mission ?chool, and Mr. 
McCune ridiculed the men on their fallur" 
to carry out their plans, saying that they 
must have very little resolution to have 
missed such a good opportunity to ex- 
ecute their designs? — 1 do not know ot 
anv such incident. 

ilow Is it that you admitted all this 
to the police? — I admitted these state- 
ments were actual facts when examined, 
but only because I wanted to escape fur- 
ther torture by the officials, which X could 
not stand any longer. 

Did Mr. McCune order you to burn cer- 
tain documents when members of the 
New People's Society began to be arrest- 
ed last September? — No, he did rot. At 
the police headquarters and at the Pro 
curator's Office I stated that Mr. McCune 
did give me such instructions, but this 
was untrue. 1 made the statement to 
escape further ill-treatment. 

Did Mr. McCune advise the students ot 
his school not to repeat the foliy ot at- 
tempting to carry out the assasslnatluM 
of the Governor-General with a large num- 
ber of men, but to select a small party 
of gallant " dare-to-die " men ?— No, he 
did not. 

Did Mr. McCune tell his students to 
offer themselves for service in such n 
party If they wanted to, and did you 
apply to join?— No. 

These further in.sinuatlon9 against a 
foreign missionary concluded the exami- 
nation ot the accused, and the proceed- 
ings were adjourned till next day 



Seoul, July :{rd. 
Yesterday was the fourth day of itiis 
trial, and the proceedings are becoming 
somewhat monotonous. One after an- 
other, day after day, the accused men 
deny the truth of their alleged " confes- 
sions," and complain of the torture to 
which they were subjected in order lo 
wring these " confessions " from them. 
From the statements of these men In 
open Court, it seems that various ques- 
tions were put to them in the course 
of their preliminary examination, and 
they were required to answer "jes" to 
each question. If what these men now 
say is true, hesitation in saying " yes 
to every question put to them led to 
" pressure being brought to bear " upon 
them, and any indication of retraction 
I before the Procurator during the pre- 
liminary examination was checked by a 
threat to send the prisoner back to the 
police headquarters for "further ex- 
amination," — a threat which seems to 
have been peculiarly effective. Up to lh3 
I present there Is no Indication of the Court 
ibeing disposed to make any searching In- 
quiry into these allegations of Ill-treat- 
ment and torture; perhaps this willcom« 
later on, after the examination of the 
' accused men has been concluded. In 
justice to the responsible Japanese autho- 
rities — no less than the unhappy Ko- 
reans themselves — the strictest Investiga- 
tion should be made Into the wholesale 
allegations of threats, ill-treatment, and 
torture which the prisoners declare they 
have been subjected to between the time 
of their arrest and their public trial. As 
already mentioned, yesterday's examina- 
tion of eighteen prisoners was very 
much like the proceedings of tHe pre- 
vious day, though now and again a new 
suggestion of foreign complicity, or a 
more than usually strong and outspoken 
protest against alleged Ill-treatment and 
torture lent additional Interest to the 

The first prisoner to be examined was 
a student named Yi Sun-ku, aged 19. 
He said he knew nothing about th" New 
People's Society. He admitted having 
gone to Syen Chuen railway-station on 
November 27th. 1910. but denied having 
cone with the Intention of killing the 
Governor-General with a sword; he 

[ 21 ] 

merely went to welcome that official. An- 
other student of the Syen Chuen mission 
school — Kim Sun-do, aged 19 — was next 
examined, and also denied any know- 
ledge of the New People's Soci-^ty. He 
denied having gone to the railway-sta- 
tion on Xovemher 27th and 28th, 1910, 
with the object of assassinating the Gov- 
ernor-General. He knew nothing what 
ever of the large box shown (already re- 
ferred to), and had never been urged by 
anyone to take part in a conspiracy. He 
admitted having " confessed " to all these 
statements at the police station, but this 
was because he had been tortured by the 

An Alleged Alibl 

Yi Tong-wha, aged 22, a graduate of the 
Syen Chuen mission school, was next ex- 
amined. Having denied being a mem- 
ber of the Xew People's Society, and hav- 
ing consulted members of the Society in 
regard to the conspiracy, the examina- 
tion proceeded: — 

By the Court: Were you appointed a 
member of the committee for raising 
money? — No. 

Did you enter people's houses and ob- 
tain money by threatening them with a 
revolver, telling them that they should 
give you money for the sake ot their 
country? — No. 

Did you go to Syen Chuen railway-sta- 
tion with the others to make an attempt 
on the life of the Governor-General? — 
No. I was not in Syen Chuen on those 
days, as I was ill. 

Asked why he had testified to the con- 
trary at the police station, accused saic 
if he had admitted these " facts " he must 
have been out of his senses [i.e. tor- 

A School Tea,cheb's Evidence. 

Chai Syo-chan, aged 22, a graduate of 
the Syen Chuen mission school, ana 
until recently employed as a teacher at 
a school in the interior said he was told 
about the formation of the New People's 
Society in November 1910, but knew no- 
thing about its objects. It was not trur; 
that he joined the Society on the recom- 
mendation of Chang Si-ook and Sin 
Hyo-pyom, teachers at the Syeti Chuen 
school. Accused having denied a num- 
ber of charges, including one of having 
gone to the railway-station with a re- 
volver, said: — "I denied these charges 
to the police, but being subjected to tor- 
ture at the hands of the officers, I was 
forced to admit the charges in order to 
escape further agony. 

The next prisoner to be examined was 
Yi Chyo-sun aged, 23, a graduate of 
the Syen Chuen mission school. In re- 
ply to questions he denied having been 
persuaded to join the New People's So- 
ciety by Sin Hyo-pyom, his former 
teacher. It was untrue that Sin had ob- 
served that a man should do nnythlns 
for the sake of his country at a time of 
national crisis. Accused said he admit 
ted these allegations at the police head- 
quarters, but that was because he wan 
submitted to bodily torture, inflicted 
upon him by police officers. He denied 
having attended a meeting of the So- 
ciety, at which he was alleged to have 
been appointed a member of the committee 
appointed to obtain funds for carrying 
out the alleged conspiracy. He had not 
broken into the houses of wealthy peo- 
ple and obtained money from thea at the 
muzzle of a revolver. He denied having 
recei-ed any information from An Tai- 
kiik about the Governor-General's visit 
to Syen Chuen on his way to Now Wiju 
in November, 1910, nor did he go to tno 
railway-station carrying a revolver con- 
cealed under his clothes on any occasion. 
He informed the Court that he had ad- 
mitted all these charges at the prelimi- 
nary examination, because he haJ been 
forced to do so by the police by mean^ 
of torture. 

The Insinuations against Foreigner.s. 

With the examination of Kim Song- 
pong, aged 21, a student of the Syen 
Chuen mission school, the insinuations 
relating to foreign complicity in the al- 
leged conspiracy were again brought out. 
Accused having denied all connection 
with the New People's Society, and de- 
nied hearing Ok Kwan-pin say — at a 
meeting at the Taimyong School — that 
Count Terauchi must be killed, the ex- 
amination proceeded as follows: — 

By the Court: Is it true that Kwok 
Taichong proposed that the members 
of the New People's Society should con- 
sult certain foreigners in regard to their 
plans, and that the members subsequent- 
ly saw five missionaries — including 
Messrs. McCune, Roberts, and Sharrocks 
— who attended a meeting held at the 
mission school, and agreed that the mem- 
bers should protect their rights? — I do 
not know. 

Why did you make these statements 
at the police headquarters? — Because ot 
the torture applied to my body. 

Do you know anything of the address 
given by Mr. McCune urging the con- 

[ 22 ] 

splrators on by quoting from che Old and those concerned in the conspiracy, 
Testament?— No. and by quoting from the Bible urged 

A number of other questions were ask- ,them to make up their minds firmly and 
ed by the Court, to all of which accused carry out their resolution?— I do not 
replied in the negative. He admitted know, but I attended a meeting where 
having gone to the railway-station, but Mr. .McCunc instructed us on belief in 
he went with the other members of the Christ. 

school, under instructions, to welcome Were you given a revolver by Mr. Mc- 
Couit Teiauchi, and the visit was not Cune? — No. * 

arranged with a view to assassination. Were you paid to proceed to the rail- 
The examination continued: — way-station on November 2Tth and 2><th 

By the Court: Did Lyu Tong-sol ad- with the object of taking part In the con- 
dress a meeting In October last at the templated assassination? — I was not. 
Syen Chuen school, and warn those pre- Is It true that Mr. McCune, at a meet- 
sent that Count Terauchi was coming on j ing of members of^lhe New People's S3o- 
his way to the Yalu, and urge the mem- ' riety, said that the Korean people had 
bers of the New People's Society ind the , very little pluck to' let an excellent op- 
Echool students to avail themselveo of this portunity pass as they did? — I do not 
opportunity to assassinate him'/ — Not to i^now. 
my knowledge. Do you recognise this box?— No. 

Wag Mr. McCune present at that meet- Have you ever seen it full of revolvers 
Ing, and did he suggest that in order to j^ Room 7 of the mission school— the key 
effectively carry out the plan they should of ^^-hich was In your charge?— No. 
decide beforehand who should Sre at ^d y^■,^^ ,ake this box, with the re- 
count Terauchi?— I know nothing about ^.^i^.^rg' contained therein, from the ceil- 
It. Ing of Room 7 and carry it to Yang Chom- 

Was this suggestion of Mr. McCune's mi^ng-g house, afterwards taking it back 
accepted, and did several of the senior ,g ,^g school?— No, I did not. 
students of the Syen Chuen mission , y^r^^^ ^o^g pj j^^ teachers and stu- 
school volunteer for the service ?— I do ^^^^^ ^j ^^^ mission school were arrested 
not know. about October 20th last, did Mr. McCune 

Owing to the large number of appli- ..^g^^uct you to burn certain documents? 

cants who wanted to be appointed to Are i j.^^ 

at the Governor-General, Was it agreed p, j ^^ ^^j, „ j,, t^^^ the revolvers 
that the man to fire first was to be cho- ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ kerosene 

sen by Mr. McCune?-! do not know. ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ j,,^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^1,. 

Did you not make these statements a ^^ ^^^ kitchen ?-He did not. 

the police headquarters?- Yes, but under ^^ remember afterwards carrying 


the pain of torture. 

the box down, putting it In a cellar in 

Why did you. later on repeat these dining-room of the school, and after- 

Btatcnirnts to the Procurator ?-Because I carrying it away over to a hill 

was told that if I ^^f'-^.^ted what I had ^^^ .^ .„ ^^^ ground'/-No, I 

"confessed ' I should be /^"^ ^^^f^ t° know nothing about this; but when I waa 
the police headquarters, and I was afraid Procurator's ofllce 1 was 

o being killed by the police if I contra- ^ ^^_^^^^^^ ^, questions, and was 

'"^ri hThis^rar^kar^ss^ertlon the ex I "-de to -^.-w.edge them sin.p.y by 
amination of this prisoner concluded. «»vme " ves to every question. It Is 

1 saying "yes" to every question. 
Ti:r;»,"»^;"o"«-e»m,= ™ KIn, l;ru.. ,h.t . ... ™S«J.J„ ^ ,«;■ «- 

the partv of men that they must be more 
careful in regard to their behaviour, 
otherwise their plans would fall through? 
— I do not know. 

Thic Bidlb Story Again. 

so, and to this day I do not even know 
the face of Yang. 

When you were in foar of tx^ing ar- 
rested by the police, did Mr. McCune tell 
you not to confess to any facts connect- 
ed with the conspiracy, and that you must 

Do you know whether Mr. McCune not mention the names of any foreigners 
called a meeting at his school of students implicalod. and is not this the reason 

[ 23 ] 

that you will not now confess these factG 
in open Court? — No, not at all. I would 
not conceal anything from the Court, 
neither would I say anything in Coun 
which is untrue, tor it I did I should ue 
regarded as having committed a criminal 

Mission JRIES as Mimics. 

Cha Heui-syon, aged 23, another stu- 
dent of the Syen Chuen mission school, 
informed the Court in reply to questions 
that he had not joined the New People's 
Society. He denied having gone to the 
railway-station with the object of assas- 
sinating the Governor-General, and de- 
nied having broken into the houses o; 
wealthy people and terrified them into 
giving him money for the Society. 

By the Court: Do you know whether, 
after the failure of all attempts to as- 
sassinate the Governor-General, the con- 
spirators assembled at the mission school 
and Mr. McCune expressed his displea- 
sure at their lack of courage ? — I know 
nothing of such an incident. 

Did Mr. McCune at an entertainment 
imitate the behaviour of a drunken man, 
Mr. Roberts imitate the bellowing of h. 
bull, and Mr. Sharrocks imitate the" sing- 
ing of a bird? — I do not know. 

Why did you make statements to this 
effect? — I had to admit them as facts, 
as I was threatened by an official in the 
Procurator's Office, who said I would be 
sent back to the police headquarters if 
I did not admit them to be true. 

The next prisoner, Yi Chong-sun, aged 
23, also a student of the mission school, 
said he knew nothing of the New Peo- 
ple's Society or of any plot. He denied 
having gone to Syen Chuen from his 
home at Chyongju to inform anyone of 
the coming of Count Terauchi. He went 
to Syen Chuen station on two occasions, 
but not with the object of assassinating 
the Governor-General, neither had he 
extorted money from people by threats. 
All his statements to the contrary at the 
police headquarters were false. Two 
other mission school students — Kim Tal- 
hyon, aged 20, and La Pong-kiu, aged 28 — 
were examined, and gave similar denials 
to the charges made by the Court. The 
proceedings were then adjourned for 

More auout the Scene at the Station 

On the Court re-assembling another 
student of the mission school, Syon Oo- 
hyok, aged 22, was examined. 

By the Court: Were you one of fifty 
armed students picked out by Mr. Mc- 
Cune ? — I was not. 

Did you go to the station armed with 
a revolver ? — No, and it would have been 
impossible for anyone to do so, since 
every Korean was searched before being 
admitted to the station. 

Did Mr. M'^Cune go to the station ? — 
Yes, and he shook hands with Count 
Terauchi, when he walked down the plat- 

Did you go to the station with the in- 
tention of shooting the Governor-General, 
and have a revolver in your hand ready 
to fire, but were unable to do so owing 
to the Governor-General being surrounded 
by subordinates ? — I did not. 

Did you distribute revolvers among 
your comrades in the school before going 
to the station ? — No, I did not. 

Did you request Mr. McCune to deliver 
an inflammatory address to the students 
so that they would make up their minrts 
to carry out the assassination ?— I did 

Are you aware that Kim Il-chom [the 
crazy farmer who wanted to go to Europe 
to kill the President of the Hague Tri- 
bunal] has given evidence to the effect 
that you were one of the conspirators ? — 
The evidence of a /man like Kim, who 
has no fi.xed property, should not be ac- 
cepted by the Court. [This reply was 
made by accused in reference to the 
well known passage found in Menciiis, 
" Without fixed property no one can have 
a settled mind "]. 

Examination of a Christian Pastor. 

A tall, elderly man named Yang Chon- 
paik, aged 43, was next examined. Ha 
is a Christian Pastor living in Nortii 
Pyongan-do. Accused having denied all 
connection with the New People's Society 
and the alleged conspiracy, the examina- 
tion proceeded:- — 

Did you request any foreigner to help 
in carrying -out the conspiracy'.' — I did 

Did you ask any foreigner to speak to 
the students and stimulate them on the 
uiattter? — I did not. 

Is it true that An Tai-kuk came to 
Syen Chuen in November 1910 and told 
you that the Governor-General was pas- 
sing through next day on his way to Ne';^- 
Wiju, and you armed the students with 
revolvers and proceeded to the station? — 
It is not true. 

Did you again go to the station the fol- 
lowing day with a party, and see the 

[ 24 ] 

Governor-General walking down the nlat- 
form, saluting as he passed you bui 
Z'"^ '" 'he strict guard kep b^ Z 
police and gendarmes, you were unab e 
to carry out your scheme ?-It is not true 
Md you tell all this to the police/-,- 
did not narrate all these statements at the 

Pvlf" ,'^\'„^""'"^ ^"t Simply said 

usual oh^''"°" '"^°°'' ^1^° denied the 
sen, », ^^'' ^""^ "'»"' '^e was not pr^ 
Bv ,hP r^' "'''^""^ "'■ <^o"8pirator8. 

these facts T^h''^'" ,'"^ ^°" ^-^^^'^ ^" 
tion '-If th r P"''°^iDary examina- 

tion .—If the police were to go down 

Sennif" .'""'-^ "' "^^^ busiest sfreefs Ta 
Seoul), indiscriminately arrest a number 

■yes" to the questions put to me As a'^r,*!^' ""^'scriminately arrest a numb, 
matter of fact. I was nof in the province them bv?'T!r"'^' .'^"'^ '^^^ " examme 
on the days in question. *- "vince them by putting them to tortuic 1 am 

In concluding ,h,. P.xamination arcw^n i^^^' ^'°''^'^ ^°°'^ "confess ' 
denied having attended a meeting of the ' '"V^"'' Pa" in a plot 

to hav- 

A.v Old Fahmer-s Sturdy Demals. 
The next prisoner to be examined wa^ 

fs^^°."h /"°.'''''''' ""'^"^^ ^8^ ^as given 
as 52. but who was so feeble that he had 
to be assisted when called up for examina- 
tion Though feeble in body, the accused 
made a sturdy denial of the' charges 
brought against him. Having denied 
all knowledge of the Xew People's Society 
the examination proceeded as follows— ' 
You told the police that you were made 
aware of the real object of the Society 
about two months after you joined -The 
statement I made at the police headquar- 
ters was not true [i.e. was obtained by 
torture or threats). 

Did you go to the railway-station with 
tlie Idea of assassinating the Governor- 
General?— No; a Christian would not 
make an attempt to kill a man 

nid you contribute Y200 towards the 
liind for purchasing revolvers?— No, 1 
did not. A man like me who can har'dh ' 
afford to buy a box of matches could not 
give away such sums of money. 

Did you ever discuss the conspiracy 
with anybody?- No. 

Do you know of any foreigners who as- 
sisted the plans of the conspiratois?— No. ■ ....» I 

Were you ever told by Mr. McCune tha> "•'re adjourned 
he would assist and protect you in every 
way, as missionaries were never Inter- 
fered with in any country?— Nc. 

rio yon know that Kim Il-choni has aaid 
1" thi.s Court that you went to the rall- 
wny-slalion with a revolver hidden under 
your clothes?— Kim is known to be crazy. 

A Cham.enoe to the Police « Seoui, July 4. 

ew Peoples 
ing gone to 

any Ulterior motive. T;;k"ll';^ineni:S 
H n af ^he'"" f "'•^" °f ^^volvers on a 
The »Hm> •'"'''"^*'''" °f "■•■ MeCun... 
The admission to this effect and other 
confessions • made at the police head- 

accuseT """' °'*'^'"''' ^'' '°""'-«- «^'« 
Cha Kiun-sul, aged 24, a teacher in the 
primary school at Syen Chuen, said he 
had been told about the New People's 
tl"^u^' ^ I^"^ ^■^'"■^ '^eo. the object of 
which body, he understood, was to 
arouse patriotic feelings among the 
wr^"w Accused ariroved of that ob- 
ect He knew nothvig of any change 
n the aims and object of the Society 
It was not true that he had approved 
a suggestion to assassinate the Gover- 
nor-General. He told the police that he 
had taken a small knife with him when 
he went to the raihvaystation to meet 

n.7n .T*''''"'.^!''' ^'"^ " ^'as probably 
his knife which had been represent-d 
to the Court by the police as a sword 
about a foot long. It was untrue that 
he carried a sword. It was not true 
hat he intended to shoot the Governor- 
general at the railway-station, and that 
he did not do so because no one else fired 
\Mth the conclusion of the examina- 
tion of (his prisoner, the proceedings 



[ 25 ] 

set apart for the iniblic is fully occupied, 
and about 200 Koreans and a dozen for- 
eigners closely follow the examination 
of the accused. Every Korean — man, 
woman, and boy — is carefully searched 
before being admitted through the nar- 
row' gateway into the Court compound, 
and on leaving the compound each Ko- 
rean is stamped on the back of the hand 
with a rubber stamp for identification 
purposes. Should this mark be erased, 
he is refused re-admittance. The ex 
terior and interior of the Court is stili 
closely guarded, though not quite so 
strictly, perhaps, as on the first day oi 
the trial, but it is interesting to note 
that all the police and warders on dutv 
in and about the Court are, without ex- 
ception, Japanese. Yesterday's proceed- 
ings were of the usual character as far 
as the general denials of former " con 
fessions " are concerned, but were en 
livened on several occasions by some 
strong protests by the accused against 
their treatment during the preliminary 

The first prisoner examined yesterday 
was a young man named Hong Kiu-mum, 
aged 25, formerly a student at the Syeu 
Chuen mission school, who said In an- 
swer to the Court that he first heard 
of the New People's Society on the oc- 
casion of his examination at the police 
headquarters. He denied having gone 
to Syen Chuen railway-station in Sep- 
tember, October, and on November 27th, 
1910, but admitted going on November 
28th to welcome the Governor-General. 
He knew absolutely nothing of any 
meetings of conspirators, nor of Mr. 
McCune having delivered an inflamma 
tory speech to the students in his school. 
Accused said his " confession " to the 
police that he had gone to the railway- 
station several times armed with a five 
chambered revolver, and that he was 
one of a party of students selected to 
carry out the assassination, was due to 
the torture he had suffered at the hands 
of the police. 

A Passage of Arms between Judge 
AND Pbisonee. 

A sturdily-built man named Yl Yong 
hyok, aged 26, was next examined, and 
in reply to the Court he said that about 
five years ago he studied at the Syen 
Chuen mission school for about a year. 
Since then he had been working as a 
farmer, and now had property worth 
about ¥2,000. When asked if be had 

joined the New People's Society he re- 
plied — in a loud voice — that he liad not, 
and with equal emphasis he denied hav- 
ing gone to the railwav-statlon with a 
revolver, or having given ¥200 to Kim 
Il-chom (the crazy would-be assassin) 
through a third party to buy revolvers 
when Kim went to Port Arthur with the 
object of seeing An, the assassin of 
Prince Ito, who was then under arrest. 

The Presiding Judge; You deny these 
facts, but they are already established by 
the evidence of Kim Il-chora and Yang 
Chom-miung, and by others. 

Accused: I should like to s3e that 

Judge (smiling): The evidence or 
Kim and Yang is more than satisfactoi y. 

Accused: I do not think so, sii. Tho 
best evidence, if I be allowed to produce 
it, will probably be my own diary, 
which must contain an entry to tne effect 
if I really gave this money to there men. 

Judge (shouting) : Stop this non- 

In reply to further questions by the 
Court, accused denied having managed 
the affairs of the New People's Society 
at Syen Chuen, and said Yang Chom- 
miung was not in a position to prove tht 
contrary. The statement that Ok Kwan- 
pin came to Syen Chuen about Novem- 
ber 15th, 1910, to inform the members ot 
the Society that the Governor-General 
was coming, and that accused was ap- 
pointed by the members to the revolver- 
collecting committee was untrue. Ok 
was entirely unknown to accused, and 
if anyone had given testimony to the 
contrary, it must have been forced by 
torture inflicted by the police. Finally, 
accused denied having plotted against 
Count Terauchi with Lyu Tong-sol in 
September last year. 

Prisoner's Attempt at Stttcide. 

An elderly man named Yi Chang-suk, 
connected with the administration of 
a Christian church at Kwaksan, North 
Pyongan-do, in reply to questions, said 
he had two sons, one of whom was 
among those accused of being concern- 
ed in the " conspiracy." The other had 
been away from Korea for a long time, 
but had recently returned, and was now 
in Seoul. He had gone away because 
of his aversion to study. Accused de- 
nied having joined the New Peoples 
Society, or having urged his sons to 
join to " help the cause of their coun- 
try." He knew nothing of the " cou- 
spiracy," had not given ¥300 towards 

[ 26 1 

the fund for purchasing revolvers, and 
had not gone to the railway-station 
armed with a revolver. His " confes 
Bions " to this effect to the police were 
forced hy torture, and he thought the 
" evidence " against him given by Yang 
Chom-miiing and others must also have 
been obtained by torture. It was im- 
possible that three revolvers could have 
been found in his house, and he em- 
phatically denied all the questions put 
as to his alleged visits to the station 
to assassinate the Governor-General. It 
was out of the question that a man of 
his age would attempt such a thing, 
and however " barbarous " the Koreans 
■were supposed to be, he did not and 
could not think of committing such a 

By the Court: How did you get that 
ugly scar 7 (pointing to a scar on the 
front of accused's throat) — I could not 
stand the examination [i.e. the torture I 
into the " conspiracy," which preyed 
upon my feeble mind to such an extent 
that I at last decided it would be better 
to die rather than expose myself to fur- 
ther disgrace and pain. One day I 
found a sword in a room adjoining that 
In which I and others of the accuse 1 
■were being examined at the police head- 
quarters, and taking advantage of the 
carelessness of the warder in charge, 
I seized the weapon and stabbed mysel! 
In the throat with the object of com- 
mitting suicide. 

Was it not because you knew yi*u ■were 
guilty of the charge of conspiracy, and 
expected to be sentenced to death, that 
you decided to die by your own hands 
rather than be executed ? — No, not at 
all. But I am sorry to have now to 
listen In open Court to the falsehoods 
I told to the police to escape further 

We cannot understand that you at- 
tempted to kill yourself bet'ause you 
told lies, ■which sounds illogical But 
It you tried to kill yourself because you 
thought you ■would be executed when 
your guilt was established, it would 
seem reasonable enough. Was rot this 
the real motive for your rash act V — No, 
It was not 80. 

Then your explanation of the scar on 
your throat is utter nonsense. — I have 
told you what was in my own mind. 

.\o, you seem to have said what you 
did not have in mind. It looks manly 
and gallant for one to breath his last 
on the scaffold when his attempt made 
for the sake of his own country ^ecome8 

known and results in his arrest. But 
you were apparently afraid of this, were 
you not ?— Not at all. I am rather in 
the opinion that I should cut a figure 
in the world if I was killed on the 
■scaffold if I were really responsible for 
the conspiracy. 

The next five prisoners examined were 
all students of the Syen Chuen mission 
school — Yi Chai-heui aged 30; Kim 
Yong-syon, aged 21 ; Syon Oo-hun, aged 
22; Kim San-to, aged 21; Yi Chai-yun. 
aged 19; and Cha Yang-chun, aged 
25. All these ^oung men positive- 
ly denied any connection with 
or knowledge of the " conspiracy, ' 
though they admitted having been jt 
Syen Chuen when Count Terauchl stop- 
ped at the railway-station in 1910: their 
object in going to the station was to 
welcome the Governor-General. Ihey 
were unarmed. 

Prisoner's Impassioned Protest. 

Cho Mun-paik, aged 24, in business at 
Gensan as a druggist, was next examined. 
He Informed the Court, in reply to ques- 
tions, that he had studied at the Syen 
Chuen mission school, but was not a 
member of the New People's Society. 
He had expressed approval of the prin- 
ciples of another Society which, however, 
he was not awar^e was identical with the 
Sin Min Hoi, a secret society; nor dlil 
he know that there were many other 
similar bodies all bearing different 
names but all connected with the Ne'v 
l^eople's Society. On being asked whe- 
ther he had admitted that these socie- 
ties were identical with the New People's 
Society, the accused, in very excited 
tones, made a long ana impassioned 
statement, despite the Presiding .fudges 
remarks that he need not make such a 
lengthy address. Although the prisoner 
made such a long statement, the inter- 
preter's version of it all was simply that 
accused had admitted that the Society 
which he joined was Identical with the 
New People's Society, owing to the fact 
that he could not endure the torture In- 
flicted upon him by the police. The ex- 
nmination then proceeded: — 

By the Court: Were you ever told by 
anybody that at every one of the schools 
controlled by foreigners or under their 
Influence there was a branch of the New 
People's Society, all under different 
names. In order to avoid attracting offlcial 
attention? — No. 

l>ld you hear that the object of the 
Sin Min Hoi was to assassinate the Gov- 

[ 27 J 

ernor-General and other high otlicials." 
— I did not. 

Did you discuss plans for the assas- 
sination of Count Terauchi with An Tai- 
kuk at Pyong-yang about October 1910 ': 
— I did not. 

Did you attend a meeting there oi- 
Xovembcr 24th, 1910?— No; I was awa> 
troni iho city at that time. 

A number of other questions were ask- 
ed, all of which were strongly deuiod 
and the examination continued: — 

You now deny all these facts, but did 
you not admit that you went to Syen 
Chuen station armed w-ith a revolver ? — 
Yes, I did make such a statement, but 
under torture. 

Accused, speaking in a very loud voice. 
went on to describe at length the tortuie 
to which he was subjected. As he did 
so, he held up his left hand, and twisted 
his body about. The interpreter briefly 
explained that accused said he had to 
" confess " as he could not bear the tor 
ture. ' 

By the Court: Why did you say ai 
the preliminary examination that you 
did have evil intention upon the lite 
of the Governor-General, but could not 
carry out the plans owing to the strict 
precautions taken to guard the Gover- 
nor-General? — I had to say so, becaus; 
of the unbearable torture. 

Did you not also admit this fact at 
the Procurator's Office? Moreover, thi 
fact that you were at Pyong-yang at the 
time mentioned is proved by the evi- 
dence of witnesses who are now accused 
in this case. — I did " confess " at the 
Procurator's Office, because I was told 
by one of the officials that if I did not 
I should be sent back to the police head- 
quarters. The witnesses who are men- 
tioned must have given their evidence 
in similar circumstances. 

JuDici,\L Pleasantry. 

The next man examined was Kang 
Pong-oo, aged 23, a mechanic employed 
by an industrial concern owned by Y\ 
Seung-hun. The Presiding Judge asked 
if he lived in the same house as " the 
man with the big voice," referring to 
the prisoner whose examinatior wa» 
just concluded. Accused said lie did 
not; he lived in the dormitory of the 
company for which he worked. The 
Judge ordered accused to hold up his 
right hand. 

A Question of Digits. 

By the Court: How did you come to 
lose the ring finger on that hand?— i 

have always been a poor man, and hart 
to earn by my own labour the money 
to pay for my school studies. 1 uso'l 
to work all day, and study at night. It 
was this circumstance which led me to 
cut off this finger about five years as;<> 
at the night school in token of my re- 
johition to study. 

Did about 17 other young men alsf} 
cut ofl a finger each in the samt wavr 

This could not have been done as a 
token of your resolution to carry on 
laborious studies. If that was the case, 
you would not want to cut oft' a nnger, 
but would certainly want six or seven 
more fingers, if such a thing were pos- 
sible. The real motive which you younj? 
men had in mind was a sort of pledge 
to unite yourselves firmly in the cause 
of the Han dynasty. Is that not thij 
case? — This was done about five years 
ago, and previous to the annexation of 
Korea. How could it be possible tor 
us to have anticipated the annexation? 
I think it only reasonable that we young 
men should want to do what we could 
for the country after having studied. 

Another Pij:a of Alibi. 

Did you meet members of the New 
People's Society at the Taikeuk Soh- 
kwan, Pyong-yang, in November ISIO, 
and discuss plans for assassinating the 
Governor-General? — I never heard of 
the Society before being taken to the 
police headquarters. I did not meet th(> 
members at Pyong-yang, for I vas not 
in the city at that time. 

One of the others who cut off a finger 
has given evidence that you were seen 
at the meeting in Pyong-yang. — I know 
nothing about the meeting. I was at 
that time in the country preaching the 

More Complaints of Tortuse. 

Paik Nam-chung, a young farmer, 
aged 28, said he had never heard of the 
secret society called the Sin Min Hoi, 
had never consulted anybody about a 
plot to assassinate the Governor-GeneraU 
and had not gone to the Syen Chuen rail- 
way station, armed with a revolver and 
accompanied by others, to kill Count 
Terauchi. The statement he had made 
to the police to the effect that he did 
go to the station to kill the Count, but 
was too frightened to fire when the op- 
portunity came was untrue, and was 
forced from him by torture. The " evi- 
dence " of other prisoners supporting 

[ 28 ] 

his original "confession" niusi also ; 
have been obtained by torture. In loua 
tones accused declared that he had been 
icvi rely beaten by the polici? to such an 
extent that he could endure it nc longer, 
and he felt the pain even now. 

The Presiding .Iidge remarked that ne 
did not look as though he was suffering 
ai y pain. 

To further questions by the Court, ac 
cused replied that he had never obtained \ 
money from wealthy people in his neigh 
bourhood by threatening them with a 
revolver. Shown a revolver by the Pr> 
siding Judge, accused admitted it was his 
property, and also identified a pocket 
electric-lamp as being his. Accused 
reiterated that he had not used the re 
volver and lamp in entering rich people'^ 
houses and obtaining money from them, 
but he had " confessed " to this effect 
at the police station because he could 
not bear the torture. 

At this stage of the proceedings tho 
Court adjourned for tiffln. 

The first prisoner to be examined when 
the Court re-assembled in the after- 
noon was O Taik-eui, aged 31, engaged 
In a common school at Syen Chuen. He 
denied having joined the New People's 
Society, and said he had not consulted 
anyone about making raids upon the 
houses of wealthy people in November, 
1910. with a view to obtaining money for 
thi' Society. A number of other ques- 
tions of the stereotyped character r-- 
garding the alleged arrangement of 
plans for the assassina'iou of Count Tc 
rauchi. and attending the railwav-.sla- 
tion at Syen Chuen with the alleged ob 
ject of carrying out those plans, were 
denied by the accused, who admitted 
that he had " confessed " all these 
" facts " to the police during his exami- 
nation at h<:adquarters, but the state- 
ments then made by him were not true. 
It was not true that he had gone to 
I'yong-yang with the young brother o! 
the man who assassinated Prince Ito. It 
was impossible, said accused, that he 
roiild have gone to the railwav station 
on the day the Governor-Oeneral passed 
through, as he was teaching in his school 
that day, and if he had gone to the sta- 
tion the fact could .thus be easily ascer- 

The Presiding Judge, with a smile, 
toM accused that he need not trouble 
about that point. 

!n repiy to further questions, the ac- 
cused said that he had " confessed " to 
h.ivlng at first decided to go to the rail- 

way station armed with a sword, but 
had later on determined to take a re- 
volver. This " confession," however, 
was false, and was made under torture. 


The next man examined was Pyen 
Kong-yul, aged 21, who said he graduat- 
ed at the Yangsil school. Pyong-yang, 
some three >ears ago. He knew No 
Chungheun intimately, but he had not 
joined the New People's Society at No's 
suggestion, nor had he attempted to ob- 
tain money by threats from^ a wealthy 

By the Court: Do you know anyone 
who was very clever in making ex- 
plosives? — No. 

Do you know that a man who made 
bombs for the New People's Society, 
while carrying a nun^ber of these in- 
fernal machines, fell down, and the 
bombs exploded, the man was killed 7 
— I do not. 

"Did you go to Whanghai-do with Kim 
Kwi about November 16th. 1910, and 
meet the brother of the man who as- 
sassinated Prince Ito, who suggested 
that you should make raids upon tho 
wealthy people of the district in order 
to get money for the establishment o( 
a military school for young Koreans, 
which was one of the objects of the -New 
People's Society? — I did not. 

Did not Kim Kwi then inform you 
that plans had been prepared at Seoul 
to kill the Governor-General at Syen 
Chuen on his way north, whereupon 
you gave up the idea of making raids 
upon the rich people In your district 
and proceeded to Syen Chuen with 20 
men? — It is not true. I made a state- 
ment to this effect at the police head- 
quarters, hut it was not based WB fact. 

You left .-Xn-ak with seven others for 
Svcn Chuen by way of Chinnanmo on 
about November 2^ — T did not, although 
I said so at the police station. 

.\cciised also denied the truth of a 
number of other statements made by 
lilm to the police and before (he Pro- 
curator. It is unnecessary to give these 
rpicstions and answers, since they are 
of the same character as those already 
put to practically every one of the ac- 

Another young man. La Seung-khi 
aged 21, a porcelain dealer and surveyor, 
informed tho Court that he had studied 
at the Knmlung School. Ho had a 
branch establishment at Uoson-do, where 
he had a signboard put up Informing the 

[ 29 ] 

public of his profession as a surveyor. 
He denied that this signboard was mere 
ly a subterfuge, and was meant to In- 
dicate that members of the New People s 
Society could assemble there as freely 
as they liked. Then came the usual 
series of questions regarding accused s 
alleged acquaintance with the " con 
spiracy " and the conspirators, to aU 
of which he replied in the negative. 

By the Court: A party of conspira 
tors assembled at the Syen Chuen mis- 
sion school on November 27th, 1910, and 
on the following day again proceeded to 
the railway-station armed with re- 
volvers. When the Governor-General 
alighted and walked down the platform, 
he was so closely guarded and surround- 
ed that his face could not be distin- 
guished, and his uniform was similar to 
that worn by the large number of mili- 
tary officers who walked with him. 
Therefore the scheme of the conspirators 
could not be carried out. In the evening, 
at a meeting held at the mission school, 
Yi Seung-hun vigorously abused the 
conspirators lor their failure to carry 
out their scheme. Is not this what oc- 
curred ? — Xo; nothing anything like this 
happened to my knowledge. 

Did you break into several houses 
and steal money for the purpose of using 
it to meet the expense of carrying out 
the conspiracy ? — I did not. 


The next accused. An Syong-chc, aged 
24, said he had studied at a school of 
which Yi Seunghun was the head. He 
had not heard Yi remark that Korea 
would not do in its present position, and 
that something must be done for the 
sake of the country. It was not trwi 
that accused had gone to a certain place 
to watch the movements of the Governor- 
General, nor did he go* to Syen Chuen 
station with a number of others to shoot 
Count Terauchi. He had, however, " con- 
fessed " all this to the police under tor- 

A Missing Nose. 

La Ping-kiu was re-called and shown 
a framed portrait of Yi Wan-yong. The 
Court having asked whom the picturt 
j-epresented, he said it was quite clear 
who the man was, as his name was 
given at the bottom of the picture. 

The Court asked La why he had rub 
bed off the nose of the portrait, to whici. 
accused replied that his children mus" 
hacve done it by wetting their fingers ii- 

their mouths and rubbing their hands 
on the picture. 

" Daxgehovs Thoughts " ix a Notii, booic. 

The examination of the next accused, 
Kim Syong-haing, aged 23, was very in- 
teresting, and came as sa relief to the 
monotonous repetition of charges and 
flat denials. Kim is an artisan em- 
ployed in a porcelain works at Chyongju, 
and he denied the usual string of charges 
of complicity in the " conspiracy." H? 
said it was absolutely impossible for him 
to have been at Syen Chuen railway- 
station with a party of other men ail 
armed with swords or revolvers, since 
i he was at «.hat time in quite another 
I place. Neither had he been concernel 
I in a scheme to destroy a ceriain gold- 
mine with dynamite. He had " cou- 
I fessed " all this to the police, however, 
' but as the result of torture. Accused 
, having identified a small note-book as 
l)eing his property, the examination 
proceeded: — 

By the Court: Here you have made 
interesting entries to the effect that 
" The strong prey upon the weak," and 
that " The superiors win and the in- 
feriors are defeated." Another entry 
says " To preserve the national rights 
and save my brethren is a duty wnicu 
is mine," and another reads " Be ye 
studious to learn practical knowledge 
with all your mind." Another is " Think 
with a warm heart of the Han Dynasty, ' 
and another reads " Forget not to hold 
up high the flag of Independence, and 
rejoice, shouting Hurrah! " What do 
these passages mean? — I have copied 
them down as I heard them from an- 
other man. 

Here is another entry of a song, which 
says in effect: — "Let us enjoy tne feast 
of Independence again. . . . Let your 
tongue sing the song of Triumph, and 
let the Bell of Liberty be rung! " — I 
have merely noted these phrases, bat 
have never sung them. 

Here is another entry: — " you 
young men of our times! Let your 
minds be spurred on, and unite all your 
energies to re-build you Fatherland deep." 
—I wrote that myself, but I have never 
sung it. 

The Presiding Judge (smiling) : W.-; 
have now a song of Patriotism, in whicii 
you urge 30 million of your young 
countrymen to push on bravely, even 
with the blood running down. — Ever/ 
country in the world has its songs, and 
these are nothing more than national 

L ao ] 

Borps. I copied the words, but did not 
Bii.g tlioni, as I knew they would be con 
sidered harmful to the preservation of 

Has a man at Pyongj-ang composed 
all these songs? — I do not think so. 
Remark.' HIE Words from Judge. 

The Presiding Judge: I am not sur- 
pri.sfd that a man who could find enjoy 
ment in taking a note of these soni;' 
should have been concerned in planning 
this present conspiracy. It is only to i 
expected that such a man as you wouM 
make inflammatory speeches at meeting?. 
—I have never had such a thing In my 

It would not sound well for a man like 
you to say that you had to confess cer- 
tain facts under torture at the hands ol 
the police. — I have not done anythlni.': 
like the acts I am alleged to b" guilty 

How would it be if you, who brood 
over such thoughts, would confess to 
taking part in the conspiracy? — I can- 
not confess what I have never thought 

Just confess your own complicity, 
without implicating others, won't you? 
— It is not true. 

You need not worry so much about 
it, as it is evident you do from your 
blood shot eyes. Far better relieve your 
bosom by confession. — I have nothing 
to confess. 

Rut you ought to have. There Is no 
necessity for you to say that you were 
forced to make statements under torture 
about matters of which you knew no 
thing. You need not worry, if you now 
tell us what you know. — T know nothing. 

As the accused bowed and retired to 
his place among the other prisoners, the 
Presiding Judge laughed. 

The First Suspect Arrest^id. 

The next prisoner examined was Yi 
Chai-yun, aged 21, who said he had no 
religious beliefs. The usual questions 
about joining the New People's Society 
and going to Syen Chuen railway-sta- 
tion with the object of assassinating 
Count Terauchi were put to the prisoner 
by the Court, and denied, accused stal- 
ing that he was at home on No\ ember 
27lh and 28th, and therefore could not 
have been at the railway-station 

By the Court: Were not you and your 
party abused by Yi when you returned 
from the railway station, having fallea 
to carry out your plans? — No, It Is not 
true. Moreover. I do not know Yl. 

Did you not admit all these facts in 
the Procurator's office? — I did, but unde' 

You were the first man concerned in 
this case to be examined, and it was 
because you confessed that this affair 
came to light, and the present charge 
was brought by the Procurator against 
the men now accused. It is a lie to say 
that you confessed owing to torture in- 
dieted by the police. — No statement was 
made by me on my own initiative; i 
merely acquiesced in the statements put 
to me. 

Stude.nt or Spy ? 

The next man brought up for exami- 
nation 'was Choi Chu-sik, aged 20, for- 
nierely a student at the Kamiung school 
at Syen Chuen. Since leaving, he saia, 
he had been studying in Seoul, but not 
at the expenses of Yi Seung-huu, as te 
had confessed to the police, lie did not 
know Yi Wan-yong nor Yl Yong-ku 
( ofTicials in the former Korean Govern- 
nunt). He had not assisted Yi Chai- 
myong in his attempt to assassinate the 
former Korean Premier, although he was 
tortured at the police headquarters to 
admit that he did. 

By the Court: Was it not merely as 
a subterfuge that you pretended to go 
to Seoul for study, and you really went 
to act as a spy for Yl Chal myong and 
the others of your party in order to keep 
watch on the movements of prominent 
officials in Seoul? — No, that is not the 

Did you not Inform Yl Chai-myong 
that the Korean Premier and another 
Korean .Minister Yi Yong ku wer-> going 
to the Roman Catholic chyrch oi;c day ? 
— I did not. Is it not most unreasonable 
to suppose that one like myself who does 
not know the faces of these high offi- 
cials could have pointed them out to 
other people? 

The Presiding Judge : Does your 
statement sound reasonable ? I can tell 
you that Kim Chan-o was also engaged 
to point out the prominent Korean offi- 
cials to Yl Chai-myong. but when the 
attack on the Premier was maae, Kim 
was driven away by the police. — I said 
that at the police headquarters, but It 
is a sheer fabrication. 

But the fact is also evident from the 

record of the examination of Yi Chat- 

I myong In the Procurator's Office. — K 

such evidence was obtained. It must also 

have been elicited by torture. 

Have you not since then been schem- 
ing the assassination of the Governor- 

[ 31 ] 

General, — a plot which was further 
stiirulated by the announcement of the 
annexation of Korea? — I have not. 

You agreed to Yi Seung-hun's proposal 
to attack the Governor-General, and carry- 
ing a revolver you left Nap Chyongjong 
for Syen Chuen on November 27th, 1910, 
and you went to the railway station with 
the intention of killing the Governor- 
General; is that not so ? — I was forced to 
say so at the police-station, hut it is not 

You went on to the platform with other 
members of the New People's Society. 
When the Governor-General arrived he 
walked down the platform along the files 
of people who had come to welcome him, 
and you and your party were there pre- 
tending to receive him with good will. As 
there were a number of military officers 
all walking together, you could not tell 
■which was the Governor-General, aud 
moreover, as certain men who it had 
been pre-arranged were to fire first had 
not done so, you missed the chance you 
had of assassinating the Governor-General 
and so the whole plot failed. Is that so? 
— I did not go to Syen Chuen that day, 
which fact can be established if the Court 
will interrogate the people in my house. 

Is it true that you have frequently robbed 
■wealthy people on the pretext of raising 
" war expenses " for the New People's So- 
ciety? — It is not a fact, but I ■was forced 
to say so by being put to torture. 

Counsel's Protest against Inaccurate 
Interpret.\tio.v or Evidence. 
At this point Mr. Chang Dow, a Korean 
barrister appearing for the defence, called 
the attention of the Court to the manner 
in which the evidence was being dealt 
with by the Court interpreter. Counsel, 
who addressed the Court in Japanese, said 
that the interpretation should be more 
complete and more close to the original 
remarks made by the prisoners. Many 
of the accused in the course of their ex- 
aminations had already explained to the 
Court how they had been forced to make 
statements which were described as " con- 
fessions " in the official records of the 
examinations which had been prepared at 
the police headquarters and in the Pro- 
curator's Office. The Court interpreter, 
however, in rendering the statements of 
the prisoners into Japanese, had mini- 
mised the nature of their complaints; for 
example, the words gomon serarete (tor- 
tured) were interpreted in the same sense 
as semerarete (pressed or teased).' 

The Judge's Reply. 
The Presiding Judge replied very 
briefly, and in a tone suggestive of rebuke, 
to counsel's protest. The Judge said: — 
" Do you wish to complain about the man- 
ner in which the evidence is being inter- 
preted? Is it not all right, since it is 
practically the same thing? Well, let us 
be satisfied with it." 

More about Torture. 

Kim Yong-wha, aged 30, a tobacco dealer 
in Kasan district. North Pj'ongang, 
denied the usual string of questions about 
plotting the assassination and proceeding 
to Syen Chuen railway-station. The state- 
ment made by him to the police that he 
laid hold of the revolver which was hid- 
den under his clothes, but did not fire 
because of the close guard kept round the 
Governor-General, was wrung from him 
as the result of torture by the police. 
Upon being informed by the Court that 
other prisoners had confessed these facts, 
accused replied that they, too, must have 
been forced to make such statements by 
torture. Asked by the Court how he knew 
about others being tortured, accused said 
he had been told by them. 

Choi Syong-min, aged 4S, a farmer from 
North Pyongyang, made the usual denials, 
and asserted that he had been badly 
beaten at the police headquarters to make 
him confess having gone to Syen Chuen 
railway station armed with a dagger, but 
the statements put in his mouth were 
not true. 

By the Court: At a meeting held ai 
the Kamiung school Yi Seung-hun was 
greatly displeased at your failure to carry 
out the planned attack, and abused you 
as being a man who only knew how to 
eat your meals. Y^ou, being a man of 
spirit, resented this abuse, and replied in 
an offensive way, asking what Yi himself 
did at Syen Chuen. Yi then became 
apologetic, and said he only wanted to 
ascertain your mind about the failure. 
Is that so? — I cannot deny having ad- 
mitted all this at the Procurator's Office, 
but it is not true. 

Such a story as this could not be fabri- 
cated by anybody, could it? — I do not 

The last man examined yesterday was 
Choi Che-kiu. 30 years of age, and em- 
ployed at the Kamiung school. Four 
years ago, he said, he was studying in 
Tokyo at the expense of Yi Seung-hun. 
He denied the stereotyped judicial 

[ 32 ] 

questions about discussing the alleged 
plot to assassinate Count Terauchi, and 
denied going to Syen Chuen station. The 
itory he told the police to the eftecc that 
on seeing the Governor-General walking 
along the platform he (accused) made up 
his mind to shoot, but his hand trembled 
so much that he could not grasp the re- 
volver, and so lost his courage, was not 
true; he had told this story because he 
was beaten by the police. 





SKovr.. July 6. 
The Court did not sit on the "Glorious 
Fourth," so that the sixth day's hearing 
of this case was held yesterday. Ther ■ 
were again about 200 people in Court 
listening to the proceedings, or trying 
to, for it is very evident that not many 
can closely follow what is going on. lae 
Judges are seated at one end of th>> 
court-room, and the public at the other 
end, with the 12.3 prisoners, the barr'.s- 
ters' seats, and the newspaper corre^- 
])Oiulents in between. When a prison-M- 
is called up for examination he is taken 
tip from the middle of the court-room 
to a spot right in front of the Judges, 
and still further away from the public 
and the Presiding Judge frequently 
starts putting questions before the a:- 
cused has taken up his position in front 
of the Bench. The Judge addresses his 
questions mainly to the interpreter, who 
having obtained a reply from the pri 
soner, interprets it back to tht Judge. 
E.xcept to those who are quite close to 
the Bench, and can hear what pa«&es be- 
tween the Judge and the accused throupli 
the interpreter, it must be very difficult 
ti) follow the proceedings at all closely. 
Even for me— and my seat is quite close 
to the place where the barristers are 
sitting — It requires constant and close 
attFntion to hear the questions put to, 
and the answers made by, the interpre- 
ter. Among those in Court yesterday 
were about fifteen foreigners — most of 
them missionaries, and among those pre- 
s->nt were two ladies. 

The proceedings commenced at about 
9.30 yesterday morning with the ex- 
; amination of Yi Chi-won, aged 32. describ- 
ed as a merchant, and who said he had 
no religious convictions. In reply to 
the usual questions, accused denied all 
knowledge of the alleged conspiracy, and 
said a merchant would not be iikely to 
become implicated in the affairs of a 
' Society whose alleged object was th» 
assassination of the Governor -General. 
Accused said he knew Yi Seung-hun, but 
' had never been asked by him to join the 
.New People's Society. .Accused also de- 
nied having gone to Syen Chuen, via 
j Chyongju, in November 1910 with the 
' intention of assassinating the Governor- 
' General, but said he forced to ad- 
mit this and other statements as the 
result of torture. 

Alleged Remark^vble Tiire.\t by Police 

The next prisoner. Tak Chang-ho. 
aged 34, denied knowing anything abour 
the Society, or of Y'i Seung-hun's alleged 
invitation to join him in carrying out 
the Society's alleged object of killing 
the Governor-General. Accused having 
denied the usual suggestions of guilt 
conveyed by questions, the Couri asked 
why he had admitted these statements 
to be true at the police headquarters. 

Accused replied that he had admittej 

the charges made agiinst him in the 

I first place because he was put under tor- 

, ture by the police. The reason -A^hy h; 

i also admitted these charges in the Pro- 

I curator's Office was that when he wa.^ 

taken there for further examination, a 

police officer told him that if he failed 

to make the same admissions to thi; 

Procurator which he made to the police, 

he would be killed, the police officer 

suggestively reminding him that there 

were 30,000 policemen and gendarmes in 


Shown by the Court a revolver, ac- 
cused denied that it was his. but said 
he had "admitted " to the police that he 
had borrowed it from another man, and 
had taken it to Syen Chuen station to 
■• welcome " the Governor General. This 
statement, however, was a complete fab- 

An elderly farmer, YI Chun-yong. aged 
55. denied having heard from YI Seung- 
hun anything about a plot for the as- 
assassination of the Governor-General In 
Novemb-?r 1910. He had no revolver in 
his house, nor had he given one to An 
Chyonfj-che because he thought it dan- 
gerous for an old man to keep such a 

[ 33 ] 

■weapon. The customary questiort3 as lo 
accused having gone to Syen Chuen wicu 
a party of " conspirators " were put, and 
accused denied all knowledge o** acy 
such circumstances. The " admissions ' 
he had made at the police station were 

Um\'ersitv Law Stude.\t's Evidence. 
The next man examined was Im 
Hyong-wha, aged 34, who studied in 
Tokyo at the Nippon Daigaku (Law 
College) for about a year. Accused said 
he knew Japanese, but preferred to be 
examined in Korean. 

By the Court: Was not your trip tu 
Japan taken with the object of observ- 
ing political conditions there, the story 
of you going to study being merely to 
cover your real intentions? — No; that 
is not so. I attended college regularly, 
as may be seen from the entries in my 

Lid you not go to Japan at the request 
of Yi Seung hun ? — No. I have never 
been favoured in any way by Yi. 

What did you do after returning from 
Tokyo to Korea? — I was engaged as 
superintendent of the Kamiung School, 
a-t Nap Chyongjong. 

Was it not while you were in Tokyo 
that you joined the New People's So- 
ciety ?— No. 

Did you not confess at the Procura- 
tor's Office that you joined that body in 
the circumstances mentioned'? — 1 con- 
fessed nothing, but I said that if it was 
stated in the official record of my ex- 
amination that I had confessed, such 
" confession " was obtained by torture, 
and I was not bound by it. 

At the end of November 1910 did you 
call a meeting of people at the Kamiung 
School, together with YI Seung-hun, and 
make a speech in which you referred 
to the coming of the Governor-General 
to Syen Chuen, and said that for the 
sake of the country he should be killed 
there? — Nothing of the kind ever hap- 
pened to my knowledge. 

In reply to further questions, accused 
denied having gone to Syen Chuen rail- 
way-station with the object of killing 
Count Terauchi, but w^as unable to re- 
cognise him; accused also denied having 
admitted this to the Procurator. He 
denied having urged members of the 
Society to break into the houses of the 
•wealthy, and denied a number^ ot oiner 
suggestions made by the Court.' Accused 
said that if evidence to the contrary had 
been obtained from members of the So- 

ciety at New Wiju. Chyongju, and Syei 
Chuen, it was altogether wrong, and ho 
had heard nothing of it, even at the Pro- 
curator's Office. 

The Judge and the Allegation of 

Could there have been some other Im 
Hyong-wha, and not you, who confessed 
to all these things ?— I had to admit these 
statements at the Procurator's Office, 
but I did not make any statements my- 

Is it possible that a man like you, who 
has studied at a Law College, could say 
things he did not mean while under tor- 
ture ? — I do not think it impossible. 

Was it not because these statements 
were statements of fact that you admit- 
ted them ? — No, they are not facts. The 
real truth is that I was subjected to tor- 
ture for several days, during whicn time 
I felt that I was about to breathe my last. 

That is no excuse for a man who has 
studied law. These statements of youra 
which are on record are the real facts, 
are they not? — I have already told you 
the truth about the matter. 

Is this Fa pocket electric-lamp) yours? 
— Yes. I was asked by an acquaintance 
to dispose of some among the people in 
my village in June last year. 

Is this lamp one of those you were 
instructed by your leader to distribute 
among the members of your secret So- 
ciety, so that they might use them when 
breaking into the houses of wealthy peo- 
ple to obtain money? — Certainly Bot. 

Whose is this [a new revolver] ? — It 
is not mine; it belongs to my brother. 

Did you not say at the police head- 
quarters that this weapon was yours, but 
that you had entrusted it to your bro- 
ther? — No, I did not say so. 

You took this weapon with you to 
Syen Chuen to carry out your scheme 
of assassinating the Governor-General, 
but as the attempt failed you took it to 
your brother, did you not? — No. Thj 
truth is that about eight years ago, 
when our neighbourhood was infested 
by robbers, my brother — who was rather 
well-to-do— bought this revolver for de- 
fence against possible thieves. T»ie 
leather sack containing a number ot 
cartridges was also my brother's. 

Is this [another and larger revolverj 
your brothers, too?— I do not know. 

Did you not say at the police neaa- 
quarters that your brother was a very 
rich man, and so he bought several re- 
volvers at the time robbers were about 

[ 3-i ] 

in his district ? — I did say so. but it was|ecuted to-day. The man and 

a lie. My brother had only one revolver, his deed demand the nniform sympathy 
as I have told you. . | of the 20 million people of Korea. . . . 

But your brother remembers this large The day became overcast as the morn- 
revolver, and surely you must also re- [ ing advanced, as though the Heavens 

cognise it. — No. 

Why did you fail to report to the pollC!> 
that there were firearms in the house? — 
I did not know that there was such a re- 
gulation; I was never informed of it. 

themselves grieve over the doomed man. 
. . . Young Koreans of to day should 
succeed to the mind of An." Doos this 
not mean that you had an idea of carry- 
ing out a scheme similar to that of 

More "Dangerous Thouoht.s" in .. Di.vrt. i ^n's?-! admit having written that pas- 

sage, but I wish to explain the clrcum- 
Is this your diary, kept while you were- stances. Xo man, whatever his natlona- 

in Tokyo?— Yes. lity, who stops to think about An and 

According to this, you delivered an ' his act, can fail to see that— other ques 

address to your people in Tokyo about tjops apart— he did not carry out his 

the independence of Korea.— It it is en- , scheme for his own selfish pitrposes. It 

tered there, I suppose I did so. 

was solely for the sake of his country 

On October 26th, 1909, you have an ti,at An did this daring thing— a fact 
entry to the following effect:— " At 5.3U^.),i(.h in itself is sufficient to slir the 
p.m. I received an ' extra ' of a certain i,lnod of a young man. It was probably 
paper announcing that Prince Ito had j,, this wav that mv mind was stlmulat- 

becn assassinated. 

I rejoice, but 1 

ed at the time to such a degree that 1 
What do you mean by saying [ was impelled to make that entry In my 


What were your thoughts en hearing 
of the assassination of Prince Ito? — I 
do not think I had any particular im- 
pressions at the time. 

that you first rejoiced, and then grieved? 
— I cannot say now what thoughts en- 
tered my head when I wrote those words. 
Again, on December 21st of the same 
year, you mention having received a 
telegram from Korea at 7 p.m., statlug 
that Yi Chai-myong had stabbed a " great 
traitor," Yi Wan-yong, and you add these i n is quite evident, from the entries 
words: — "What Korean young men : in this diary of yours that you had th:» 
should do is to follow the self sacrificing I jdoa of carrying out an act similar to 
example of Yi Chai-myong.— This idea I that of the assassin of Prince Ito That 

JiDifi.M, .^nvICE TO Confess. 

1 got from the Tokyo Asahi, which re- 
lerrod to the self-sacrificing Idea of the 

The Asalii could not have written 
such an abominable thing. You must 
have written this as your owu impres- 
sion at the time. — No, I do not think' so. 
Hut oven if the passage was written, as 
tho Court suggests, to express my own 
Impressions at the time, I did not mean 
that I mvself would follow Yl's example. 

being so, it is only natural that yon 
should have been thinking, since your 
return to Korea, of assassinating the 
Governor-General. In these circum- 
stances your statement that you had 
to admit this and that because ot 
the brutal treatment of the police, al- 
though you knew nothing about these 
things, sounds like a mere excuae. Did 
you not contemplate an attack on the 
life of the Governor General? — 1 did not. 

You must have meant that at tha'. i and 1 have never admitted any of ths 
time, at any rate, you would follow his ] alleged " facts " of my own accord. 

example. — No. Everybody who keeps a 
diary jots down their Impressioas on 
larious matters after reading the news- 

It will be more advantageous for an 
educated man like you to tell the trutti. 
— I sincerely thank the Court for Its 

jiapera. but it does not necessarily mean ^ kind advice. I only want to state the 
that one really means to execute the | real facts here in Court in the presenc? 
Ideas that are noted. of people of several nationalities. I as- 

Dld you also make this entry about sure the Court that I have never enter- 
rememberlng the old Chinese King who tainod such an Idea as that of assasainat- 
brooded over a scheme for driving th'- ing the Governor-General. 

invader out of his country? — Yes. 

Here a.iraln. on March 26th, 1910, 
you have this passage: — "The Asnhi 
T'^porls that An ChUng-heun. the a.? 
Bnssln of Prince Ito, Is to be ex- 

The Court then read out a number ot 
other passages from the diary, writti'n 
while ac<1ised was in Tokyo. The pas- 
sages referred to letters received from 
his brother, friends, and former pupllu 

[ 35 ] 

whom he had taught at school iu Korea. 
Among these passages were the follow- 
ing: — "Let us wash our disgrace and 
the humiliation we have suffered m 
the waters of the Pacific," and " Thuii 
of independence, and study with an 
idea of patriotism." The Court ob- 
served that from these passages it 
appeared that accused had gone tc Japan 
in order to spy out the political situa 
tion. and not for study. 

In reply, accused said that these pas- 
sages were nothing more than his own 
impressions, noted at the time. 

Wholesale Denials. 

The next four prisoners examined, 
Pak Sang-hun, aged 29; Yi Hyong-chq, 
aged 28; Im Pyong-haing, aged 22; 
Paik Chionhyong, aged 4S: a,id Kim 
Eung-pong, aged 25, all denied having 
joind the New People's Scciet.'-, and 
having gone to Syen Chnen lailway- 
station on November 27th, 1910, with the 
object of assassinating the Governor- 

The last of the accused examined be- 
fore the tiffin interval was Yi Yong-wha, 
formerly principal and superintendent 
of the Kamiung school, of which au Ame- 
rican missionary, Mr. Roberts, was now 
the principal. In reply to questions Dy 
the Court, accused denied that he was a 
member of the New People's Society, and 
denied having gone to the Syen Chuen 
railway station to assassinate the Gov- 

Alu:ged Beatings by the Police. 

Asked by the Court why he had ad- 
mitted all these statements at the police- 
station, accused said he had to, owing 
to the torture inflicted upon him. The 
evidence said to have been given 
him by other prisoners, added accused, 
must have been obtained in a similar 
way. He knew Baron Yun by sight, but 
had never been spoken to by him in re- 
gard to the conspiracy. He haa admit- 
ted at the police station that Baron Yun 
had told him to arrange matters relat- 
ing to the plot in North Pyongan-do, 
but he was told to " confess "' this by 
a police officer, and was beaten becaus>; 
he persisted in denying the statement. 

By the Court: Are you the ringleader 
of this party in Nap Chyongjon':,? You 
appear to be from every point of view 
— No. I was originally a merchant, and 
am not Interested in things of that 

Are these [several pocket e'ecfr'.c 
lamps] your property, and did you buy 

them to distribute among your party 
so that they might use them in break- 
ing into the houses of wealthy peopi<? 
to rob them?— They are not mine; they 
are the property of the school Wo 
bought them In June last year as speci- 

Were these lamps bought by you and 
Yang Chom-miung?— I accompanied him 
when he went to buy them; he bought 
20, and I bought one. 

Did you buy these lamps so that they 
could be used in the attempt on the lif'? 
of the Governor-General? — No; a mer- 
chant could never have thought of sucii 
a dreadful thing. 

At this stage the Court adjourned for 

The first man examined after the Court 
re-assembled was Kim Chan-o, aged 22. 
who told the Court that he had studied 
at the Kamiung school and at a school in 
Seoul. He denied having kept a watch on 
the movements of the former Korean 
Premier, and reported from time to time 
to a party of conspirators in Seoul, and 
that he was in Seoul as a spy and not as 
a student. It was not true that he had 
pointed out the Premier to his would-be 
assassin, Yi Chai-myong, when the former 
went to the Roman Catholic church in 
Seoul. Accused also denied being con- 
cerned in the present alleged conspiracy, 
and having gone to Syen Chuen lailway- 
station on November 27th, 1910, witb 
others with the intention of assassinating 
the Governor-General. Accused said that 
on the day in question he was attending 
his father, who was ill in bed. 

The Court asked why accused had ad- 
mitted complicity in the conspiracy when 
examined by the police, to which prisoner 
replied that he had to do so because he 
was tortured. 

A teacher at the Kamiung school, 
named Yi Tai-kyong, aged 28, was next .ex- 
amined. He denied having joined the 
New People's Society. He had frequently 
seen Yi Seung-hun at the school, but had 
never spoken to him. nor had he ever 
heard Yi speak about any conspiracy. 
Accused did not know whether a meeting 
was held on November 24th, 1910, of all 
the local members of the New PeopIe"s 
Society, at which it was decided that the 
Governor-General should be killed at Syen 
Chuen on the following 27th. He also 
denied having gone to Syen Chuen on the 
27th with a party of others, with the ob- 
ject of killing the Governor-General. He 
had, however, admitted all these state- 

[ ;« ] 

ments to be true when examined by the 
police, but his " confessions " were un- 
true, and were obtained by torture. 

How Priso.nkr's Statements are 
" Interpreted." 

The next four prisoners, Kim Ok-hyon, 
aged 28, Kim Pong su, aged S4, Kir.i 
Yong-o, aged 49, and La Eui-su, aged 29, 
gave testimony to the same effect. Kim 
Yong-o, in reply to a question by the 
Court as to whether he had " confessed '" 
his guilt at the police headquarters, made 
a very long statement, and in a very loud 
voice. By his various gestures I gathered 
that he was explaining the methods used 
by the police authorities in obtaining his 
" confession," but the interpreter's version 
of Kim's lengthy address was as simple 
as could be Imagined, the laconic remark 
*' GomonI " (torture) being practically all 
that was said in explanation of the pri- 
soner's statement. 

Chhistian Pastor's Story of Police 

The next prisoner called up for exami- 
nation was Cho Tok-chan, aged 45. a 
Christian pastor from Chvongju. He said 
he knew Yi Seung-hun, but did not go to 
the Kamiung school in res|)onse to Yi's 
Invitation in September 1910, nor was he 
told by Yi that he should toil not only for 
the Gospel but for the sake of his coun- 
try. Accused also denied having met Yi 
at the Kamiung school to discuss the pro- 
posed assassination of the Governor- 
General, nor did he go to Syen Chuen rail- 
way-station on November 27th, 1910. 

By the Court: Did you not admit these 
facts when you were questioned at the 
Procurator's Office ? — 1 denied them at 
first, but I was so terrified by the glaring 
eyes and the threatening voice of the 
official in charge that at last I had to ad- 
mit, the charges. I am only a simple 
countryman, and I do not know whether 
this was in the police headquarters or the 
Procurator's Office. I do not know one 
from the other. 

You are rather an important man, being 
a pastor. Is it possible that a man like 
you could be frightened by glaring eyes 
and an angry voice? — I was awfully 
worried by the police, and a timid 
•countryman could not stand It, I assure 

How Is that others of the aceused 
have given evidence against you ? — No 
doubt because they were also subjected 
to torture by the. police. 

In reply to further questions, accuse-I 
denied having gone to Syen Chuen rail- 
way station with a revolver on >Jovem 
her 27th and 28th, 1910. At that time 
he was preaching the Gospel at North 

Moke Judicial " Wit." 

The Court remarked that according to 
the official investigation, accused's name 
was not recorded in the diary of any 
of the churches in the district mentioned 
as having been there on the days in 
question. The Court added that it was 
very strange to find a pastor telling a 
lie, and the accused would be named 
'• the liar pastor." 

" Admissions " Obtained by Beatino. 

Yi Myong-yong, who was next ex- 
amined, said he had joined the New 
People's Society on the advice of YI 
' Seung-hun. He denied having stated at 
the police headquarters that Im Dom- 
i yong, Choi Syong-clui, Paik Mong-kiu, and 
' himself were well-known leaders at 
I Chyongju. He simply acknowledged 
the statements which were put to him 
by the authorities, as he had been beaten 
to force him to admit these statements. 
, Accused was then questioned on the 
usual lines regarding attendance at meet- 
ings of " conspirators " and proceeding to 
I the railway-station at Syen l^huen, anu 
denied being concerned therein. Askea 
j why te had told the police that he had 
I been appointed on a committee of four 
persons to collect revolvers and money, 
accused said he was beaten by the police, 
so that he had to admit this. He added 
that on November 27th, 1910, when hrf 
was charged with having gone to Syen 
Chuen railway-station, he was in the 
country, a fact which could be proved 
by calling witnesses. 

By the Court: On that very evening 
you and your party assembled at the 
Syen Chuen mission school, and were 
addressed by Yi Si ung-lniii, who said that 
I the Governor-General was sure to come 
next day, and that you would all have 
to carry out your long-cherished scheme. 
This, YI said, was the order of Baron 
Yun and Yang Kl-tak, and their orders 
were the voice of the thirteen provinces 
of Korea. Yi then ordered certain men 
to proceed to Kwaksan and to Chongju 
to take charge of arrangements there In 
case the attempt at Syen Chuen failed. 
Do you remember this ? — No; I was not 
at Syen Chuen at that time. I was up 


country attending a ceremony at the 
graves of my ancestors. 

Prisonkh's Sarcasm. 

You and your party reached Chyongju 
about 11 a.m. the day after this meeting, 
and — together with a party of students 
from the Sin-an school which was under 
the influence of the New People's Society 
— you went to the railway-station, all arm- 
ed with some kind of weapon. The Gov- 
ernor-General's train came in, he alight- 
ed from his car, walked up to Choi Song- 
chu, who stood at the head of the party, 
and asked him if he spoke Japanese. 
Choi, you, and the others had been wait- 
ing for a good chance to carry out your 
design.3, but you were handicapped by the 
Generals coming too close to you, and 
also by the strict guard that was kept 
over him. You missed your opportunity, 
for the Governor-General quickly re- 
turned to his car and the train moved 
out of the station. Do you remember 
this?— I understand that the Japanese 
police system is supposed to be one of 
the best in the world. Is it then possible 
that men — a whole company of men — 
armed with dangerous weapons, could 
have got past the police on to the station 
platform on such an occasion as this ? 
The thing Is Impossible. 

In reply to further questions, accused 
denied knowing Lyu Tong-sol, or 
having attempted to kill the Gov- 
ernor-General when he went to attend 
the ceremony at the opening of the Yalu 
bridge, and said he did not know whe- 
ther Yi Chang-ho was among those al- 
leged to have gone to Chyongju to carry 
out the plan of the conspirators. 

How " Confessions " were Obtained. 

The Court asked accused If he did not 
admit at the Procurator's Office that 'Vi 
was among those who went to Chyongju, 
and that the plan was to attack the 
Governor-General there. All the other 
accused connected with this particular 
attempt, added the Court, had given evi- 
dence to the same effect. : 

Accused, in reply, said he could not 
have been either at Chyongju or Kwaksan 
himself, as he was in another place, as 
already explained. As to his alleged 
" confession " to the police, he had not 
mentioned these " facts " himself at all, 
but had simply said " yes " to every 
question put to him by the official in 
charge of the examination. The real 
nature of his alleged " confession " could 
be ascertained if the Court would ex- 

amine the police officers who examined 
him. Accused concluded by emphatically 
declaring his innocence. 

Im Do-myong, aged 29, said he was a 
clerk in the Sin-an school at Chyongju 
conducted by Mr. Roberts. He admitted 
having been fined ¥7 in the Chyongju 
Court, as representative of the school, 
for failing to obey an official order to 
close the school because it was not pro- 
perly equipped and the accommodation 
j was inadequate. He denied being a mem- 
ber of the New People's Society, of which 
he heard for the first time at the police 

How THE Police oBTArxEo Det.hls of 
THE " Plot." 

By the Court: You it was who first 
disclosed everything about the Chyongju 
affair and about the Society, without 
which evidence the police could not have 
j obtained any details of the Society. Is 
I that so ? — 'Ves. but I was subjected to 
\ torture for three days, and was also 
beaten during that time. I spoke about 
this when 1 was examined in the Pro- 
curator's Oflnce, but could not go back 
on the statements forced from me at 
the police headquarters, as the police 
strictly warned me to make the same 
statements before the Procurator. 

On November 15th, 1910, you, with Choi 
Syong-chu and Hong Song-in. met at Syen 
Chuen at Yang Chom-miung's house, and 
discussed the plan for the assassination 
of the Governor-General. It was agreed 
that he should be attacked at certain sta- 
tions along the line, so that If the at- 
tempt failed at one place, it might suc- 
ceed in another. — I was not present at 
any such meeting, nor did I ever hear 
of such an arrangement being made. 

You then went back to Chyongju, and 
afterwards came to Syen Chuen with Y; 
Seung-hun. — I denied this statement when 
it was first put to me, but being beaten 
by the police I had to admit It. 

Accused also denied going back to 
Chyongju with a party of men from 
Kwaksan to prepare for carrying out tne 
plot, and he begged the Court to question 
the gendarmerie at Syen Chuen more care- 
fully as to his movements. 

Yi Keun-taik, aged 28, a tall and rather 
handsome man, was next examined. He 
denied being a member of the New Peo- 
ple's Society, though he was forced to 
admit that he was when the police ex- 
amined him. Accused said he' was lU 
during November, 1910, and therefore 

r ;« ] 

could not have gone to Syen Chuen, as tion of assassinating the Count, but was 
alleged. He had not given a sen to the iinable because his Excellency came too 
alleged consi)irators, nor had he collected 'close to the alleged would-be assassin! 
Vn'iii or ¥C'iO from a wealthy family at The pastor mildly suggested to the Court 
Kwaksan. He did not give any money that this supposition was unreasonable, 
to Yi Seung-hun to buy revolvers, nor Another interesting statement was that 
was he given eight weapons. The cus- made by the Court regarding an alleged 
ton ary questions as to being at the all-night siege of the Governor-Generals 
railway-station and attempting on the train. 

life of the Governor-General were pu: The first prisoner examined yesterday 

by the Court, and were all denied by the ^as O Hak-su, aged 2Sf, who said he had 

accused. no religious convictions. He said he was 

A Buried Revolver. not a member of the New People's Society, 

Bv the Court: Is this [a five-chambered \ nor was he present at a meeting of mem- 
revolver] vours ?— Yes, but I did not take bers held at Syen Chuen in August 1910 
it to Syen Chuen or to Chyongju, as al i to discuss a plan for assassinating Count 
jp_gj Terauchi; accused said he was in North 

Is this [a small bag containing 16 [ Pyongan-do at the time. He denied hav- 
cartridgesl yours ?— Yes, but I do not in? son? to the railway-station on Sep- 
know how many cartridges are in it. 

tpr-^ber 15-h and October 2(^th. 1910. wit'i 
others with the object of Shooting Count 
Terauchi, but were disappointed to find 
that the Governor-General did not arrive. 
A nunber of similar questions were put 
by the Court In connection with other 
illeirprt visits to tlip railway-station, all 


Have you ever given these things to 
your uncle to mind ? — Yes. 

These articles were dug up from the 
ground on a Ijill. where they had been 
buried in a deep hole, which your undo 

admitted doing. Did you not ask him , , ^ ^ 

to do so for you, as you feared that if of which were denied by accused, 
these things were kept in his hovise, they 
might be seized by the authorities ? — 
No. I The Court asked accused whether he 

Is this [a swordstick) also yours, and 'remembered having "confessed" to these 
did you also entrust this to your uncle ? — statements at the police station and be- 
lt is mine, but I kept it in my own housf. fore the Procurator. 

In reply to further questions accused Prisoner replied that he " confessed " 
denied having taken these weapons to under torture at the police headquarters, 
the railway-station, and denied being a and at the Procurator's Office he had to 
leading member of the New People's gay the same thing because he was ter- 
Society a'. Kwaksan, although he admit- rified by the threats of the police authori- 
ted he was a well-to-do man in his own ties, who told him that if he failed to 
district. admit the same statements he would be 

With the conclusion of the examination taken back to the police station and 
of thi? witness, the proceedings were ad- killed. 

journed until next day. 




SEOfi., July 7. 
Yesterday was the seventh day's hear- 
ing of this remarkable case, and the pro- 
ceedings In the morning were made more 
than usually Interesting by the evidence 
of a Christian pastor who actually had an 
IntervlcvT with Ihi- Governor-General, and 
who was alleged to have had the hiten- 

The next prisoner examined, CW Sang- 
chu, aged 37, said he admitted to the 
police that he had joined the New people's 
Society about four years ago, but declared 
the statement was made under tor- 
ture. He denied having proceeded to 
Kwaksan station on September 15th and 
October 2iilh, 1910, with the object of 
assassinating the Governor-General, nor 
did he go to Syen Chuen station with 
the same object on November 27th. On 
that day h-^ was working at his employer's 
oflBce in Kwaksan, and the date mentioned 
was a market-day. He denied having 
gone to Chyongju station on November 
28th, nor was it true that he failed to 
shoot the Governor-General because of 
the strict guard which was kept. On 
account of the torture to which he was 

[ 39 ] 

subjected, however, he had ' confessed " 
all this to the police. 

The Alleged Gatherixg of Conspirators. 

Paik .Mong-kiu, a general merchant 
living at Chyongju, said he was not a 
member of the Xew People's Society, and 
did not know Yang Chomniinng. 

By the Court:— About August 1910 
Ok Kwan-pin came to your district from 
Pyongyang and reported to the conspira- 
tors about the coming visit of the Gov- 
ernor-General. It was then agreed that 
the Governor should be killed; do you 
remember that? — It could not be possible. 

You went to Chyongju station on Sep- 
tember 15th and October 20th, 1910. with 
the intention of killing the Governor- 
General, did you not? — No. 

Later on, about November 27th, the 
two men already mentioned came to your 
place again, and you all went to Syen 
Chuen railway-station with the ^dea of 
assassinating the Governor-General. — No, 
I did not. 

Did you meet a number of other mou 
at the Syen Chuen mission school, and 
then go back to Chyongju with the object 
of making another attack? — I did not. 
Moreover, such a thing would be impos- 
sible, for the station at Chyongju is very 
small, and it would not be posrible lor 
a party of men, all armed with weapons, 
as alleged, to get on to the platform, es- 
pecially on an occasion when a very 
high official was expected. It is absurd 
to assume that the Japanese police, 
■whose system is supposed to be the best 
in the world, would have allowed sucd 
a crowd of men to pass through. As for 
myself, I never had such a wicked idea 
in my life as to think of killing a man 

The Court observed that it was be- 
cause he had had such a wicked idea 
that he now found himself in Court. 

Accused also denied a number of other 
suggestions, including one that be had 
given certain foreigners at Syen Chuen 
20 revolvers to mind. 

The Court remarked that accused had 
confessed to all these statements at the 
police headquarters, and that they wers 
borne out by the evidence of other ac 

The prisoner said that his alleged 
" confession " had been obtained by tor- 
ture, and the other corroborative " evi- 
dence " had been obtained in the sam<^ 
way. If he was really guilty, he would 
not mind being sentenced to death. 

Chbisti.\m P.\stor's Meeting with 

A Christian pastor from Chyongju, 
named Choi Syong-chu, aged 35, was next 
examined. He admitted to the Court 
that he had been fined ¥10 at the Chyong- 
ju Court on December 24th, 1910, for hav- 
ing neglected to close his school, as 
ordered by the authorities, because ia 
the official opinion it was not properly 
equipped. This school was one presided 
over by Mr. Roberts, and was situated at 
Shin-min, accused being the sub-principal. 
The customary questions by the Court 
regarding accused's connection with the 
" plot " being met with the usual de- 
nials, the examination proceeded: — 

By the Court: — Did you go to the rail- 
way station ? — Yes, I went once to wel- 
come the Governor General, and not to 
assassinate him. The Governor-General, 
ihrough a gendarme who acted as inter- 
preter, told me to do what I could for 
the welfare of the district. 

How is it that Yi Myong-yong over- 
heard you talking to Count Terauchi ? 
Did you take other men with you? — I do 
not know how he could have overheard. 

Ax " Unreasonable " Suggestion. 

Did you not say in your examination 
at the police headquarters that you looK 
your students and the local members of 
the New People's Society on that occa- 
sion, but your idea of killing the Gover- 
nor-General was frustrated because ha 
came up too close to you, and so you 
missed the chance? — It sounds rather 
unreasonable. If I went there vith the 
intention alleged, and I had the idea oC 
killing the Governor-General, I should 
think it would have been the best pos- 
sible opportunity for me to attack him. 

From the evidence before the Court it 
is certain that you journeyed up and 
down the line between Chyongju and 
Syen Chuen at this time, which signi- 
fies that you, as the leader of tne body, 
were preparing for the assassination to 
be attempted in these places. — I am a 
pastor engaged in a church, and I couM 
not make such movements about the 
country without an allowance being y? 
given me by the Church. I have not told 
any lies before this impartial Court, and 
I am now simply waiting for judgement. 

Ax ex-Christian Con\'ert. 

Kim Si-cham, aged 31, a merchant, 
who was next examined, said he was 
formerly a member of the Christian body. 

[ 40 ] 

but had recently left it. The reason tor 
this was that one day he wa3 seen 
drinlting alcoholic liquor by some fellow- 
Christians who rebuked him, whereupon 
lie decided to leave the Church. Accused 
said he had been told by Yi Seung-hun 
rbout the New People's Society, and was 
tok. that the object of the Society was 
to encourage education and industry 
among young Koreans, that they might 
build up a New People; hence the name 
of the Society. Accused sympathised 
with the aims of the body, and wanted 
to join, but was told that thi^ Society was 
not yet properly established, so nothing 
more was said about it. He had not soon 
Vi since. 

Tiir Objects ov tiik New Pf.ople'.s 

The Court then asked accused if he 
knew that the real objects of the New 
People's Society were to continually 
agitate the minds of the people by as- 
sassinating former Korean Ministers, 
the Governor-General, and others; to en- 
list the sympathy of the foreign Powers 
by suggesting that the Korean people 
would not submit to the Japanese Gov- 
ernment; to establish a military school 
at Chicntao to train young Koreans; 
and to take advantage of a war between 
Japan and China oi Japan and the Unit- 
(i\ Stales to start a war of independence, 
— Accused reiilicd that the first time he 
had heard that these were the leal ob- 
jects of the Society was at the police 

Accused, in reply to further questions, 
denied having received a letter trom 
Yang Chom-iniung at Syen Chucn, giving 
instructions for carrying out an attacA 
upon the Governor-General in Septem- 
ber 1910, and also denied having been 
concernid in the various other alleged 
" attempts " upon Count Terauchi. 


Asked by the Court why he " confes- 
sed " to all these statements at the police 
hi'ad(|uarters. accused said that he de- 
nied thim at first, but was hung up and 
bealen until he "confessed." He repeat- 
ed his "confession" at the Procurator's 
Office because he was afraid of being sent 
back to the police headciuarters if he 
then denied it. The evidence given by 
other prisoners to Incriminate him must 
have been obtained in a similar manner. 

Mdrk Dexi.\i,s. 

The examination of Hong Song-in, 
aged 36", consisted of one long series of 
denials. He said he was not a leader at 
Chyongju of the local members of the 
.N'ew People's Society, was not connected 
with the body, did not go to the rail- 
way-station to assassinate the Governor- 
General, did not go to Syen Chuen to 
attend a meeting of conspirators, was 
not selected to be a member of the re- 
volver-collecting committee, did not go 
to Kwaksan railway-station, did not call 
a meeting at his house of conspirators, 
and did not decide — with others — to kill 
the Governor-General on his way to or 
from the ceremony celebrating the open- 
ing of the Yalu bridge. 

CoxKi-ciAX Pkiso.nkk'.s Eviuexce of 


The next prisoner called up for ex- 
amination was Chyang AVan-pyong, aged 
39, who said he was a Confucian. He 
denied being a member of the New Peo- 
ple's Society, the aims of which he was 
unacquainted with. He " confessed " to 
the contrary at the police station under 

By the Court: In August 1910 you 
went to Kwaksan from Syen Chuen to 
acquaint the local nv rabers of the New 
People's Society of the expected arrival 
of the Governor-General, whom it had 
been decided to assassinate at Charyon- 
kwan. Is that so ? — I admitted this at 
the police station, because I was tortured 
to such an extent that I twice fainted. 

You also received ¥400 from O Heul- 
won, with which you bought revolvers 
from Antung. — I admitted this for the 
same reason, but if you will examine the 
merchant from whom it is alleged I bought 
the weapons, you will find that it is not 

In reply to further questions, accused 
denied having gone to Charyon-kwan 
station with the idea of assassinating 
the Governor-General in September and 
October, 1910, nor did he go there on 
November 27th and — as the Governor- 
General did not alight, but proceeded 
almost at once for .New Wiju — proceed 
to that place in pursuit by the next train 
with a party of others. Accused said 
the station at New Wiju was small, and 
it would have been impossible for him 
and others to have got through the police 
and gendarmes without attracting atten- 

[ -11 ] 

Alleged Ai.L-NiiiiiT Sieue of Govlrxor- 
Gk.\kkai."s Traix. 

By the Court : The Governor-General 
did not leave the train that night, so you 
and your followers kept up a siege all 
night, walking round the train. — Nothing 
of the kind ever happened to my know- 

You kept up the siege until three 
o'clock next morning, and came bark 
again to the railway-station at six 
o'clock. The Governor-General left the 
train about eight o'clock, and went for 
a drive through the town in a carriage. 
You twice tried to assassinate him by 
shooting with a revolver, but failed 
owing to the strict guard maintained 
by the police and gendarmes. — I was at 
Kasan |Kwaksan?| at the time, and 
therefore could not have been in New Wiju. 
You also tried to carry out the as- 
sassination of the Governor-General on 
the instruction of Lyu Tong-sol when 
his Excellency was on his way to the 
Yalu bridge. — I did not. 

Alleged Plot against Pbixce Ito. 
In the spring of 1909, when Prince Ito 
accompanied the Emperor of Korea on a 
tour of inspection, did you determine to 
attack the "Prince at Charyon-kwan ? 
Then, as the train did not stop there, 
you took the next train and followed 
Prince Ito to another station. Is that 
so ? — I admitted these statements at the 
police station, but they were all untrue. 
At this stage the Court adjourned for 

mobe about the alleged slegb of a 

Upon the Court reassembling after 
tiffin yesterday Lyu Hak-rium, aged 30, 
was called up for examination. He said 
he had no religious convictions, nor did 
he know anything about the New Peo- 
ple's Society. He denied having gone 
armed with a revolver to Charyon-kwan' 
station in September and October, 1910, 
or to Syen Chuen station in October, with 
the object of assassinating the Governor- 
General. Neither did he pursue that of- 
ficial to New Wiju -when he found that 
the train did not stop at Chyongju, 
where he had been waiting. It was not 
true that accused kept a watch on the 
train with other men all night in the 
hope of getting a chance of shooting 
the Governor-General. Accused denied 
being one of a party of men who waited 
about at New Wiju station until the 
Governor-General returned from his 

drive through the city. Accused said he 
could not understand why he was 
charged, as he did not have any connec- 
tion with any such daring plot. 

Asked by the Court it he had con- 
fessed to the police that he had entrusted 
a number of revolvers to the keeping "f 
Mr. McCune, the principal of the Syen 
Chuen mission school, accused said he 
had made such a confession, but it was 
forced from him as the result of the 
unbearable torture to which he had bee:i 


A dignified-looking man named Chang 
Kwan-sun, aged 45, who is a Christian 
pastor, said that he did not know Yang 
Chom-miung. Asked to explain why he 
did not know such a well-known man in 
Syen Chuen, accused said he only knew 
those people who were connected with 
his church. He denied having gone to 
New Wiju or Charyon-kwan with the 
intention of assassinating the Governor- 
General. Asked why he had admitted 
to the contrary when examined at the 
police headquarters, accused said he was 
low-spirited. [This may be another 
euphemism of the Court interpreter, 
meaning " tortured." — En.] 


O Heui-won, aged 39, was next ex- 
amined. This man, who is well-built 
and has a pleasant appearance, held the 
Sixth Junior Grade of Court rank in the 
days of Korean independence. He said 
he had no religious convictions. Having 
admitted that he knew An Chang-ho, the 
examination proceeded: — 

By the Court: Do you know that An built 
a school at Pyong-yang ?— Yes, I v.-as told 
of it at the time it was built, and gave 
¥3,000 towards the cost of construction. 

It could not have been an ordinary- 
relation which existed between you and 
An; there must have been some special 
connection. — No. I met him about four 
years ago, just at the time I was about 
to close my own school. Being told of 
his attempt to build a school, I gave him 
the amount just mentioned. 

Was it from this connection that you 
were led to join the New People's 
Society, one of the organisers of which 
was An ? — It was. 

Were you the local leader at Chul San, 
or were you only managing the accounts 
of the branch ? — Neither. 

Do you know that the object of Mie 
Society was to build a military school. 

[ 42 1 

to assassinate high officials, to wage a 
■war to establish the independence of 
Korea it war broke out with America 
or China ? — I did not know anything ot 
the kind. 

In August 1910 did Kim Il-Chom and 
Yi Yong-hyok call at your house to dis- 
cuss the coming visit of the Gov >i-nor- 
General, and plans for attempting his as- 
sassination at certain railway-stations '! 
— I never had a glimpse of those msn 
at that time. 

As a result of that conference, you 
■went to Sycn Chuen with these men to 
collect revolvers to arm the assassins. 
You first got a revolver from Choi Tok- 
yun, and then you gave another man 
¥400 and sent him up to Antung to 
buy a number of revolvers: — This is ab- 
solutely untrue. 

You ■ivcnt to Syen Chuen station on 
September 15th and again on October 
10th, 1910, and on each occasion found 
that you had been misled by a false re- 
port. On November 27th you went to 
("haryon-kwan with a party of men, but 
as the Governor-General did not leave 
his car, you pursued him to New Wiju. 
— I did not go to New Wiju at that time. 


At New Wiju the Governor-General re- 
mained in his car all night, and you and 
your party kept watch all round the 
train during the night in the hope of 
getting an oportunity to shoot him. 
You went away in the earlj- hours i-f 
the morning, and returned to the station 
about six o'clock. The Governor-General 
went for a drive through New Wiju. and 
both going and returning you tried to 
kill him, but failed owing to the strict 
guard that was kept. — 1 did not go to 
Is'ew Wiju. 

Did Lyu Tong-sol call on you in Octo 
ber last ? — Yes, and he stayed for a night 
in my house. 

And what conversation did you have 
together ? — l^yu told me that he was 
organising an industrial company and 
asked me to take some shares. He said 
ho had official permission to establish 
the concern. 

You surely had some further talk to- 
gether ? Lyu told you that It was a 
great pity that the conspirators had 
made so many fruitless attempts to 
carry out their plans, but said another 
opportunity would present Itself when 
the Governor-General went to the Yalu 
bridge. You had a long talk ovi'r tlif 

matter -with Baron Yun and others at 
Seoul, and you all agreed that you should 
do your best not to lose this next oppor- 
tunity. Do you remember this ? — 1 do 
not. I never had any such conversation. 

You say so now because you have been 
asked to deny it by Lyu, have you not ? 

Did you not try to kill the Governor- 
General at Charyon-kwan on October 
31st and November 1st and 2nd, and 
I having missed him, followed by the 
next train ? — No. 

You deny everything, but you did the 
same thing when r'rlnce Ito made his 
tour of Inspection through the country. 
You pursued the Prince as far as Wiju, 
and there is evidence here to prove it. 
j — I did not. 

i Yi Keui-tang, aged 37, was the next 
man to be examined. He said he joined 
the New People's Society five years ago. 
.•\ man named Chong went to him and 
invited him to join, explaining that the 
Society was intended to promote science, 
industry, and other modern knowledge 
among the Koreans. Accused thereupon 
said he endorsed the objects of the So- 
ciety, and accordingly joined. Had h»? 
known that the Society had<is its " real ' 
object — as stated by the Court — the as- 
sassination of prominent officials, he 
would not have joint d. He had " con- 
fessed " to the police that he did know 
this, and he had also admitted being con- 
cerned in the conspiracy. 

By the Court: You remember stating 
at the police headquarters and at th-' 
Procurator's Office that you had pur- 
chased twelve revolvers ? — Yes. but 1 
was suffering from severe brain trouble 
I when I was examined by the police, 
{ and I thought that as I was suftering 
severe pain it would be best for me to 
admit all the questions put to mo by the 
authorities, so that I should not be kept 
under examination any longer. I made 
the same statement to the Procurator 
for similar reasons. 

Did Yang Chom-mlung come to you 
about October 10th. 1910. and tell you the 
Governor-General was coming, and yDU 
and others went to New Wiju to attack 
him. but found the report was wong? — 
I know nothing of such an incident. 

Accused also denied any knowledge 
of a Korean barrister named An being 
concerned In the plot. 

By the Court :^-<3n October nist, 1910. 
the Governor-General was at Wiju, an^l 
you and your party were also there, all 

[ 43 ] 

armed with revolvers. The General leti 
his car and passed you and the others 
at a distance of about 15 paces, but you 
were suddenly overcome with tear, ami 
dared not shoot— I admitted this at the 
police station, but it is not true. I al3> 
admitted having been with others at the 
station on four other occasions, and bt 
ine unable each time to carry out our 
plans, but this is also untrue. 

A Prisoner who was not Tortueed. 

You also admitted having made six 
attempts on the Governor General whil > 
on his way to and from the Yalu. — I was 
quite ill at the time, and could not stand 
the examination. It was in order to re 
lieve my feeble self of the strain of the 
severe examination that I had tu admit 
these statements. I do not mean, how 
ever, that I was put to torture. 

You cannot make such an excuse as 
that. You were the first man to be ex 
amined among those from Wiju. — I am 
quite ready to be convicted for what i 
said I did. 

Did you not really attempt to assas- 
sinate the Governor-General? — I cr\n oniy 
leave my case to the judgement of this 

It will he to your advantage to speak 
openly regarding all the facts connected 
with this case. Practically all those who 
have so far been examined have said that 
they were beaten, tortured, or hung up, 
and that they " died three times "' and 
so on; only you have denied being sub- 
jected to any such treatment. We be- 
lieve you are a man of good understand- 
ing. Come now, freely unbosom your 
self. — I was sick when I was questioned, 
and really could not bear a long examina- 
tion. I thought it would be difficult to 
get through the inquiry by simply deny 
ing the charges, so I decided to give a 
made-up story. 

Do you think that you can get off safe- 
ly by making a mere denial here in open 
Court? — I have already said that I aii' 
only awaiting the Court's decision. I am 
a man of little knowledge, but I wanted 
to help establish a school. How couie 
1 Stfempt to assassinate a man ? 

We are afraid that people will say th< 
men from Wiju are lacking In courage. 
You had much better disclose your 
thoughts. If you tell us all about the 
affair, no man will dare blame you. — I 
have a mind to do what I can for the 
sake of the land of my fathers, but I 

have never had the slightest desire or 
inclination to kill a man. 

The examination of this prisoner bs- 
ing concluded the Court adjourned. 




Seoui,, July 9. 
Yesterday's proceedings in Court were 
rather more interesting than the previous 
few days. Practically the whole of the 
morning was taken up by the examina- 
tion of a young Korean teacher whose 
school was described by the Judge as 
a " devil's den, " but subsequently turned 
out to be subsidised b.,' the Government- 
General and officially recognised as doini» 
vork in bringing about better retations 
between Japanese and Koreans. Some 
remarkable allegations were again mad^ 
>■> the Court in regard to the actions 
of certain missionaries, who, if the 
" evidence " in the hands of the Court 
is worth anything at all, are guilty of 
encouraging, condoning, and actively as- 
sisting the carrying out of the " plot." 
As usual, however, the accused denied 
that the " confessions " made to this 
ettect were true, and the complaints of 
torture were again repeated. 

The first person to be examined yes- 
terday was Paik Yong-sok, aged 34. who 
said his statement to the police that 
he had been a member of the New 
People's Society for six years was wrong. 
The usual questions regarding various 
visits to railway stations were put, and 
denied; accused said that on the day he 
v/ns alleged to have gone to New Wiju 
he was at an athletic meeting at the 
Yangsil school. The examination was 
concluded as follows: — 

By the Court: Is it true that you 
prowled about after the Governor- 
General on several occasions between 
October and November last year ? — No. 

You confessed all this at the Procura- 
tor's Office; why do you deny it all to- 
day ? — I did not admit these statements 
as facts; I simply said that I had as- 
sented to them at the police headquar- 
ters, thinking that I could tell the truth 
about the matter in this open Court. 

[ 41 ] 

Another Pastob'8 Evidence. 

Another Christian pastor of New Wlju, 
named Kim Chang-kyon, aged 41, was 
iKxt examined. He said he was tho 
Bub-principal of the Yangsil school, ol 
■which Mr. \Vhitt'?more, a foreign mis- 
sionary, was principal. Having uenied 
being a member of the New Peoples, 
Society, the Court asked him whether 
he had not frequently discussed plans 
for the assassination of the Governor- 
General with other members of the i5o- 
ciety. Accused denied having done any 
euoh thing, and said that if he had he 
vould have to answer to his Heavenly 
I'ather for it. 

By the Court: You are mentioned in 
the records as having gone to . Syen 
Chuen on September 15th and October 
iOth with other men, all of you being 
. armed with revolvers. Is this true '! — 
No. are not true statements. 

You also proceeded to the railway 
station on November 27th and 2Mh; is 
that so ? — No. I did not even hear of 
the Governor-Geueral's visit at that time. 

You and your party were all ready 
to attack Count Terauchi, but owing to 
the strict guard kept you were unable 
to carry out your plan. Is thai so ? — 
No. The Heavenly Father knows it 

How could the Heavenly Father know 
tuch things ? — Accused made no reply. 

Asked whether he had kept rovolvers 
at Yangsil school, accused said it was 
Impossible, adding that if the charge 
were true, he would be willing to be 
punished for it twice, since he had other 
persons under his charge, and should 
set them an example. 

The Court pointed out that Paik Yong- 
8ok and Yt Keul-tang had given evi- 
dence against accused, to which he re- 
rlied that they may have given false 
evidence as the result of torture. 

By the Court: On November 26 a report 
•was received by you at New Wiju stat- 
ing that the Governor-General was com- 
ing next day. You were worried be- 
cause you had not hoard the news from 
Syon Chuen, so you discussed the matter 
wlth the local members of the secret 
pcclety. Is that so ? — I did not even the Govt rnor-General was coming. 

You subsequently got word from Syen 
Chuen of the Count's coming, and so 
you took the revolvers from the school, 
wherf" tlrey had been concealed, and 
started for New Wlju station. — It Is not 
true. I denied this statement at the 
police station, and the police then beat 

me on the chest. I became frightened, 
and told the story that I made up my- 
self to escape further ill-treatment. 

Were you not once examined by the 
Procurator together with Palk ?— Yes. 

What was said to you on that occa- 
sion ? — I was told to make tho same 
statement as that made at the police 
station. I said the Heavenly Father 
v.ould punish me if I did, whereupon 
the police said they would sena me back 
to the police headquarters. At this 
threat I became frightened, and acknow- 
ledged what I had said before. 

We did not expect to hear such foolish 
excuses from you. If you tell lies for 
such reasons, your Heavenly Father will 
surely punish you. — I should have been 
already punished by Him if I deliberately 
told a lie. And even if the Court de- 
cide against me because it thinks I am 
telling a lie, I trust our Heavenly Father 
will not do the same. 

In conclusion, accused denied the truth 
of the evidence said to have been givea 
ugainst him, urging that it must have 
I)een obtained from the other accused by 

An Kwang-ho, aged 26, a school- 
teacher, said he was not a member of 
the New People s Society, and had never 
heard of a man coming over to his vil- 
lage to give warning of the approaching 
visit of the Governor-General about 
.\ugust 1910. 

Ey the Court: How is It possible for 
you not to know about such a thing? 
Have you ever been to Syen Chuen, and 
do you know where it is ? — I have heard 
of it, but have never been there. It is 
about 120 miles south-east of my village. 

In reply to other questions, accusea 
said that he did not know any man 
who had brought back 15 revolvers from 
Syen Chuen, but he had told the police 
that he did know the man, and he gave 
at random the names of a number of his 
friends as being fellow conspirators. He 
did this simply to avoid further torture. 
A whole series of alleged " confessions ' 
were denied by accused, who said they 
were fabricated stories admitted by hlni 
merely to escape further torture. 

By the Court: When the members of 
the secret society were gradually being 
iirrcsted by the police, did you take a 
number of revolvers to an American 
named Ross, and ask hira to mind them 
si< that they would escape the ofDcials T 
—If such a statement Is entered on the 
police record of my evidence. It is not 
properly represented. The officers con- 

[ -15 ] 


ducting my examination would not listen 
to my explanations, so I asked if I couUi 
say that I had entrusted the firearms tj 
the foreigner, and I was told I could 

Accused went on to deny having gone 
to New Wiju station with a revolver, al 
though evidence to this effect had been 
given. Such evidence, he said, must 
have been given under torture. 

By the Court: Did you hear what Yi 
Keui-tang said in this Court the day be- 
fore yesterday ? Did he say that he ha.l 
been subjected to torture ? — No, but Yi 
is assuredly crazy. 

The next prisoner to be examined was 
Song Cha-hyong, aged 33, who said he was 
once convicted for rioting and sentenced 
to a year's imprisonment, but was sub- 
sequently released from prison. Tho 
customary questions regarding com 
plicity in the " plot "' were put by th-:; 
Court and denied by accused, who said 
he had to admit these statements at the 
liolice station. He admitted having gone 
to New Wiju station in October last year 
when the Governor-General passed 
through, but he went to welcome him. 
If he had had any intention of assas- 
sinating the Governor-General, he would 
be prepared for sentence of death. 

By the Court: You went to the station 
ostensibly to welcome the Count, but 
you really intended to kill him. — No; 
I am innocent of any such intention. 
When I read of the arrest of a number 
c*" men on a charge of conspiracy, I wept 

A teacher from the Taisong school, 
Pyong-yang, named Chang Ung-chin, ageJ 
25, was next examined in Japanese, 
which he spoke with remarkable ease 
r.nd accuracy. He said he belonged to 
ihe Congregational Church, and not the 
Presbyterian Church, to which most of 
the other accused belong. Accused said 
he went to Japan in 190S, and studied 
in two schools in Tokyo. Then he went 
1o America, where he stayed for about 
eighteen months, returning to Tokyo 
and entering the Higher Normal School, 
graduating in 1910. He returned to 
Korea in August and joined the Taisong 
school as a teacher, obtaining this post 
on the recommendation of An Chang ho. 
The last-named gave him ¥300 for travel- 
ling expenses when he returned to Korea 
from Tokyo. Accused said he was in 
receipt of a monthly salary of ¥60 at the 
school. He did not know that An was 
a great politician, and had built the 
Taisong school and one other school. 
There was a body organised by the tea- 
others and students of the Taisong schoo; 

called the Young Mens Companionahip 
Society, the object of which was to 
encourage the pursuit of atudy. Accused 
liirt not know whether this was reuJly 
ii political body liaving as its object tlie 
retovery of national rijjhts, the assaa- 
siuation of officials, and r.o ou. About 
Ine time of his leturn to Korea ho heard 
of the attack upon Yi Wan-yong, who 
was stabbed in Seoul, but he denied that 
An Changho had told him that Yis as- 
sailant was a man connected wUh nis 
(accused's) school. 

By the Court: How did those at youf 
school behave at the time of the annexa- 
tion?— I did not notici^ any di.ferenoe 
whatever. Neither the teachers or stu- 
dents displayed any change. 

In reply to a further question, accus- 
ed said there was a tinge of anti Japan- 
ese sentiment at the school. 

By the Court: We regard you as a 
;:'.^ntleman, and trust you to tell us 
everything openly. Now, did you not 
hear of a meeting at which speeches 
were made opposing the annexation, and 
did you not see An Tai-kuk among the 
party? — I said so at the police station, 
but it is untrue. I admit, however, 
that An was one of our school council- 

The Allegations against Mission abies. 

Did you not say at the police station 
that Baron Tun, addressing those pre- 
sent, said that the Koreans could not sub- 
mit in this way to Japan, and that meet- 
ings of members of the Society should 
he called and speeches made expressing 
tlieir real thoughts? You then advised 
Baron Yun not to proceed in that way, 
but to work 'secretly, slowly, but stead- 
ily. The meeting then became excited 
owing to the division of opinion, some 
being in favour of Immediate action, and 
others approving your slow but steady 
policy. Some of those present were talk- 
ing angrily, others were weeping sadly, 
rnd others laughing violently. It was 
then proposed by someone that the for- 
eigners residing in the locality should 
he consulted, and a committee was ar- 
rnrdingly appointed for this purpose. 
I They subsequently called upon the for- 
eigners, who told them that it was uu- 
advisable to do anj'thing openly, and ad- 
vised the deputation to tell the members 
that thpy should openly appear to quiet- 
ly submit to Japan's authority, but they 
should secretly go to work to devise a 
rlan to make a stand against it. The 
foreigners also suggested getting advice 

[ 46 ] 

from Baron Yun and Yang Ki-tak at 
SfouI. which suggestion was acted upon. 
An Tai kuk went up to the capital and 
learned that Baron Yun and Yang Kl- 
tak wefe of the same opinion as the 
loreigners. It was decided that the 
leaders of the New People's Society 
should frame a scheme to bring about 
tht desired end, and communicate it to 
the local branches. A Korean employed 
ai the police headquarters was to keep 
the con.spirators informed if any steps 
^^ere to be taken by the police. Do you 
know all these facts ? 

Accused: I had to acknowledge them 
when examined at the police headquar- 

In August 1910 Yl Chong-soon came 
to I'yong-yang from Seoul on behalf oi 
Baron Yun, as a result of which journey 
An Tai kuk and Yi Seung-hun went to 
Seoul to consult Baron Yun and Yang 
Ki-tak on the steps to be taken to carry 
out the Society's intentions. After these 
men returned to Pyongyang it becanip 
known that the Governor General was 
ccming on a tour of inspection, and It 
•was decided to assassinate him at one 
»if the railway stations. You told the 
police during your examination that 
Baron Yun and Yang Ki-lak had given 
orders for the assassination to be effect- 
ed, and they also told you to talk the 
matter over with the foreigners in your 
district. It was found impracticable to 
irake arrangements for the attack to be 
inade at Pyongyang, owing to the large 
number of soldiers there, so it was de- 
cided that Syen Ch\ien should be selert 
ed as a suitable place to make the at- 
tempt on the Governor-General. An an.l 
\l accordingly went to Syen Chuen, and 
vou remained at Pyong-yang with a 
number of men to make another attack 
If that at Syen Chuen failed. You con- 
sulted the foreigners about this plan, 
and they approved It, and offered to 
undertake the task of spreading the 
ftews when the plot was successfully 
<prried out. Do you remember this? — 
Ko, I do not. 

So you. together with O Tai-v.T ;' 
started to collect revolvers, and purchas- 
ed a number from Antung.— I know 
nothing of any such Incident. 

The Court then reviewed at great 
length the alleged plans made for at- 
tacks on the Governor Goncral in Sep- 
teniber, October, and November, and 
ji'-oceedcd: — 

The foreigners Moffett, Wells, and Wil- 
liams were communicated with In con- 

uection with the plans, and in response 
went themselves to the local headquar- 
ters of the New People's Society, where 
they addressed the members and said 
tiiat they should be easily able to ac- 
complish their object, and that they 
(the toreigners) would protect them 
as far as possible. The foreigners said: 
■■ Surely young men should have un- 
conquerable spirits." Do you know all 
these facts? — I do not. I did not com 
n.unicate with the foreigners at Pyong- 
yang, nor did I see foreigners at th": 
Taisong school or anywhere else, urg- 
ing people to carry out the conspiracy. 

The Lourt gave a very circumstantial 
account of accused's alleged movements 
la connection with the alleged attempt 
en the Governor-General, when no maa 
dared to be the first to fire, all of which 
allegations accused denied. The Court 
proceeded: — 

You ordered your party to assemble 
that evening at the Taison School, 
V lien you expressed your dissatisfaction 
at their failure to execute the assassina- 
tion. Then came .Mofteti, who ridiculef* 
you all, and said the Koreans were men 
tjt weak minds. It was then decided to 
make another attempt the next day. — I 
know nothing about all this. 1 did not 
KO to the railway station that day. Even 
it I had a mind to assassinate the Gov- 
ernor-General. 1 would nsver allow 
young students to take part In any such 

You then decided to make another 
attempt ^vhen an opportunity ollere'l, 
and put the revolvers in a box and stor- 
ed them in your school. — No; I did not. 

In reply to further questions, accusJd 
denied having entrusted the box of re- 
volvers to foreigners in order to escape 
c'election by the police, nor did he give 
the box to anyone else. He denied bay* 
int handled a box of revolvers at alt. 

The Court remarked that accused had 
admitted all these statements at the 
police headquarters and before the Pro- 
curator, to which he replied that he 
wanted to get the examination over as 
quickly as possible as he was In pour 
h'"alth, and said " Yes " to every ques- 
tion put to him, although he knew the 
statements admitted were untrue. 

By the Court: Look here; you are a 
graduate of a Higher Normal School, is 
I it possible that a man like you could 
I have admitted by simply saying "Yes 
I all these statements which you now say 
I you know nothing about?— There Is no 
! help for it. I am willing to be con\*ict- 

[ 47 ] 

ed for what I have said, but I meant t"^ 
explain the real circumstances In tills 
open Court. This I have done, and 1 
now only await judgement. 

Is it not because you are misunder- 
Biood that you now deny what you have 
already admitted? There is nothing lo 
be ashamed of in admitting the wnole 
facts now, in the presence of your com- 
rades, of whom you are a leader. Como 
on, my man I — That is not my reason 
for now denying what I said. 

Do you then mean that you want lo 
save your subordinates by denying what 
you have already said? — Xo, that is not 
the case either. 

Judge's Denunciatory Remakks about a 

Is it not reasonable, then, to conclude 
that you are a man without sense al- 
though you are the head teacher of the 
Taisong School, of which An Taikuk Is 
a councillor? The school itself is a 
devil's den. — That is not so; at least, 
since I went there I have tried to work 
it on proper and peaceful lines. 

Did you not g'.ve way to the general 
influence at the school and agree to the 
conspiracy? Indeed, a man could not be 
blamed for doing so, m tne circum. 
stances. — No, I did not. 

You, whose scholastic career has been 
above the ordinary, have already ad- 
mitted this at the police headquarters and 
at the Procurator's OfBce. We cannot 
believe that you made these statements 
in the circumstances mentioned. More- 
over, some of the accused have given 
evidence that you are the local leader 
of the party at Pyong-yang. — I have 
never admitted this. 

Educated man though you are, you 
are still ignorant of the affairs of tne 
world, and you were put up by those be- 
hind you to agree to the conspiracy. It 
is not altogether a bad thing to be at 
the head of a party. You are certainly 
well up in modern knowledge, but Aa 
ls~ceftainly better posted on worldly mat- 
ters. — During my examination I was 
sometimes subjected to torture. I could 
pass through the police examination by 
mere explanation and denial, but I could 
not confess to things with which I had no- 
thing to do. If I made all the statements 
■which the Court now says I did, I must 
have been under a delusion, but I assure 
the Court that never have I had such 
dangerous thoughts as have been at- 
tributed to me. 

DEKEXCE Cor.VSKI. I.nterpolates. 

Mr. Takahashi, one of the counsel for 
the defence, here rose and begged leave 
to make a statement. Counsel said 
that, as the Court was aware, ac- 
cused was a teacher at the Taisong 
school (which the judge had de- 
scribed as a "devil's den"). Now, the 
work undertaken by this school — at tao 
sr.ggestion of an official in the Govern- 
ment-General and another Japanese 
living at Pyong-yang — was to Japonis-J 
the Koreans living in the district. This 
work has already been started, and the 
school is in receipt of a subsidy from 
the Government-General for that reason. 
Accused was engaged in this work up to 
the time he was arrested. As a matter 
of fact, he was not at all anti-Japanese, 
but was trying hard to exert his in- 
fluence to bring the Koreans round to 
accept the new order of things and be- 
come amenable to Japanese influence. 

The Presiding Judge (to accused):^ 
IS this true? 

Accused: — Yes. The Japanese gentle- 
men mentioned are Mr. Kawakami Ta- 
dakichi, who was Chief Clerk at the 
Pyongyang Appeal Court, and Mr. Watase 
Tsunekichi, the pastor of a church in 
Seoul. We have discussed this v/orX 
together at the school. 

When d'd you start on this ontf^rprise? 
— The work was started about January 

Counsel for the defence resumed hla 
statement. He said the accused was a 
man who understood fairly well the 
seneral trend of the times, and it wag 
his view that it was very hard work to 
ac'.opt the Japonising policy for dealing 
with Koreans who held very extreme 
views. He considered that these people 
could not be dissuaded from their 
opinions by ordinary means. He re- 
cognised that the present action was ;i 
phenomenon which proved this, and was 
an administiative necessity. He there- 
fore decided that it was advisable to get 
the case over as soon as possible so tar 
as he was concerned, and it was for this 
reason that he agreed to everything that 
was put to him by the authorities. 

The Judge (to accused): — Was that 
so? — Yes. 

This concluded the examination of >.h6 
accused, and the Court proceeded to 
question O Tai-yung, who said he had 
been to America, and returned to Korea 
about six years ago. He was then 10, 
and entered the Taisong School as a 
student. He remembered a school athle- 

[ -J-"^ ] 

tic meeting being held Just outside 
Pyong yang, but did not icnow that I3aroii 
Yuu had made a speech urging the as 
sassination of Count Vi Wan-yong. He 
reiiieii.biired An Tai-liuk being arrested 
at the time the Count was attaclied by 
Yi Chai-myong, but did not know the 
reason, nor did he know whether a meet- 
ing was held at Pyong-yang to celebrate 
Aus release. 

By the Court: At that meeting An 
made a speech in which he said he haa 
refused to confess anything, so had b^eu 
released. He spoke boastfully, and tola 
those present that if ever they were ar- 
rested, they should retuse to confess any- 
thing, which was the only way to escape 
getting into trouble. Do you know tUisV 
— I have never heard of it. 

When the annexation was declared In 
August 1910 there was a largo meet- 
ing held at the Taisong school, when ii 
was agreed to assassinate high otIiciaL> 
on instructions from the leaders lo 
Seoul. You and others went to the rail- 
way station on August 2uth, September 
15th, and October 2011) with the objeci 
of attacking the Governor-General. — 1 
know nothing of all this. I was not lu 
Pyong-yang on these occasions. 

Accused also denied having gone lo 
the railway station on November 2Tth, 
nor was he concerned at any time in 
any plot to kill the Governor General. 

With the conclusion of this prisoner's 
examination, the Court adjourned toe 

The examination was resumed after 
tiffin, the first prisoner to be called up 
being Pyen Insyo, a teacher, aged 111. He 
said the principal of his school, which was 
at Pyong yang, was Mr. \V. N.' Blair, an 
American missionary. There was a so- 
rif-ty at the school, the object of which 
was to assist the poorer members of the 
school with their expenses for tuition. 
This society nothing to do with the 
New Peoplp's Society, nor was accused a 
member of the latter organisation. 

By 111" Court: Do you know the objects 
of tiv Niw People's Society?— No 

Yes, you do; you know its objects very 
well. It is to assassinate high oflJcials. 
The headquarters of the Society are at 
San Francisco, where it publishes two 
newspapers. There Is another organ of 
the party published in Hawaii, while the 
Society iias a branch at Vladivostok. In 
Korea the affairs of the Society have been 
7nanaged by Baron Yun, Yang Ki-tak, An 
Talkuk, and Kel Chiii-hyong. You were 
the man in charge of the branch at Pyong- 

yang. You know all this, do you not? — 
.Vo; I know nothing about the matters 

Did you not yourself make these state- 
ments at the police station?— Yes, but that 
was because I was put to torture. At the 
Procurator's Office 1 at first denied those 
statements, but as the officials told me I 
should be sent back to the police head- 
quarters, I was obliged to again admit 
these false statements. 
I Are we expected to believe such stories 
I as that from the lips of a Middle School 
j leacher?— But it is the truth. 
I About October 1910 a message was sent 
j to you from Baron Yun, stating that the 
I jOvernor-General was due to reach Pyong- 
' yang on the 2Sth of that month, and that 
i your party should kill him on arrival. 
.Accordingly you and your party went to 
the station armed with revolvers, pre- 
pared to kill the Governor-General. Is 
that so? — No, it is not true. 

On the 11th of the same month a mes- 
sage was received at the Taikeuk Soh- 
kwan, a book store in Pyong-yang. an- 
nouncing the coming of the Governor- 
General. At the request of your fellow- 
members of the Society, you went to your 
principal (Mr. Blair) and disclosed your 
plans, and he told you to carry them out 
and to be careful not to be detected. — No; 
that is not true. Our principal Is also a 
pastor, and could not have done such a 
thing as that. 

You then held another meeting, at 
which a foreigner was present. Reports 
I from Seoul regarding Count Terauchi's 
movements were discussed, and a Korean 
police-oflflcer said the Governor-General 
would arrive on the 27th. Some men 
went to Syen Chuen, but you and others 
remained at Pyong-yang. You distributed 
revolvers among the party, but when you- 
1 went to the station you found that the 
report sent you was false. — I know no- 
thing of all this. 

You went again to the station, and this 
time the Governor-General arrived. He 
went by carriage to the Kulyan Club, and 
you weri- ready to shoot him but the 
guard kept was too strict. You and your 
followers met that night at the Taisong 
School and discussed your plans, and on 
the following 29th again went to the sta- 
tion, but again the guard was too strict. — 
I never mot anyone to discuss such a 
scheme, nor did 1 once go to the railway 

A number of other similar allegations 
were made by the Court, and were all 

[ 49 ] 

denied by accused, who said tlie state- 
ments he had made to the police were 
forced from hiri by torture. The Court 
then showed accused three small note- 
books, which he admitted were his. 

" D.\NGERous Thoughts "' i.v Notebook,?. 

The Court then read a number of 
phrases from these notebooks, o£ which 
the following are examples: — " Remem- 
ber, you 20 million brethren of mine, this 
is our country, which our forefathers 
built up by their sweat and blood. 
Hurrah for the great Han Empire!" "Ye 
sons of Korea, forward with the national 
flag, and save ai.d protect 20 millions ol 
your brethren. Ponder upon the fate of 
Poland! The ruin of our country is the 
end of our existence." 

By the Court: You noted such phrases 
as these in your notebooks, and taught 
them to your young students. It is not 
surprising, therefore, that you should 
have been engaged in a scheme for as- 
sassinating the Governor-General. — The 
phrases written by me are what every- 
body knows. They are popular songs, i 
had them copied because students are 
fond of these songs. By writing them 
in my notebooks I had no special meaniuf; 
to express. 

Shown by the Court a postcard ad- 
dressed by accused to a friend of his, and 
on which was written a passage stating 
that the spirit of the sun [the original 
character for which is frequentlj' used as 
an abbreviation for Japan! was very 
severe, and could not be likened tn any- 
thing, accused said this merely meant 
that the weather was very hot. 

By the Court: The card was written In 
the winter. Do you mean to say that it 
was very hot in winter ? — But I meant 
nothing else than that. 

Anothfr Teacher's Denials. 

Cha Lisuk, aged .32, a teacher at the 
Taisong School, Pyong-yang, was next ex- 
amined. He said lie was a member of the 
New People's Society, but it was not true 
that the objects of this Society were to 
assassinate prominent persons, establish 
a military school, and so on. He had 
" confessed " this at the police head- 
quarters " under pressure." Accused 
denied having pursued Prince Ito, when 
he made a tour of inspection, with the 
object of killing him. 

By the Court : You went to the Tai- 
keuk Sohkwan book-store and suggested 

the murder of Count Yl Wan-yong, did you 
not ?— No. Moreover, the book-store is in 
the main street of Pyong-yang, and hardly 
the place to discuss matters like assassi- 

Have you on several occasions at- 
tempted to assassinate Count Terauchi' 

Have you ever discussed the conspiracy 
with Baird. Williams, and a few other 
foreigners? — No. 

About October you consulted Mr. Moftett 
about the proposed assassination, and you 
tried to attack the Governor-General on 
three occasions, did you not? — I was away 
from P.vong-yang at the time, and there- 
fore could not have done so. I had to 
admit all this to the police, however, be- 
cause I was " severely rebuked." 

When some of your party began to be 
arrested for being concerned in the con- 
spiracy, you thought it would be better 
to have the revolvers concealed in the 
houses occupied by foreigners, so von 
packed the weapons in orange-boxes, and 
through certain other men these boxes 
were entrusted for safe keeping to Messrs. 
Moffett, Graham Lee, and Baird. — I sim- 
ply acknowledged this when asked the 
question; what I said then is not true. 

An Escape from the Police. 

Didn't you once escape from the police, 
and were you not re-arrested? Why did 
you run away ? — I got frightened at being 
asked questions about things of which X 
knew absolutely nothing and I determined 
to escape from the police and commit sui- 

Did you not run away because you got 
frightened at the thought of being pressed 
to give the real facts, and you knew that 
if you did the matter would become very 
serious? — No; that was not the reason. 

There is no reason why a Middle School 
teacher should have said what he did not 
mean simply because he was scared by 
the police. — I have not before had the op- 
portunity of speaking fully as I can now 
in this open Court. My only hope now is 
that the Court will understand my posi- 

Korean Pastob's Evidencb. 

La Il-pong, aged 42, pastor of a church 
at Pyong-yang, said he had been a teacher 
at the Taipong school. He had joined 
the New People's Society on the sugges- 
tion of An Chang-ho, but he could not 
remember the date. The object of the 
Society was to promote education and eu- 

L 50 ] 

courage Industry among the Korean pei- 
pie. He knew of no amendment to those ob- 
jects. Accused denied having gone to the 
railway-station on various dates with the 
Intention of killing the Governor-General. 
The statement made by him to the police 
that he was locked up in the third-class 
waiting-room when waiting for the Go- 
vernor-General was not true, and was 
made under torture tfy the police. It was 
also untrue that he had attempted to kill 
the Governor-General as he passed near 
a police-box; this " corfession " was made 
because accused was submitted to unbear- 
able torture. It was not true that as- 
cuscd had given the boxes of revolvers to 
foreigners to mind, but he had " con- 
fessed " this at the police station because 
he feared he would be killed if he did not. 
Ok Sung-pin, aged 28, and Suh Kuc- 
pung, aged 31, were examined, and denied 
all knowledge of any conspiracy. Yun 
Wansam. aged 26, a graduate of Sung-sil 
Bchool, Pyongyang, of which Mr. Kaird 
is principal, said he knew nothing about 
any meeting of conspirators at the Tai- 
Bong school, nor of Mr. Baird having ex- 
pressed himself in favour of the plan tor 
assassinating the Governor-General dur- 
ing his tour. Neither did he know that 
Daron Yun had approved the oi)iiiion i^x- 
pressed by Mr. Baird. After some fur- 
ther questions of minor importance, the 
proceedings were adjourned. 




Seoul. July 10. 
Yesterday was the ninth day of the 
proceedings in the " conspiracy " trial, 
and the Court again endeavoured to show 
that the foreign missionaries acted b.'i \ 
advisers to the " conspirators," encourag- 
ed them to carry out their alleged plana, 
approved the arrangements alleged to 
have been made for assassinating the 
Governor General, and expressed satis- 
faction that such a plot was to be carried 
out. As usual, however, the accused 
firmly denied the Court's allegations, and 
said that the "confessions" were merely 
expressions of acquiescence with tl'.e 
questions put by the police authorities 
There was a large attendance oi specca 
tors In Court yesterday. Including about 

seventeen foreigners, three of whom 
were ladies. 

Before the proceedings proper were 
opened, those of the accused who wish id 
to consult their counsel were taken from 
the main Court room in which the trial 
is being held to another spt^cial Court 
close by. Although it only takes abcut 
two minutes to go from one Court to tUo 
other, those of the accused who went to 
see their counsel were first put into irons 
again and had their faces covered wira 
the straw-hats which used to be frequent- 
ly seen in .Tapan when criminals were 
taken through the streets. Thus mana- 
cled and hooded, they were taken to dis- 
cuss their defence with counsel, and it 
may be noted that the conversation pas- 
sing between counsel and their clients 
was carried on in the presence of a 
Court clerk. 

Yi Tak-whan, aged 36, was first called 
up for examination. In reply to questions, 
he said he was agked to join the \cw 
People's Society by a man named HoKg, 
and afterwards by An Chang-ho, but he 
did not do so. At the police headquar. 
ters, however, in order to escape further 
torture, he " confessed " that he was a 
member of the council of the Society. 
and was in charge of a local brand). 
These statements, he now declared, were 
pure fabrications. He had also " con- 
fessed " that Baron Yun was the head 
of the organisation, and that Lyu Tong- 
sol was the second in command, but 
these statements were also untrue. Klg 
" confession " that he had attempted to 
send men to Japan to assassinate high 
officials of the Government, includin.^ 
Prince Katsura and Prince Yamagata. 
was also false. Neither did he plot 
against the life of Prince Ito, when as 
Resident-General he made a tour through 
Korea. Accused denied acquaintance- 
ship with a man named Kim, employed 
as an accountant in the office of the Tai 
linn Mfii-il Shinpo (a Korean journal 
formerly owned by the late Mr. E. T. 
Bethell), and he denied that Kim, actln? 
as a messenger for Baron Yun. had In- 
structed accused to kill Prince Ito at 

By the Court: Do you know thr.t later 
on Baron Yun himself came to Pyong- 
yang and expr^sed the opinion that 
conditions In Korea were getting worse, 
and that as Count Yl 'Wan-yong, the 
Korean Premier, was responsible ro» 
this state of affairs, his life should pay 
forfeit? Baron Yun then suggested that 
you should form a " dareto-die " party 

[ 51 ] 

to carry out the assassination of Couui 
Yi ? — I knovr nothing about it. I was 
never spoken to by anyone about such 
a thing. 

But you gave evidence that you were 
one of those present at the meeting an'.- 
dressed by Baron Yun. — I never had any- 
thing to do with such a scheme. 

Yl Chai-myong subsequently attacked 
Count Yi, and was arrested. An Tal kuk 
was also arrested on a charge of bein.:; 
concerned in the plot. Upon An Taikuk 
returning home after his release froTi 
jail. An told his friends that he was re 
leased because he had persisted in deny- 
ing everything the authorities aske-J 
him. — I never heard anything of the kind 
from An. 

What were your feelings at the time 
of the annexation ? — I had no particular 
feelings about the matter. 

You held a meeting to consider the 
' question. There were some who held 
the opinion that the Koreans should ex- 
press their opposition to the politicaJ 
change by making speeches and public 
demonstrations, as otherwise tho worl.l 
might think that the Koreans were 
satisfied with the changed condition of 
affairs. Others were of opinion that to 
make such demonstrations was iuad- 
visable in the circumstances, and urgeu 
that it would be better to work secretlv 
against Japan. Is that so ? — I heard of 
this for the -first time at the police head- 
quarters, but was forced by torture to 
admit that I knew the alleged facts. 

Conspirators' Foreign Ad\isees. 

It was then agreed by the meeting 
that the question should be suDmitiea to 
the foreigners who acted as advisers for 
their consideration. You and two otheis 
were appointed to bring the matter to 
the notice of certain foreigners, including 
J. H. Wells, W. N. Blair, Graham Lee, 
E. M. Manly (?), W. L. Swallen, W. M. 
Baird, and J. G. Holdcroft.— All this is 
absolutely new to me. 

But you admitted all this at the police 
headquarters, did you not ? — I simply ac- 
knowledged the questions put to me. 

There was no possibility of the au- 
thorities knowing all this unless you said 
so yourself. — I simply said " yes " to the 
questions put to me. 

Did Wells say to you that inflamma- 
tory speeches were of no use, but that 
the assassination of officials should bt 
carried out ? — No, he did not. 

Consequently, the opinion of the head 
of the Society, Baron Yun, was obtained. 

and was found to agree with the opinion 
expressed by the foreigners in regard to 
assassination. Yun said that that waj 
the object of the Society, and must b'' 
carried out. — I do not know anything 
about such matters. 

A few days later orders were received 
from the headquarters of the Society in 
Seoul for a representative to be sent to 
discuss details of the conspiracy. An and 
a few others accordingly proceeded to 
Seoul. They were instructed that the 
Governor General, Count Terauchi, should 
be assassinated at Syen Chuen on hi^ 
way to the north. Syen Chuen was select- 
ed because it was more convenient for 
the conspirators owing to the large nun-- 
ber of foreign residents there. An Tal- 
kuk and Yi Seung-hun went up to Syen 
Chuen, and you and others were Instruc'- 
ed to make preparations at Pyong-yang in 
case the attempt at Syen Chuen failed. 
Do you remember this ? — No. 

On August 20th, 1910, you and others 
went to Pyong-yang station to carry out 
your scheme, but found you had been 
misled by a false report. The same thing 
happened on September loth and October 
20th. — I have never thought of assassinat- 
ing the Governor-General. If 1 had, i 
should be prepared for punishment. 

Further preparations were made for 
another attack; and by the advice of the 
foreigners, more revolvers were collecfsd. 
— I know nothing at all about this. 

A meeting w,\s held at the Taisong 
School at Pyong-yang. Moffett, who had 
then just returned to Korea, attendea 
that meeting, and gave an address in 
which he expressed his great regret that 
the Han Dynasty had met its fate while 
he had been away, but he said he was 
happy to think that a plot was now pro 
posed to assassinate the Governor-Gene- 
ral. He then assured you all that he 
would give all the assistance in his power. 
—I heard that story at the police head- 
quarters for the first time. To my knov- 
ledge we Koreans have never been spoken 
to like that by the foreigner referred to, 
who is a missionary and not likely to 
talk in such a way. 

Then Wells stood up and said that all 
the other foreigners aiTproved of lh3 
scheme for assassinating the Governor- 
General, and said that when the plot 
was successfully carried out, he would 
bring to the notice of the Powers the 
real ideas of the Korean people.— I hear 
this story now for the first time. 

It cannot be the first time; you knew 
about it before. — I did not. 

[ 52 ] 

On Xowmber I6»h, when you held au 
other meeting at Pyong yang, which wa^ 
attended by Moffett and Wells, you told 
the foreigners that you were all very 
much obliged to them for coming so 
often to the meetings. You said it was 
because you trusted so much in the for- 
eigners that you had so frequently asktr: 
them to come, but you said you hopea 
they would not think they were beiug 
worried by you. Further, you thank, il 
them for their continued advice anJ 
guidance, and asked them to publish the 
vi«ws of your party on Korean affali^ 
when the plot was carried out successful 
ly. Do you still insist that you hear this 
story now for 'he first time? — I simply 
acknowledged the questions put to me 
by the authorities during my examination. 

It is what you said, not what other 
people knew. — I merely replied " yes " 
to the questions put to me. 

Yi Soung hun then appeared in Pyong- 
yang, bringing news of the certain com- 
ing of the Governor-Gpneral. Similar 
news was received from Koreans employ 
ed in the police force, and from Seoul. 
An Tal-kuk and Yl Seung-hun went olt 
to Syen Chuen, while you and others 
stayed at Pyongyang. On the evening 
of November 26th you and your party 
met at the Talsong school, and you dis- 
tributed revolvers among them. You 
also instructed your followers to lay 
their hands on their weapons as soon as 
thoy heard the Governor General's train 
coming, and whoever found himself hi 
the most advantageous position shou'rt 
fire at the Governor-General. — It is iin 
possible that I could have given suc^ 
instructions, because at that time I was 
not in Pyongyang. 

You went to the railwav station in 
command of your party on November 
27th, and you stationed yourselves near 
the third-class waiting room. The tralii 
arrived in due course, but the Governor- 
General did not leave his car, and the 
train at once started for New Wiju. — I 
only acknowledged this at the police head- 
quarters because I was questioned, aiid 
answered " yes." 

You then decided to attack the Gov- 
ernor-General Ihe following day, when 
he passed through on his return journey 
You went to the station, and entered the 
third-class waiting room. When the trail; 
arrived, the Governor General alight>-J 
and drove to the offlclal residence of the 
local Commander of the troops. Just as. 
he was leaving the train, a railway em- 
ploys came along and locked the lioor 

; of the waiting-room. As you were then 
j shut in, you lost the opportunity of carry- 
! ing out your plans.— This has never taken 

I You all assembled that night at tlie 
Taisong school, when Moffett, who was 
evidently displeased at your failure to 
carry out your plans, made a remark to 
the effect that the Koreans were a peopio 
lacking in courage and decision. On thd 
29th of the same month you made ac- 
other attempt on the life of the Governor- 
General, but it failed owing to the strict 
guard which was kept. — All this has 
never happened to me. 

When did you first meet Lyu Tong- 
sol? — At the opening ceremony of :Ue 
Seoul branch of the Hansong Bank. 

Do you know that the conspirators 
agreed to leave the revolvers in charge 
of foreigners, and with this object pack- 
ed them in five orange boxes, which were 
entrusted for safe keeping to Moffett,- 
Wells, Graham Lee, Baird, and lloldcroft? 
— No, I do not know anything of tnc 

Not only did you yourself give evidence 
to this effect at the police headquarters, 
but others of the accused have given 
similar evidence. These men have said 
that you were the principal figure in th-" 
New People's Society at Pyong-yang, and 
were of particular service in conferriag 
with the foreigners. What you stated 
at the police headquarters must be true, 
since your " confession " was identical 
with the evidence given by the others. — 
I cannot understand why the other men 
examined should have made these state- 
ments against me. 

There wore several groups of men 
stationed at various points along the lino 
between Kaisong and New Wiju. This 
was done in order that if an attempt 
failed at one station, it might be repeated 
at another. This plan was carried out 
on the suggestion of the foreigners, who 
said that by scattering a large number 
of conspirators at different places along 
the railway, the authorities would be 
greatly handicapped in dealing with ihe 
men when the plot became known. Tho 
foreigners said that the authoritirs would 
bo unable to lake action against such 
a large number of men, as by taking legal 
proceedings against so many people tlie 
authorities would be afraid of losln;; 
their good name among the foreign 
Powers. — T did not make any such state- 
ment as this on my own initiative; the 
question was put to me by the authori- 
ties, and I merely assented. 

[ 53 J 

How could the authorities know what 
was in tlie minds of others? Certulnly 
you must have made this statement youi- 
self. — I did not; I knew nothing about 
the alieged facts. 

Is this [a Japanese sword] yours? — 
Such a dangerous weapon could not be 

Did you not lend this sword to O Tal- 
keui, of Whanghai-do? He said he g'-' 
It from you, and took it to Syen Chuen 
■with the object of assassinating the Gov- 
ernor General. — I cannot understand why 
he said this. It is not mine, nor hsvj 1 
ever given it to him. 

But you know him, do you not? — Yes, 
I do. When I saw him under arrest, 1 
recognised him as an artisan employed 
at a porcelain works. 

Then the statement that you gave 
him the sword must be true, must it not ? 
— No, I never gave It to him. 

The next prisoner called up to be put 
through the ordeal of questioning was Yi 
Choon-ha. aged 34. a ma'i with w.ell ou* 
features and piercing eyes. He denied 
being a local leader, a prominent member, 
or even an ordinary member of the New 
People's Society. He denied having ever 
called upon Jlessrs. Wells, Baird, an.l 
Moffett to discuss the " plot," nor did ht 
go to the railway station to kill the 
Governor-General. He said that the 
police knew that he was not at the 
station on the dates mentioned. The 
Court asktd how it was possible for tht 
police to remember every one of the 
enormous number of men who were at 
the station, to which the prisoner re- 
plied that the Chief of Police knew him 
quite well. Accused also denied having 
met certain foreigners — including Messrs. 
Wells and Moffett— at a meeting held In 
the Taisong School, and said he knew 
nothing about the alleged speeches of the 
foreigners urging the " conspirators " to 
push on with their scheme until they at- 
tained their end. 

" CoxsriHAfT." Christian Books, a.xd 
Christm.vs Celebr.\tion. 

By the Court: But did you not go to 
Seoul about this time?— Yes. I went on 
business in connection with the sale or 
Christian books. I was a member of .a 
committee which managed the sale of 
these works. 

Y'ou received a telegram from Under- 
wood in Seoul instructing you to proceed 
to the capital. — Yes. . 

Did vou not then complain to An Tai- 
kuk that you were greatly annoyed at 

receiving such a summons when you were 
busily engaged in making preparations 
lor carrying out the plot? An then toM 
you that it was a good opportunity for 
you to get the opinion of the chief ol tr\> 
New People's Society, and urged yo'i 
to go. — No; that cannot be true, for I 
never met An. 

So j'ou went to Seoul, where you learn- 
ed from Underwood that Count Terauch. 
was about to leave, and would reach 
Pyong-yang on November 27th. You were 
also instructed to return to Pyong-yan;; 
at once and make the necessary prepara- 
tions for assassinating Count Terauchi. 
Underwood added that he would arrange 
for the Koreans' views of the situation to 
be made generally known when they had 
succeeded in their plot against the Gov- 
ernor-General. He also told you to re- 
port on your interview with him to Baron 
Yun at Kaisong. — This is altogether 
wrong. The facts are these. The num- 
ber of subscribers for the Christian 
monthly magazine was increasing steadi- 
ly in North and South Pyongan-do, ana 
it was in connection with this matter 
that I went up to Seoul. I asked for 
permission to establish in these provinces 
branch offices for the sale of the Chris- 
tian publications, but was refused. I left 
the capital on November 24th and readi- 
ed Kaisong next day, just in time to 
celebrate Christmas. [The dates given 
are according to the old style calendar, 
which is a month behind the new calen- 

So you saw Baron -Yun. You gave hiri 
Underwood's message, and Yun approved 
the scheme, and also instructed you to 
return to Pyong-yang and carry out the 
plot with the other members of the So 
ciety. — No, this is not true. 

You returned to Pyong-yang the follo'v- 
Ing day, but your party had already got 
information that the Governor-General 
was coming on the 28th. On the evening 
of your arrival (the 27th) you met the 
other conspirators at the Taisong schooU 
distributed revolvers to them, and In- 
structed them as to where they were to 
stard on the platform when the Governor- 
General arrived. — I know nothing about 
all this. 

" Conspirator's " Interview with the 

Count Terauchi arrived in due course, 
but did not alight from the train. You 
learned that he would come back next 
day, and you all accordingly returned to 
the station next morning, all armed aa 

[ 5-i ] 

before. The Governor-General drove to ^ 
the Kuiyang Club, where a reception! 
was given in his honour. You sought 
an opportunity to shoot him, but found 
he was too well guarded. — It is not true. 
I attended the reception, and was sum- 
moned to the Governor-General, who 
spoke to me and urged me to continue ] 
working for the welfare of the province. 
Had I been a man with wicked inten- 
tions, I should not have been called over 
to speak to the Governor General. 

The Presiding Judge (smiling): Thai 
was because the Governor-General did 
not really know you. You also went to 
New Wiju station, did you not? — No. 

But you were seen in the third-clasa 
■waiting-room, and you were locked in 
when the Governor-Generars train ar- 
rived. — This never happened to me. 

On the same day that you attended th-i 
reception given to the Governor-General 
• you went to a meeting of conspirators at 
the Taisong school, when Moffett observed 
that the Koreans were a people of little 
courage and determination. You then 
decided to make one more attempt upon 
the Governor-General when he started 
on his return journey next day, but 
again failed to accomplish your end. — 
No, it is not true. 

In October last you made another at 
tempt to assassinate the Governor-Generol 
on his way to the Yalu bridge. Then, 
when the members of your Society be- 
gan to be arrested for being concerned 
in this plot, you asked Moffett, Wells, 
Baird, Graham Lee, and one other for- 
eigner to take care of the revolvers for 
you. Vou gave thom the weapons packed 
in five orange boxes. Is that so? — No. 1 
have never touched a revolver. 

Missio.NARY's Memorial to the 

Moffett then addressed a memorial to 
the Government General, asking why you 
had been arrested. This inquiry not be- 
ing answered to his satisfaction, Moffett 
told you that while it might be impossible 
for you to avoid being examined by the 
authorities, you should not confess any- 
thing. He particularly warned you thar 
in no circumstances whatever should you 
disclose the fact that foreigners had been 
consulted In connection with the plot, 
nor should you disclose the names of any 
foreigners as being in any way concerned 
with the plot.— That is not the case. 

The reason you do not confess this 
to-day is that you were told by Moffett 
not to do so, is it not?— No. 

Your associates all agree In saying 
that you were one of the principal figures 
in the New People's Society, and that 
you had the main details of the plot in 
your hands, assuming command in place 
of Chang Sung-cho. — I do not know why 
others should have said this about me, 
but I declare my innocence of the charges 
made against me. 


Mr. Miyake, one of the counsel for thu 
defence, here rose and asked the Court's 
permission to ask a question regarding 
the reception given to the Governor- 
General at the Kuiyang Club. Permis- 
sion being given, counsel asked accused 
at what time the reception was over. 
Accused said he did not remember ex- 
actly, but he thought the proceedings 
terminated at about 8.30 p.m., and it 
was about 10 p.m. when he reached home. 

By the Court: Did you not go to a meet- 
ing at the Taisong school on the way 
borne? — No. 

In reply to questions by another bar- 
rister, accused said that about the middle 
of September his wife entered a hospital 
in Pyong-yang. 

Pastor's " Confession " cndeb ToRTime. 
An Kyongnok, aged 30, a paster, denieJ 
being a member of the New People's 
Society, or having gone to Pyongyang 
railway station with the object of shoot- 
ing the Governor-General. He denied all 
knowledge of the Governor's visit at the 
time. He admitted having " confessed ' 
all these " facts " at the police head- 
quarters, but declared that he was forced 
to do so under torture. 

BoMns FOR Attackixo a Gold .Mine. 
Kim Eung-cho, aged 56, a grey-haired 
man with a long beard, said he knew 
nothing about the New People's Society. 
.•\aked by the Court whether he had 
mortgaged his land for ¥200 three Jr 
four years ago, accused denied having 
done so. but said he had lent the deeds 
to another party for an amount he could 
not now remember. 

' By the Court: You pledged your land 
I certificate for that amount, and with the 
money you had some bombs made for use 
! in an attack on a gold mine at Pukchin, 
I where it was intended to seize ample 
' funds to enable the Society to carry out 
' its plans. The bombs were duly pre- 
pared and sent to a certain man In the 
Pukchin district, but on the way they 
were accidentally dropped. The mau 

r 55 ] 

carrying them was killed, while the others 
who were with him ran away. Do you 
know these facts ? 

The accused mumbled some reply, 
whereupon the Court interpreter, quite 
a young man, angrily shouted the ques- 
tion again. The Presiding Judge mo- 
tioned to the interpreter to be less de- 
monstrative, and the almost terrified ac- 
cused looked greatly relieved at the 
Judge's intervening on his behalf. He 
then replied that he did not know the 
alleged facts stated. 

By the Court: Did you proceed to 
Pyong yang station to shoot the Governor- 
General? — No, To have designs on ano- 
ther man's life is not what a man o£ my 
declining years thinks about. 

But an old man sometimes craves for 
undesirable things— <osfti2/ori no hiya 
mizu [cold water for an old man] as n 
Japanese proverb has it.— I admitted 
having gone to the railway station whe.i 
I was examined by the police, but this 
was " under pressure or hard treatment. ' 
I admitted just whatever they asked me, 
simply to save my lingering life. 

When told by the Court that his as- 
sociates had given evidence against him, 
accused again denied his complicity in 
any plot, and said that such an idea 
would be impossible for a weak old man 
like himself. 

A Druggist's Evidence. 
A man named Sin Sang-ho, aged 38, 
formerlv engaged as a in 
the hospital conducted by Dr. Wells at 
Pyong yang, was next examined. He said 
he was not a member of the New People's 
Society, nor had he ever gone to the 
railway station with the object of killing 
the Governor General. He was busy with 
his work at the hospital, and was not 
concerned in any plot. At the police 
headquarters, however, he had been sub 
jected to such unbearable tortures thai 
he was compelled to " confess " his com- 

Hotel-Kekpeb's Examination. 

The last man to be examined before the 
mid-day interval was Yun Syong-un, 
aged 37, who said he had no religious 
ccmvictions. He joined the New People s 
Society on the suggestion of An Chang- 
ho but was not told that the object of th.^ 
Society was to assassinate high officials, 
start a war of independence at a favour- 
able opportunity, and so on. AccuseQ 
said he formerly kept a hotel at Pyong- 
yang in partnership with Yi Seung-hun; 

the latter's share in the concern was 
¥7,000, and accused's share was ¥2,000. 
The partnership, however, was dissolved 
three years ago. The hotel was run in 
the ordinary way of business, and was 
not maintained for the purpose of facili- 
tating meetings of members of the New 
People's Society. Accused denied having 
gone to the railway station on four oc- 
casions with the object of shooting the 
Governor-General, nor had he ever con- 
sulted any foreigner in regard to the al- 
leged plans of the conspirators. He de- 
nied all complicity in any plan for the 
assassination of the Governor-General. 

By the Court: You have been engaged 
in carrying on a hotel business with Yi 
Seung-hun. Is it not only natural to pre- 
sume that you did have thoughts of kill- 
ing the Governor-General ? — No. 

In reply to further questions, accused 
denied having packed revolvers in orango- 
boxes and handing them over for safa 
keeping to five foreigners. He denied 
that Mr. Moffett had told him to persist 
in denying all knowledge of the con- 
spiracy, and to keep absolutely secret th'> 
names" of the foreigners concerned in the 
plot. Accused said he had no acquaint- 
ances among the foreigners, and the evi- 
dence which had been given against him 
by others of the accused must have been 
forced from them by torture. 

At this stage the Court adjourned for 

The afternoon session of the ninth 
day's proceedings was opened with the 
examination of Chyong Ik-no, aged 50, 
an elder in the Presbyterian Church. 
Accused denied being a member of the 
New People's Society, or being concerned 
in the alleged conspiracy. He said ho 
had three intimate foreign friends, all 
missionaries- Messrs. Blair, Baird, and 
Graham Lee. He denied having consult- 
ed these gentlemen about the "con- 
spiracy," and said that any such plot 
would be quite against the teachings or 

By the Court: At one of your meetings 
Moffett expressed his regret at the fail 
of the Han Dynasty, and also expressed 
his satisfaction upon learning that you 
and others were plotting against the 
Governor General, while he also urged 
you to carrv out your plans as decisively 
as possible," as he would do everything 
he could to protect you.— No. I never 
heard the foreigner mentioned say any 
such thing. . 

Wells also told you that he grieved 
over the fall of the Dynasty, and en- 

[ 56 J 

couraged you to proceed with your plans, 

In the beginning did you ask Baird and 
Blair to take part in the conference? — 
No, I never did so. 

When the Governor-General was ex- 
pected in 1910 you and others met at the 
Taisong school, and under the superin- 
tendence of Chang Eungchin you dis- 
tributed revolvers among those present, 
and instructed them to fire when they 
had an opportunity. Afterwards, you all 
went to the railway station. — I never 
went either to the school or the station. 

Did you not admit in your examination 
that you went to the station armed with 
a revolver, and stood near a monument? 
— K I did say so, I must have been in 
a very dispirited condition. I simply 
said " yes " to the questions put to me. 

A series of questions was then put to 
accused relating to the advice alleged to 
have been given by foreigners in regard 
to the manner of carrying out the assas- 
sination, the concealment by foreign 
missionaries of revolvers, and Mr. Mof- 
fett's alleged admonition not to confess 
anything, and particularly not to give the 
names of the foreigners " involved in the 
present plot." All thts? questions ac- 
cused denied to be true, whereupon tli; 
Court informed accused that he had been 
the first man examined on these points, 
antl that unless he had said these thing-, 
the authorities could not know anythinc 
about them. 

In reply accused said he heard about all 
these things for the first time at the 
police headquarters. It was true that ne 
went to Seoul, on the instruction of Mr. 
Underwood, but this was to discuss mat 
ters relating to a monthly report of 
Christian work in Korea. It was not 
true that he had been asked by An Tal- 
kuk to ascertain from Mr. Ijnderwood 
about tlio departure of the Governor- 
General from Seoul. He had denied this 
to the police, but he was beaten until ne 
admitted all the above statements. It 
was true that he had called on Baron 
Yun at Kaisong on his way back from 
Seoul, but he had not been asked to do 
60 by the foreigner in Seoul. 

Stiuents' Associations and Tkeib 

An Sal-whan, aged 25, teacher of .la- 
panese at the Sungsil school, ryong-yans;, 
was next called. Accused, who spoke 
Japanese lluently, said be knew nothinu 
about the New People's Society. There 
was a students' society at the school for 

helping students who were in financial 
difficulties and for generally promoting 
knowledge and study. Accused denied 
that the real object of the society was 
the assassination of prominent officials, 
and also denied that inflammatory 
speeches had been made to the students. 
Questioned as to why he had admitted 
the contrary at the police headquarteis, 
accused said his admissions must have 
l)een made in " special circumstances." 

By the Court: When the annexation 
was declared in August 1910 the teachers 
and students at your school expressed 
great dissatisfaction. After several dis- 
cussions it was decided to call a meet- 
ing at the Taisong school. Do you know 
this? — I was at Pyong-yang at the time, 
but never went to the Taisong school. 

Several foreigners, including Hlair, 
Wells, and Baird, attended this meeting 
and took part in the conference. — I know 
nothing about this. 

Baird was the principal of the Sungsil 
school, to which you belonged. To you 
not remember that he expressed his dis- 
agreement with the annexation of Ko- 
rea? — I have already said that I did not 
go to the meeting in the Taisong school. 

You should be able to remember whe- 
ther foreigners generally wished tnai 
Heaven would restore the fallen Han 
Dynasty. — No, I don't know. 

A heated discussion took place at the 
Taisong school meeting as to what should 
be done — protest hastily and forcibly, or 
go to work quietly and plot against the 
Japanese authorities. The foreigners re- 
commended the latter course, ard en- 
dorsed the proposal to assassinate the 
high officials.— This cannot be true. 

Later on you were Instructed from 
Seoul to assassinate the Governor-f;>'n -raK 
and you and others went several times 
to the station armed with revolvers, but 
each time you were misled by false re- 
ports.- 1 myself have my studies in the 
forenoon, arid In the afternoon 1 have my 
own pupils to teach. It is clear that I 
had no time for such enterprises. 

It would certainly not matter if you 
did leave the school on such a mission. 
for the school Uselt was the incarnation 
of conspiracy. — It was not. 


On the receipt of news from Seoul that 
the Governor-General really was coming, 
there was some competition between the 
various schools concerned in the plot aa 
to which should be the one to kill the 
Governor-General. An Tai-kuk and OK 

[ 57 ] 

Kwan-piu made a personal visit to an- 
nounce the coming of the Governor- 
General, and you and your party, all 
armed with revolvers, went to the rail- 
way station. Is that so? — I have never 
met An Tai-kuk, Ok Kwan-pin, or Chau? 
Eungchin, who are regarded as ring- 

Are these men the ringleaders? — I 
understand them to be so regarded, judg- 
ing from their names being so frequently 
repeated in Court. 

Did you go to the station? — No. 

The following day you again went to 
the station, and stood near a Japanese 
hotel. — Since last year I have been suf- 
fering from brain trouble, and made it 
a rule not to go out even when I had 
no school duties. 

" Anti-Japanese " Spirit. 

Did you not try to kill the Governor- 
General because of your anti-Japanese 
feelings ? — During the Russo-Japanesa 
war I received certain valuable favours, 
and I certainly do not harbour any ill- 
feeling against the naichi-jin (men from 
Japan). We ought to welcome them 
coming to this country. I entered my 
school through the recommendation of -i 
Japanese, and have since been seeking 
new knowledge. 

More about the Obt^uning of 
" Confessions." 

When the Governor-General drove to 
the Kuiyan Club you were ready to shoot 
him, but could not get a favourable op- 
portunity. Next morning you went 
again to the station, and saw the Gover- 
nor-General pass before you, but he was 
too closely guarded for you to attac'.i 
him. You admitted this at the police 
headquarters and to the Procurator. — It 
is not so. I was suffering from brain 
trouble, and was a patient at the hospital 
at the time, as may be easily proved. I 
was also told that I was suffering from 
consumption, and I was really very ill 
at Pyongyang at this time. When T 
was summoned by the police, I noticed 
that those who answered freely were al- 
lowed to return home. I thought of fol- 
lowing their example, although I had 
really nothing to say. As my feeble body 
became weaker, however, I think I said 
" yes " three or four times in answer 
to questions. At the Procurator's OfiBcn 
I was told that I might be sent back to 
the police headquarters to be subjected 
to painful treatment which would per 
haps kill me. I shuddered at the thought. 

and admitted having gone once to the 
station. My original intention was to 
enter the Government service. I studied 

the Japanese language with 

The Judge: Stop that story! Do you 
not mean that you first of all confessed 
thinking you would be released from the 
charge, but when you realised that you 
had also to be examined at the Procura- 
tor's Office, you decided to withdraw your 
original statement? — No, it is not so. 1 
beg that the Court will take into con- 
sideration my physical condition. 

Napoleon and Wa.shi.vgton. 

Do you remember these? [A bundle 
of students' composition papers was 
shown to accused.] — Yes — no. I was not 
concerned with them. My school duties 
were simply to teach Japanese. 

These compositions are full of forcible 
writings dealing with the careers of 
Napoleon and Washington. They were 
found in your room. — I am a teacher of 
Japanese, and have nothing to do wittt 
the students' compositions. 

Having denied being concerned in an 
attempt to kill Count Terauchi on his 
way to the Yalu, accused begged the 
Court to deliver an impartial judgement 
upon him. 

The next prisoner examined, Kim 
Eung-nok, aged 29, a graduate of the 
Sungsil school, denied having joined 
the New People's Society, or having gone 
to the railway station "with a revolver. 
" I had to admit all this," said accused, 
" in order to preserve my life." 

Chong Chu-hiun, aged 21, formerly a 
student of a mission school at Pyong- 
yang, said that he had no religious con- 
victions. He had joined an organisation 
which was alleged by the authorities to 
be a branch of the New People's Society, 
but he knew nothing about this. He was 
acquainted with An Tai-kuk, but had 
never called upon the latter at the Tai- 
keuk Bookstore, Pyongyang, nor had he 
ever been urged by An to make up his 
mind to carry out the plot against the 
life of the Governor-General. Accused 
also denied having gone to Syen Chuen 
station to attack the Governor-General on 
November 27th. 

Kim Tong-won, aged 29, employed as 
a teacher in one of Mr. Moffett's schools, 
said the former principal was Mr. Baird. 
Accused denied being a member of the 
New People's Society, or having approach- 
ed Messrs. Baird and Moffett in regard 
to the .alleged conspiracy. Ha also de- 

[ 58 ] 

nled having carried five boxes of re- 
volvers to foreigners' houses for safe 

Kim Tu-wha, aged 49, a teacher fn the 
Taisong school, said he joined the New 
People's Society on the recommendation 
of An Chang-ho. He thought the Society 
■was known at his school by the name 
of the Young Men's Companion Society. 
He denied having attempted the life of 
Count Terauchi in 1910 and 1911. Ac 
cused said he was suffering from con- 
sumption, and could not have taken part 
in any such plot. He once went to Japan 
In connection with some educational 
Ai.LEnKii Korean Conspir.\tob8 in Tokyo. 

Asked by the Court whether the real 
motive of his visit to Japan was not to 
assassinate c-ertain high officials in the 
Tokyo Government, accused replied in 
the negative, adding that the entries in 
his diary would prove that every day he 
was visiting various schools. 

Choi Chun-hang, aged 35, principal of 
a school at Pyongyang, said he was a 
member of the New People's Society, but 
the object of the Society was not as- 
sassination, nor was he concerned in 
any plot. In April 1909 he went to Japan 
to study educational affairs there. 

By the Court: Did you instruct the 
Korean students in Tokyo to attack 
Prince "Vamagata and Prince Katsura ? — 
No, cfrtainly not. 

We understand that the Korean stu- 
dents were often seen wandering abotit 
near the residences of these distinguished 
men, and when they went away for a 
journey the students used to track thera 
down to Shimbashi. — I know nothing 
about this. 

But Yun Syong-un and another man 
have given evidence to the effect that 
they were selected to cause the Korean 
Btudentfl to assassinate the high officials 
In Tokyo. This does not seem to be other 
than true. — It is not a fact. 

" Anti-Japanese " Poetry. 

You have a reputation as a composer 
of songs, have you not ? — I write a little 

What sort of songs do you compose '! 
— I have written one on the encourage- 
ment of study. 

Vou might also have composed a son- 
with anti-Japanese sentiments, might you 
not ?— No. 

This concluded the examination, and 
the proteedingB were adjourned until 
next day. 




Seoul, July 11. 
"Vesterday's proceedings marked the 
conclusion of an important stage in the 
proceedings of this case, inasmuch as the 
examination of the accused was con- 
cluded, after ten days' hearing. The ex- 
amination of the men who are regarded 
as the ringleaders of the " conspiracy " 
was left to the last, and in view of the 
importance attached to their testimony, 
the Court yesterday was crowded with an 
expectant audience. There were about 
twenty foreigners present, and they fol- 
lowed the proceedings with evident in- 
terest. Even the Judges seemed to be 
more alert and stern yesterday, while 
Major-General Akashi seemed particularly 
interest-^d in the examination of Lyu 
Tong-sol. While this man was being 
questioned, the Major-General sat close 
behind the Presiding Judge, and with his 
hands resting on the handle of his long 
sword, kept his eyes steadily fixed on the 
prisoner's face as he replied to the Court's 
questions. From this little incident it 
will be gathered that the proceedings 
here, although nominally in an ordinary 
Criminal Court, are very different from 
those in Japan Proper. For example, tho 
Judges do not wear robes as in Japan, but 

I are dressed in a semi-military uniform, 
with buttons, braid, and epaulettes, and 
the general appearance of the Court is 
more like a Court-Martial than a Civil 

Yesterday the six remaining men to be 
examined were brought to the front, im- 
mediately facing the Judges' dais. They 
were Lyu Tong-sol, Im Chi-chong, Yang 
Ki tak. Ok Kwan-pin, An Tai-kuk, and Yi 
Seung-hun. The seventh of the so-calltd 

i " ringleaders," Baron Yun, had already 
been examined some days previously. 
Four of the accused — Im, Yang, Ok, and 
An — wore the convict's short kimono and 
drawers of reddish grey, these men hav- 
ing been sentenced last year to various 
terms of imprisonment for violation of 

I the Peace Presers-ation Regulations. All 
the accused looked fairly well with the 
exception of Haron Yun, who appeared to 
be rather weak and worn-out. Before the 
proceedings were commenced Im I>o- 

[ 59 ] 


myong, who was sitting in the second row 
of the accused, was seized by a fit. He 
would have fallen to the ground had not 
the mcu on either side supported him. 
He was carried out of the Court by police 
and warders, and laid ou the ground near 
the entrance to the Court. His head was 
bathed with cold water, after which he 
was carried away to another building, 
where a doctor examined him and found 
the man to be suffering from acute tem- 
porary congestion of the brain. The un- 
conscious man was handled with care, 
and every attention shown to him. 

The actual proceedings yesterday com- 
menced at about 9.40 a.m. with the ex- 
amination of An Tai-kuk, aged 38, a man 
of bold appearance and good physique. 
Ii; answer to the Court, he staled that 
he knew Yi Seung-hun, who was secretary 
at the Taikeuk bookstore, Pyong-yang, 
where accused was employed as a clerk. 
He also knew Yang Ki-tak, fornieriy on 
the siatf of the Tai Han Mai il Shinpo. 
with which journal accused was P-lso once 
connected. He also knew Baron Y'^un, 
whom he met at an athletic meeting held 
at Pyong-yang by the students of T.ii- 
Bong school. Accused also admitted that 
he knew An Chang-ho, founder of the 
Taikeuk bookstore, where accused was 
engaged as salesman, and said he also 
knew Lyu Tong-sol, whom he met for thf^ 
first time at a meeting of a society in 
Seoul, which, however, was not connected 
with the New People's Society. 

By the Court: Have you not been a 
member of the New People's Society for 
five or six years ? — No. 

Do you know that the object of the 
Society was to build a military school, re- 
cover Korean national rights, start a war 
of independence when Japan was at war 
with some other Power, assassinate high 
officials, and so on ? — Some years ago I 
was told that the Koreans living In Ame- 
rica had organised a Society named the 
Sin Min Hoi (New People's Society), with 
the object of propagating education and 
industry among the Korean people. I 
approved the objects of this Society, and 
agreed to pay ¥2 as entrance fe^, but I 
was never asked to pay this money, so I 
never joined the Society. 

In 1909, when Prince Ito— then Resi- 
dent-General— made a tour of inspection 
through Korea, did you and your party 
send men to various railway stations with 
Instructions to assassinate him ? — No. 

In 1910 Lyu came to Pyong-yang on be- 
half of Baron Yun, and at the hotel kept 
by Y'un Syong-un met you and your 

party, and discussed a plan for assas- 
sinating Count Terauchl. You approved 
the scheme, and collected and distributed 
revolvers among your party. — I did not. 

There Is a man among those now ac- 
cused who has Haid that he received a 
revolver from you, and thus armed went 
to I'yong-yang station. — I gave no revol- 
vers to anyone. 

Do you remember an athletic meeting 
held by the students of Taisong school at 
Pyong-yang ? — I remember one meeting 
being held on the military parade-ground. 

Do you know that Baron Yun wa.=i 
at that meeting? — I remember seeing 
him twice — once at an athletic meeting, 
and again at the ceremony held for clos- 
ing a school for the summer vacation. 
This ceremony was held, I think, at the 
Taikeuk book store. 

You addressed those present, and pro- 
rosed that Yi Wan-yong and Yi Yong-ku 
(members of the former Korean Govern- 
ment) should be assassinated, and called 
for volunteers. Yi Chai-myong offered him- 
self for the service, saying he was un- 
married, and therefore might be selected. 
Do you remember this ? — I do not. 

You thought the task too much for YI 
Chai-myong alone, and nominated two or 
three others to help him. Yi Seung-hun 
did the same, and all these men were 
sent to Seoul. — It is not so. 

Baron Yun then left the matter In the 
hands of you and Yi, with orders that you 
two 'should take command and give the 
assassins their instructions. — It Is rot 

Were you not arrested about that flme 
and was it not in connection with the 
attempted assassination of Count Yi ? — 
I was arrested, and kept In custody for 
about five months. I was charged with 
being concerned in the attack on Count 

Did you hold a celebration when you 
came out of jail ? — I did not, but my 
friends did. 

Disputed " Evidence." 

You told them that you were released 
because you persistently denied every- 
thing you were questioned about. You also 
said you had been tortured, but still you 
would not confess. You told your friends 
that in the event of them being arrestea 
at any time, they should not confess. In 
this bombastic way you addressed your 
friends, did you not ?— It is not true. 
Some policemen and gendarmes were pre- 
sent on that occasion, and if the Court 

[ 60 ] 

•will summon those officers and examine 
them, the truth can be ascertained. 

Pyeu In syo and another man have given 
evidence that they heard you speak to 
this e;fect.— It does not matter to me if 
ten million men say they heard what 1 
am sure 1 did not say. 

At the time of the annexation did you 
say at a meeting that it was ina/lvisable 
to allow the annexation to be effected 
without protest, and that snoeehes should 
be made opposing .lapan's action ? — It is 
not true. 

I'id you express your opinion at the 
Taisong school? — No. 

The Accusations .'^oain-st Foreigners. 

There was a counter-opinion to yours 
that the suppfsted speech-making was of 
no use. and that a serret rather than a 
public canipalem should bp started. Final- ! 
ly it was aereed that the question ot 
policy should be submitted for decision 
to the foreigners In Pyonsr-yang, with 
whom you were rather closely connected. 
A committee, consisting of Ok Song-pin, 
Cha Li-sik, and Chynng Ik no. wns ap- 
pointed to call upon Wells. Baird, Morris, 
Swallen. Tloldcroft, Graham Lee, and 
Bernhelsel to obtain their opliiion. — it 
Is not true. 

The foreigners gave their opinion 
against your suggestion, holding that you 
Koreans should pretend to be subjugated 
to the Japanes ;. but that you should 
secretly plot against the new Aduitnistra- 
tlon. You oimht to remember this. — NO; 
it is not a fact. 

You say it is not a fact, but Cha Li-sik, 
Ok Song-pin, and Chong Ikno have admit- 
ted those facts. — T do not know what 
these men have said. For myself, I know 
nothing about the matter. 

It was also suggested that Baron Yun 
and Yang Kl-tak should be consulted, so 
you and others proceeded to Seoul, aud 
found that Yun and Yang agreed with 
the foreigners. They were against speech 
making, but in favour of assassinatin.-; 
high olilcials, and told you that they 
would let you know when to carry out 
the plans. — It Is not true. 

But all the accused from Pyong-yang 
have admitted these facts, and so has 
Kim Tong-won. — It does not affect n"' 
how many men may have said so. 

In .\nguat 1910 orders were received 
from the hoadqunrters of the Society In 
Seoul for representatives of the Pyong- 
yang branch to proceed to the capital, iso 
you. Ok Kwanpln. and one other went to 
Seoul. — N'o. I did not go to Seoul lu 
August last year. 

You assembled at Im Chl-chongs house 
outside the West Gate. Baron Yun and 
Yang Ki-tak told you that the Governor 
General was going to Pyong-yang Pro- 
vince. You were told to station groups 
of men at various places along the roule 
ready to assassinate the Governor-GeneraL 
You were warned that Pyong-yang was 
well guarded by soldiers, whereas Syen- 
Chuen was not, and there were more for- 
eign residents there. It was thought 
probable that the Governor-General 
would alight at Syen-Chuen to exchange 
greetings with the foreigners, so that 
this place would be more suitable for the 
attack. Moreover, it would be very con- 
venient for you to have the protection of 
these foreigners. Therefore Syen-Chucn 
was considered the most important place 
for attempting to carry out the plot, aim 
the best men available should be seu*. 
to the railway station there. Yun aiui 
Yang Ki taU also told to have men 
at every station beyond Pyong-yang so 
that the attack could be repeated at OU'! 
place if it failed at another. — I met Im 
and Yang in Seoul, but not Baron Yun, 
and 1 did not have any conversation with 
anybody about a conspiracy. 

So you returned from Seoul to Pyong- 
yang to tell your party what had be-n 
decided, and Ok went to the places north 
of Pyong-yaug on a similar errand. — 1 
know nothing about this. 

While making preparations for carry- 
ing out the plot a messenger came from 
Seoul reporting that Count Terauchi was 
coming on August 20th. You and your 
party accordingly went to the railway 
station, but found that the report was 
wrong. — No, it is not so. 

On August 17th you and your followers 
also went to the station, and again found 
that you had been wrongly informed. — 1 
was then In Seoul. (This reply, if cor- 
rectly reported, docs not agree with the 
preceding statement made by accused that 
he was not In Seoul during August.] 

In September Ok Kwan-pin came back 
to Pyongyang and said the Governor- 
General was expected on the loth or 16th. 
Again you all went to the railway sta- 
tion, but once more found you had been 
misinformed. — It is not true. I can ob- 
tain evidence to prove I was then in 

The same messenger later gave you 
another false report, as the result of 
wTiIch you went to Syen Chuen on the 
20th, and on finding out the mistake, 
you returned to Pyongyang. — No, this Is 

[ 61 ] 

wrong. I have not been in Syen Chuen 
since 1905. 

A school teacher from Seoul came to 
Pyongyang in November, and told you to 
proceed to the capital to see Baron Yun. 
You, Ok Kwan-pin, and Yi Seung-hua 
went to Seoul, where you were toid by 
Yun that the Governor-General was da- 
finltely " coming to Pyong-yang. Yun 
heard this from a Japanese official in 
the Government-General, and Yang Ki-tak 
also heard it from a Korean official. 
Yun and Yang warned you to make care- 
ful preparations for carrying out your 
scheme. — It is not true. 

On the way back, Ok Kwan-pin pur- 
posely went by way of Whanghai-do. — I 
do not know. 

When you got back to Pyongyang you 
called a meeting of members of your So- 
ciety and told them the Governor-General 
was coming. Y'^ou also assembled the 
students and teachers of the Taisong 
school, the Sungsil school, and the other 
school, and told them what was going to 
be aone. A number of foreigners were 
also present, and took part in the con- 
ference. — I do not know anything about 

Allegatioxs of Foreign Help 
Protection to " Conspirators." 

Y'i Tok whan then addressed the for- 
eigners on behalf of the Society, sayinc 
that he was sorry that he had had to 
request their attendance so often in con- 
nection with the plan, but assuring them 
that this time the report was reliable. 
He then asked the foreigners to give the 
members of the Society their protection, 
and requested them to publish to tho 
world the real aims and hopes of the 
Korean people when the plan for asassi- 
nating the Governor-General had been suc- 
cessfully carried out. To this Moftett re- 
plied that he was very much distressed 
to find, on returning to Korea, that the 
Han Dynasty had fallen. It was, how- 
ever, very pleasing for him to learn that 
you were now going to assassinate the 
Governor-General, and he concluded by 
spying that he would give you ail every 
assistance and protection In his power. 
Wells also made a speech, seconding the 
remarks made by Moffett, and declaring 
that the idea of the proposed assassina- 
tion was pleasing to him and should be 
carried out.— I know nothing about this, 
as I was not in Pyong-yang at the time. 

Preparations for the assassination were 
pushed forward, but nothing more was 
•heard about the Governor-General's com- 

ing. Then a telegram was received by 
Chyong Ik no from Underwood, in Seoul, 
asking him to proceed to the capital on 
business about the Christian congrega- 
tion. When Chong told you this, yoa 
suggested that he might try and learn 
from the foreigner something more about 
the Governor-General's plans. So Chong, 
accompanied by another man, went to 
Seoul. — I was myself in Seoul at this 
time, and knew nothing about Chong's 

These two men returned to Pyong yansr 
on November 25th, and a report was re- 
ceived that the Governor-General was 
coming on the 27th. You therefore as- 
sembled your party and made further 
preparations for carrying out your plans. 
—I was not in Pyongyang at this time. 
Yi Seung-hun, who had also been in 
Seoul, came back to Pyong-yang and then 
proceeded to Nap Chyongjong, while you, 
with a party of men from Whanghai-do, 
led by Kim Kwi, went to Syen Chuen. 
You all met at the mission school thero 
and talked over your plans. — I was not 
in Pyongyang nor in Syen Chuea 
in November that year. 

On the 27th Yi reached Syen Chuen 
with a party of about 35 men from Nap 
Chyongjong. You then proceeded to the 
railway-station— about 150 men alto- 
gether—but as the Governor-General did 
not leave his car, you could not carry 
out your scheme. — This cannot be true, 
since I did not go to Syen Chuen. 

You and all your followers assembled 
at the mission school in the evening, and 
vou and Yi Seung-hun urged the men to 
succeed at all costs in the attempt to be 
made the following day. Accordingly, 
you all went to the station again. The 
students were lined up on the platform 
in files, and young men from your party, 
disguised as students, stood among them. 
The Governor-General, on alighting from 
the train, walked along the flies saluting 
as he went, and then shook hands wuh 
McCune, the principal of the mission 
school, after which he returned to his car. 
You failed to carry out the assassina- 
tion partly because you could not tell 
the Governor-General from the other mili- 
tary officers, and partly because a very 
strict guard was kept.— It is not true. I 
was then in Seoul, and did not go to 
Syen Chuen. 

Prisoner's Protest against "Confes- 
sion " AS Evidence. 
The above facts have been proved by 
the evidence given by the men from 

[ 62 1 

Pyoiig yaiig, who say that you were fro- 
quently there and used to attend th-i 
meetings held at the Taikeuk book store 
and at the Taisong school, and that you 
went to Syen Chuen at the head of a 
party of 24 men. — All the men who said 
this declared in open Court that they 
were compelled to admit these statements 
under unbearable torture. Evidence ob- 
tained in such a way cannot be accepted. 
Do you know Yi Chi-keun, a servant 
employed by Ini Chichong? — I know him 
by sight only; I did not know his name. 

According to this man's statement, you 
often met Baron Yun, Ok Kwan-pin, ana 
Yang Kitak, at Ira Chichong's house 
outside the West Gate, Seoul, during 
August, September, October, and Novem- 
ber 1910, and talked over the conspiracy. 
— I went to Seoul in August 1910, and 
met Im C'hi-chong at his house, but 1 have 
never met Ok and others in the circum- 
stances alleged. 

Kang Mun-chip, one of the staff of the 
Tai Han Mut il Shhifio. gave evidence to 
the same effect. Is this not true ?— No; I 
never saw Y'un in 1910. 

Yun made a similar statement, and 
eald that he freauently met you in Im's 
house in the circumstances mentioned. — 
It is absolutely wrong. In the Procura- 
tor's Office I heard that Kil Chln-hyone 
had stated that I went to Pyongyang. 
80 I demanded that he should be brought ! 
back and questioned by me, before the 
Procurator, but my request was not grant- 
ed. As for Baron Yun's atatements, I did 
not quite understand what it was he said 
here in this Court, and so cannot say 
anything about it, but I request the Court 
to permit me to question Kil directly on 
this point. 

Did you not strike Kil when he said 
that you were one of the leaders in 
South Pyongan province ?— I was simply 
forced to admit in the Procurator's Office 
that I had persuaded the people at Pyong- 
yang to take part in the conspiracy, but 
Kil made a false statement against me 
quite unnecessarily. 

But why did you strike him in Court ? 
— I did so in a fit of anger. 

You must have struck Kil because he 
confessed that it had been agreed among 
your party not to confess anything at all. 

Then you must have struck Kil 
because he stated that he was a 
fellow-member of the Society, and 
■went with you to Syen Chuen.— He said 
here In the open Court that he had been 
forced t* My what he did under torture. 

The fact of the matter is that Kil con- 
fessed to all the facts, and this naturally 
involved you, at which you got angry and 
attacked him. — No, that is not so. 

Were you not examined in the Procura- 
tor's Court side by side with Yang Chom- 
meung ? This man also said you went to 
Syen Chuen. Were you not vei»y angry 
with him when he said so ?— I was asked 
in the Procurator's Office whether I put 
up at Yang's houEe at Syen Chuen in Sep- 
tember and November 1910. I said that 
I went there once several years previous- 
ly, but not in the months mentioned. 
Yang was then brought before the Pro- 
curator, and only after he had been asked 
the question live times did he say that 
I had been at his house in September and 
October, 1910. 

You behaved in a rather disorderly 
manner in Court, did you not ? — Yang did 
wrong in stating that I was at his house 
on those days when he knew I was not. 

Is it not because you really were there 
that so many others have also testified to 
the same effect ? — No. 

You said that you were released from 
jail once before because you would not 
confess to being connected with the as- 
sault on Count Y'i Wan-yong. This time 
you also thought that you might be saved 
if you refused to confess, but on finding 
that Yang had admitted the facts, you 
lost control of your temper at the Pro- 
curator's Court. Is that not so ? — No, It 
is notr 

You were the leader of the movement 
in South Pyongan Province, and you 
should admit this in Court. — According 
to the statements made by my fellow- 
prisoners, they simply admitted just 
whatever the authorities asked them, even 
though they knew little or nothing about 

You confessed everything at the Pro- 
curator's Office. These facts regarding 
your actions and movements could not 
have been created by the Procurator. It 
is unmanly for you, regarded as one of 
the leaders of your party, to now deny 
the facts at this time. It is not as though 
you could dream of being discharged 
simply by denying everything, as you did 
before. This cannot be don when evi- 
dence has all been prepared.— The ch.irgcs 
against me cannot be true, for I was In 
Seoul at the time, and can produce evi- 
dence to prove It. 

1 When you were examined last year on 
a charge of violating the Peace Preserva- 
I tlon Law, you also denied the facts, but 
when Judgement was delivered against- 

[ 63 ] 

you, you submitted to it, and renounced 
your right to appeal to a higher Court 
It seems to us that you simply enjoy tell- 
ing lies — The reason T did not appeal 
against that judgement is this. In the 
text of judgement it was stated that I 
was the principal of the Taisong school, 
and had formed a plan to- settle at Su 
Kanto (West Chientao), where I intend- 
ed to declare independence of Japan. 
The judgement was wrong in regard lo 
the allegation about declaring indepen- 
dence, but it was quite true that I in 
tended to settle in the place mentioned 
with a nuniDer of other men. 1 thought 
it of no use to appeal on this point, 
hence 1 accepted the judgement. 

This closed the examination, of ac- 

The second prisoner to be examined wai 
Yi Seung-hun, of whom so much has been 
heard in the course of the examinatioi; 
of the other accused. His age was stated 
to ue 4b, but he looks very much older. 
He has a pleasant face, and his hair and 
beard are grey, in reply to questions by 
the Court, accused said he was the presi- 
dent of a porcelain company in North 
Pyongan-do, and proprietor of the Tai- 
keuk bookstore in Pyong-yang. He haa 
beeu lormerly connected with various 
schools .in the district. After a number 
of questions of minor importance had 
been put, the examination proceeded: — 

By the Court: Did you attend a meet- 
ing of students of the Taisong School in 
the summer of 1909?— I did not. 

Yes, you did. On that occasion Baron 
Yun made a speech in which he said that 
the political situation was very bad, and 
the Korean Premier must be assassinated 
Yun. in asking for volunteers for this 
service, said they should be bachelors. Do 
you remember this? — No, I do not. I 
never attended any such meeting. 

Did you see Yi Chai-myong offer him- 
self for service ?— No; I was not at the 

Did you not then propose that men 
should be selected to assist Yi in carry- 
ing out this plot against the Premier, 
and nominate two men from North 
Pyongan-do, while An' Tai-kuk agreed 
to get as many men as possible from 
South Pyongan-do?— This cannot be true. 
This information the Court believes was 
given by Kim Chan-o, one of the accused, 
but as a matter of fact he denied It 
at the police headquarters. 

Did you go to Pyong-yang in August 
1910 and have frequent consultations with 

certain men as to what steps should be 
taken to oppose the political changes ia 
Korea? — No. 

During that month did you receive a 
message from the headquarters in Seoul 
of a Korean secret society, instructing 
you to proceed to the capital, an order 
which you obeyed, in company with An 
Tai-kuk and Ok Kwan-pin ? — Ne; it is 
not true. 

You all met at Im Chi-chong's house in 
Seoul and agreed to assassinate the Go- 
vernor-General while on his tour of inspec- 
tion through the country. — It is not so. 

Did you then return to Pyong-yang by 
way of Whanghai-do, where you urged 
people to join the Society? — I have never 
done any such thing. 

It was then proposed that revolvers 
should be obtained, and you sent 50 
weapons from Antung to Pyong-yang. 
Afterwards you went to Seoul again and 
had another conference with Yun and 
Yang Ki-tak about the plot. — It is not 

You later on made another visit to 
Seoul, returning via Syen Chuen. — I did 

Did you go to Syen Chuen in August, 
September, and October 1910 to " receive " 
the Governor-General? — Never. 

In November you received another 
message from the Seoul headquarters of 
the Society, asking that representatives 
be sent to take part in a conference about 
the plot. — I went to the capital in Decem- 
ber (new calender) 1910, but not for the 
purpose stated. 

You again met at Chi chong's house, 
and Baron Yun said the report of the 
Governor-General's movements was cor- 
rect this time, and the members of the 
Society should make arrangements to as- 
sassinate him on the way.— That is not 

So you and two others were instructed 
to return. (T!<: Kwan-pin first returned to 
Syen Chuen. followed by An Tai-kuk. but 
you remained in the capital for awhile to 
get further information regarding the 
Governor-General's movements.— It is not 
a, f3.ct. 

You returned to Pyong-yang about 
November 27th, and calling the membera 
of the Society together, told them to get 
ready to carry out the plot. You toM 
them the report of the Governor-General's 
coming really was true this time, since 
you had got the information yoarself.— 
It is impossible. I was in Seoul at the 

[ 64 ] 

At this meeting it was agreed that you , 
and An Tai-lculc should go to Syen Chuen, ' 
this place being chosen as a suitaole spot 
to attempt the assassination because there 
were many foreigners there, the police 
were believed to be less strict, and the 
station being larger than other'^ in thp 
vicinity was more suitable for your pur- 
pose. — It is not true. 

You then got news that the Governor- 
General was leaving Seoul for ^'i]u on 
November 27th, so you at once left Pyong- 
yang for Syen Chuen with a party of men 
Intent upon carrying out your ilot. — It 
would be impossible for me to have done 
so. I returned to Pyong yang from thi' 
capital that day, having with me two son? 
of Mr. Yi Chai keun. formerly the Korean 
Minister of Education. I had been usked by 
these two young gentlemen to take them 
to the porcelain factory of which I ani 
director. On the 2Sth and 29th I wa<; 
showing them over the works, and had 
no time to go to Syen Chuen, even If 1 { 
had wanted to. 

Prior to your departure from Pyong- , 
yang to Syen Chuen, via Nap Chyonsjon^. 
you assembled the local members of your 
Society and addressed them on the- subject 
of the plot, saying that the scheme to as- 
sassinate the Governor-General was based 
on the unanimous wish of the people of 
the 13 jirovinces of Korea.— This cannot 
be true, for I did not go to Syen Chuen, 
and I can prove this by producing certain 
telegrams if the Court wishes. 

You dropped in at Nap Cliyongjong on 
your way to Syen Chuen. and at the 
former place you met the local nenibers 
of the Society at the Kamiung school, and 
instructed them to start for Syen Chuen : 
via Chyongju.— I have already said that ' 
I did not go to Syen Chuen. I 

At Syen Chuen your party numbered ^ 
150 men, including those from Pyong- 1 
yang. Whanghai-do, Na|) Chyoiipjong 
Chyongju, and Kwaksan. Did you all go 
to the station ? 

A JlllKIM. RKHIKK to Cof.N.SKI.. 

Before accused could reply tUe Presid- 
ing Judge angrily turned to Mr. Okubo, 
a .lapanese barrister, and Mr. PaK. a Ko- 
rean lawyer, both appearing as counsel 
for the defence, and reprimanded them 
for talking together and thus annoying 
the Court. The two barristers had been 
whispering together for a minute or two 
during the examination. 

Replying to question above mentioned, 
accused repeated that he was not In Syen , 
Chuen at the time. He and the twc younr | 

gentlemen already referred to f erarned to 
Seoul on the 31st of the month, and he 
could not possibly have been at Syen 

By the Court: The Governor-General's 
train reached Syen Chuen in due course, 
but he did not alight. That nigl.t your 
party assembled at the mission school, 
and you gave an address in which you 
said the plot was in accordance with the 
voice of the 13 provinces, and that your 
followers should make a determined and 
eourageoiis effort to carry out the plot the 
following day. — It is not true. I could not 
have been there. 

MoHE Charges agai.sst Mr. McCune. 

Do you remember Mr. McCune saying 
that those who did not know the Gov- 
ernor-Ceneral could recocnise him by 
looking out for the Japanese officer witn 
whom he (Mr. McCune) would shake 
hands, at whom they should fire ? Did 
you not Instruct men to go to various 
stations along the line, so that If the 
attempt failed at one place It could be 
repeated at another, and did you not teli 
the yotingest men among the pariv to get 
among the students who were lined un 
on the platform ? — No. I did none of these 

On the 28th you all went to the rail- 
way station. The Governor General left 
his car and walked ."Ions the platform, 
painting the (lies of students. Although 
all ready to fire your revolver, you did 
not shoot because you could not tell 
which was the Governor-General, and 
moreover a very strict gtiard was kept. — 
I know nothing about all this, because I 
was not there. 

After you all returned to the mission 
school, did vou not cive vent to your 
displeasure in an addres?. In whirh you 
said th» party — especially the men from 
Nap Chyongjong — were only good enouch 
for such work as eating meals ? — I mada 
no such speech. 

Afterwards you all drank together, and 
said th.nt although this attempt had un- 
fortunately failed, yet you would cele- 
brate the event as a step towards the 
restoration of the Independence of the 
country. — I was not there; I was In 

A servant employed by Im Chlchong 
has given evidence that you and Baron 
Yun often used to meet In Seoul at his 
master's house. A servant of Baron Yun'd 
has made a similar statement. — It is un- 
true. 1 do not know Baron Yun. 

[ 65 ] 

We also have evidence of your going 
to Pyong yang, Xap Chyongjong, anci 
Syen Chuen, and of your addressing the 
members of the Society there about the 
plot. Is it not a lie that you were in 
Seoul at this time ? — No; it is true. 1 
can obtain evidence to prove my asser- 

But so many men concerned in this 
case have given evidence to tlie sams 
effect — that you did go to these places. 
There is little room for supposing they 
could have made a mistake. — The fact 
that I am in no way concerned in this 
affair would be clear if the Court ex- 
amined the telegrams sent by the two 
young men who were in my care to their 
father, and examined certain witnesses 
who are acauainted with these facts. 

One of the men at your porcelain fac- 
tory has given evidence to the effect that 
you first talked this plot over in Seoul, 
and that you then went to Syen Chuen.— 
It is not true. 

Your going to Pyong-yang with" two 
young noblemen is now mentioned for 
the first time, is it not ? — I could not 
remember this before. I stated at the 
Procurator's Office that I was in Pyong 
yang on business. The police know that 
I went there with these two young men. 
because they took special precautions for 
their protection, as they were sons of a 
former Cabinet Minister. 

This concluded the examination of this 
prisoner, and the Court adjourned for 

On the Court being re-opened, Ok Kwan- 
pin, the third of the so-called " ring- 
leaders " of the alleged conspiracy, was 
examined. He is a young man of 22, very 
slight build, and with quite a juvenile ap 
pearance generally. He was in .convict's 
garb, being one of those sentenced to im- 
prisonment some time ago for an offence 
against the Law for the Preservation oi 
Public Peace^ In answer to questions 
by the Court, accused said he had studied 
at the Taisong school at Pyong-yang, aiu' 
had afterwards spent a year at a school 
in Seoul. He left in the spring of 1910, 
and about May (new calendar) entered 
the office of the Tai Han Mai-il Shinpo. 
Yang Ki-tak was at that time the mana- 
ger, but Im Chi-chong was not the editor. 
Accused stayed about six months in the 
office, but never became intimately ac- 
quainted with Yang Ki-tak. Accused 
knew An Tai-kuk from the time he was a 
student at the Taisong school, An being 
at the Taikeuk book-store. He was much 

older than accused, and they w^re never 
intimate friends. Accused said he knew 
Baron Yun, whom he met at Pyong-yang 
for the first time about five years ago, 
when accused was at the Taisong school. 

By the Court; While you were at the 
school did you attend an athletic meeting 
at the Minchan-dan? — No such meeting 
was held while I was at the school. 

Perhaps you attended a meeting held in 
the summer of 1910, when you addressed 
the gathering, and urged the people to be 
loyal to their Sovereign [the Emperor of 
Korea] and faithful to their country? — 
Probably the Court refers to the closing 
ceremony at the school just before the 
summer vacation. I remember making 
some remarks to the effect that the people 
should be grateful for the consideration 
shown by their teachers towards them. 
If X had made any such speech as sug- 
gested by the Court, it is certain that the 
gendarmes and police who were present 
would have stopped me and dispersed the 
meeting on the ground that sucli remarks 
were detrimental to public peace aud 

What did you do when the office of the 
Tai Hail Mai-il Shinpo was closed ? — I 
went back to Pyong-yang. I then went to 
North Pyongan-do to be a teacher. 

Where were you at the time of the an- 
nexation in August 1910? — I did not know 
of the change being made at the time. I 
heard of it afterward when I was at 

Did you then go to Seoul? — No. 

Official Sukveillance. 

You went- to Pyongyang, where the 
members of the New People's Society were 
divided in opinion as to what should bn 
done— protest openly against annexation, 
or work secretly. The opinion of the for- 
eign residents was sought, and they ad- 
vised the members to go to work secretly. 
About the middle of August the Seoul 
headquarters of the Society asked that le- 
presentatives be sent up to discuss certain 
matters, and you. An Tai-kuk, and Yl 
Seung-hun went up to the capital. Do 
you remember this? — When I was aj; 
Yangben I was constantly watched by tne 
police — in fact, I had my meals under offi- 
cial surveillance. I do not know why I 
am asked whether I went to Seoul as a 
"representative"; I do not understand 
what the word is intended to mean. 

We mean that you went to Seoul as a 
representative of your fellow-members of 

[ 66 ] 

the Society. — I have no fellow-members, 
and I was not sent to Seoul, as alleged. 

You met Baron Yuu in Seoul, who lold 
you that the Governor-General was to be 
assassinated, and you were told to go back 
to Pyong-yang to prepare to carry out the 
plot. — 1 was in Yangben district, and had 
only seen Baron Yun once in four years. 

Orator's Alleged Toi-r. 

Y'ou were also told that the attempt on 
the Governor-General was to be made at 
a railway-station, and Syen Chuen was 
considered an ideal place for the purpose. 
Pyong-yang was thought good, but Syen 
Chueu was better because of the many for- 
eign residents there, whom the Governor- 
General would probably leave his car to 
greet, which would give an excellent op- 
portunity for carrying out the plot 
against him. — I did not go to Seoul at 
this time, and therefore I cannot under- 
stand why these questions are being put 
to me. 

You are well-known as an eloquent 
speaker, so after your return to Pyong- 
yang you made a tour along .the railway, 
stopping at various places to tell people 
about the doctrines of your Society, and 
encouraging them to be decisive in carry- 
ing out the object. — I am not an orator. 
Moreover, I cannot make either head or 
tail of the Court's questions. 

So you do not understand the ques- 
tions ? Well, you first wont to Nap 
Chyongjong to talk to Yi Kin-yop aboui 
the doctrine of the Society, and then you 
went to Syen Chuen. Do you remember 
it ? — No, I do not. I do not know even 
the name of the man mentioned. Besides, 
at that time I had quite a company of 
gendarmes and police always watching 

Is that so? Well, you then went to 
Syen Chuen station with a party of men, 
and you all carried revolvers, but the 
Governor-General did not arrive, as you 
had expected. — I don't know any such 

Once during September 1910 you re 
turned to Yangben, whence yon went to 
Seoul. There you got news that the 
Governor General was Roipg north again. 
80 you went back to Pyong yang and in- 
formed An Tai-kuk. You also reported 
the news to your followers at various 
places along the railway, and on Septem- 
ber IBth— the date on which the Governor- 
General was expected to pass — you and 
your party again went to Syen Chuen 
station, armed with revolvers. You found 

that once more you had been misled, ari 
the Governor did not arrive. — I knew 
nothing at all about the supposed move- 
ments of the Governor-General, as I was 
at Yangben at this time. Not even in a 
dream did I ever think of going to the 
railway station with a revolver. 

Alleged Alibi i.x Coukt Records. 

In October Yi Chong-sun went to the 
Taikeuk book-store and reported news of 
the coming of the Governor-General. 
Again you conveyed this news along the 
line, and again you went to Syen Chuen 
station, but once more you found that 
you had been wrongly informed — Yi in 
a total stranger to me. .As for my being 
in Pyong-yang at this time, if the Court 
will refer to the record of my examina- 
tion in this Court last year on a charge ot 
violating the Peace Preservation Law, it 
will be seen that I was not in Pyong-yang. 

In November you again went to Seoul 
with Yi Seung-hun and An Tai-kuk. — 1 
did not. 

You returned north by way of Whang- 
hai-do, stopping at -An-ak to visit the 
Yangsil School. Is that so ? — I went to 
that school about November 20th for a 
visit of inspection. 

Opposition to Poi.hy ok Viole.nce. 

Did that visit have any connection with 
this present conspiracy? — None whatever. 
But I went to Seoul about this time to 
persuade An Myung-kcun to abandon the 
idea of attacking Count Yi Wan-yong. 

Yes, you went to the capital with Kim 
Kwi, and met An Tai-kuk, Baron Yun, 
and Yang Ki-tak to talk over the execu- 
tion of your plans. — No, I did not go to 
Seoul with Kim Kwi. This f.ict was 
proved in the criminal proceedings taken 
against me last year. 

So you all talked the matter over, acd 
about November 13th you went back to 
Pyong-yang and reported the result of the 
conference to the members of th'^ SncietY 
at Syen Chuen. Chongju, Kwaksan. 
Pyong-yang. Did this jncan that you had 
decided to carry out the pint' — No. 
About November IfllO I went to Seoul to 
see Baron Yun and Yang Kl-tak to tell 
them what 1 thought about the asnar 
sination policy of .\n Myiing-kenn (bro- 
ther of the murderer of Prince Itni. who 
had a scheme for assassinating Count YI 
Wan-yong and other high officials in the 
former Korean Government I expressed 
myself as being strongly opposed to any 
such scheme, and my viewi were warmly 

] 67 ] 

endorsed by Baron Yuu and Yang Kitak, 
both saying that if such outrages were 
attempted, the result could not be any- 
thing but unfortunate for Korea. They 
botli asked me to do my utmost to per- 
suade An to abandon his plan. I have 
not been connected In any way with this 

You went to Chyongju with Kil Chin- 
hyong, called the local members of th? 
Society together, and told them of the 
Governor-General's coming. You also 
invited them to go down to Syen Chuen 
to have a further discussion of your 
plans, and then yourself proceeded to the 
town. — It is not true. 

In Syen Chuen you met the others at 
Yi Seung-hun's house, and you said that 
although 3'ou had been misled before, 
this time the news about the Governor- 
General was absolutelj' authentic. You 
all met again at Yi's house, and a com- 
mittee was appointed to collect funds and 
purchase revolvers. — I know nothing 
about this. 

You then proceeded to Wiju, where you 
met Yi Keui-tang, of New Wiju, and Kil 
Chin-hyong, of Pyong-yang, and made 
further arrangements for the attack on 
the Governor-General. — I request tho 
Court to investigate the evidence more 

At Kim Chang-whan's request, you ad- 
dressed the students of the Yangsil 
school, and urged them to join the secret 
movement for the sake of the country. — 
I never went to Wiju, nor did I mak-i 
any such speech as alleged. If I made 
such a speech, there must be someone who 
heard it. 

It is because there were people who 
listened to your remarks on that occa- 
sion that the matter has come to light. — 
I should like to discuss this point further 
with the Court. 

You then went back to Syen Chueu 
from Wiju. — It is impossible, since I 
never went to Wiju. 

JIURDER OF Prince Ito Coxdemxed. 

At Syen Chuen you assembled the mem 
bers of your party and told them to 
bring themselves to think in the sauto 
way as An Chung-keun, the assassin of 
Prince Ito. There are many among th<= 
men now accusecj with you who heard 
this speech of yours. — I did not go to 
Syen Chuen, nor did I make such a 
speech as that mentioned. I am one of 
those men who believe that the assassina- 
tion of Prince Ito was a wicked act which 

did no good to Korea, and moreover has- 
tened the day of annexation. This is my 
iipiiiiuii, and I told An Myung-keun, the 
brother of the man who killed Prince Ito, 
what my views were in regard to assas- 
sination, and I tried to persuade him to 
abandon tlie plan he had formed to ac- 
tack the former Korean Premier, as I 
have already told the Court. 

You got information on November 26tii 
that the Governor-General was coming to 
Syen Chuen next day, and you and your 
parti — 150 men in all — went to the rail- 
way station, armed with revolvers, with 
the intention of shooting the Governor. — 
Such an idea never entered my head. 
November 24th (old calendar) fell on a 
Sunday, and the next day was Christmas 
Day, which we celebrated in the usual 
way. Next day (the 26th) I was told by 
a man from Seoul that Yi Seunghun 
was in Pyong-yang with two business- 
men from the capital, and they were 
'■tfiying in a hotel kept by a Japanese. 
I was asked by this man from Seoul to 
go to the hotel and see these two busi- 
ness-men and explain to them the pro- 
mising prospects of the porcelain in- 
dustry in this particular locality. I went 
to the hotel, and found that the so called 
business-men were the son and a nephew 
of the former Korean Minister of Educa- 
tion. Therefore I had no time to go to 
Syen Chuen, even had I wanted to. 

Mr. McCune's Alleged Instructions. 

You all assembled at the mission school 
at Syen Chuen, and went to the railway 
station, but as the Governor-General did 
not leave the car, you had to return with- 
out effecting your object. In the even- 
ing you all met again at the school, and 
you told the others that the Governor- 
General would be sure to leave his car 
next day, so that the party should not 
fail to attack him. McCune then told 
the party that they should fire at the 
Japanese with whom he would shako 
hands. So on the 28th you all went onro 
more to the station, did you not ? — I did 
not go to Syen Chuen that day, and I 
know nothing about the alleged proceed- 
ings. As for Mr. McCune, I met him once, 
but a long time ago. 

A party of l.'O of you went to the rail- 
way station and stood in double lines ex- 
tending from the New Wiju to the P.vong- 
yang side. The Governor-General alight- 
ed from his car, and after greeting those 
who had assembled to receive him, re- 
turned to his car and the train moved 

[ fi« J 

away. You failed in your attempt on tbr? 
life of Count Terauchi partly because ho 
■was not known to your party by sigh', 
and partly because of the strict guard 
that was kept of him. — I do not know the 
fate of the General. But if the Court 
thinks that 1 met Mr. McCune in con- 
nection with this affair, I request that 
the Court calls him as a witness. 

Upon coming back from the station 
once more you aeain addressed the men 
In your party, and said that this failure 
could not be helped. Another chance 
would, however, be looked for, and their 
object eventually accomplished after 
much toil and labour. — I told the wife 
of An Myung-keun, when she called on 
me on November 17th, that she should 
persuade her husband to give up his Idea 
of attacking high officials. 

There are a large number of men from 
Syen Chuen who declare that they heard 
you give the address just mentioned. — I 
admit I have delivered many speeches, 
but they were all dealing with sctencj. 
I have never dared to touch on political 
affairs in my speeches. If It can be 
proved that I did, I am ready to be killed. 

■RiKiSH.vM.vx's Evidence. 

Do you know one of Ira Chl-chong'B 
servants named Yl ? — I know a man of 
that name who pulls a jinrikisha. 

He says that since August 1910 you 
frequently went to his master's house 
and had secret conferences with Baron 
Y'un. Yang Kl tak, Yl Seung-hun, and An 
Tal-kuk. In October alone you went 
there four times. Is that so ?— I cannot 
understand with what object this man 
has given false evidence against me. I 
■waa then at Y'angben and An-ak. 

Did you not meet at the house every 
day during August, September, and Octo- 
ber ? — No; it Is Impossible. 

Do you know Kang, who was formerly 
In the office of the Tat Ban Mai-il Shin- 
po ? — Yes, I know him; he was an ac- 

He also says that you came up from 
Pyong-yang to Seoul and met at Im's 
house.— I cannot see why he said thi'? 
against me, and I regret to see that the 
Court accepts the evidence of a jinrlkl- 
sha-man against me, and does not con- 
sider my statements in defence. 

Baron Yun also took part In the con- 
ference which was hold on the sugges- 
tion of Yang Kl-tak. Several persons 
other than the jinrikisha coolie have 
given evidence to the same effect. 

In reply to this the accused made a 
long statement which was Interrupted by 
the Court interpreter, but accused went 
on with his reply, the Judges and even 
some of the accused smiling as he con- 
tinued, to address the Court. The final 
upshot of all this was that the ititerpreter 
summarised accused's lengthy statement 
by saying that he complained that when 
Baron Yun was examined, he understood 
that everyone else had been questioned, 
and so simply said " yes " to every ques- 
tion put to him, in order to get through 
the examination as quickly as possible. 
But even so. Baron Yun had never said 
that he had met accused in a conference 
held in Im's house in Seoul. 

By the Court: You were examined side 
by side with Ivll Chin-hyong who ad- 
mitted that he went to Syen Chuen with 
you to kill the Governor-General. — Kil did 
not admit this at first. He only said 
" yes " when he became thoroughly scared 
by the threatening glare of the Procura- 

Pkotest aoai.vkt Ex.v.mination ox Alleged 
False Statements. 

Yang Chom-mlung also said that KII 
went to Syen Chuen from Pyong-yang. 
.\nd even supposing that you were at 
Yangben at the time, as you claim you 
were, you must have gone to Syen Chuen 
from there. — Yang has said that he 
simply answered the questions put to him 
by saying " yes " in every case. If he 
really made a false statement against 
me, I cannot understand his object. U 
is to be regretted that I am examined 
here in open Court on the strength of 
false statements made by other men. It 
waa because I feared that this would be 
the case that I tried to commit suicide 
rather than be tried in such a way. 

Your associates have not mentioned 
your name in this open Court, but they 
did at the police headquarters and in tha 
Procurator's Court. You are a well- 
known figure among your followers, and 
need not be offended at the statements 
of men about you which have been quot- 
ied.— At the police headquarters I had 
' to admit what I did not mean by saying 
i " yes " to everything, but now lu this 
! open Court I say nothing but what my 
' conscience prompts me to. Statements 
which were made under torture cannot 
be taken as evidence. 

The Presiding Judge: All right, all 

[ «« ] 

Counsel A.xn the Court Ixterpretek. 

Accused went on to make a further 
statement, but the Court interpreter did 
not take any notice of it. Thereupon Mr. 
Ogawa, one of the counsel for the defence, 
got up and asked the Court to order that 
everything said by the accused should 
be interpreted. The interpreter then in- 
formed the Court that accused had said 
that all the other accused must have 
made these false statements under tor- 

By the Court: Did the Yangben school 
have a roll-call book ? — I remember that 
we had one for pupils, but 1 don't know 
if there was one for teachers. 1 was a 
teacher there for two months, at a 
monthly salary of ¥25. Some of the 
teachers were rather unsteady, and used 
to stay away from school quite frequently. 
Eventually It was decided that any 
teacher who absented himself from school 
should have his salary stopped for so 
many days. On leaving the schoo' I got 
¥50, the full amount of my two months 
salary, which proves that I was never 
away from Yangben during that time. 

Here we have a roll-call for teachers, 
according to which you attended school 
only for four days ending November fth. 
There is nothing to show where you were 
on the other days of those two months 
— I attended school regularly every day. 
Vk'e were very busy, and sometimes did 
not affix our seals to the attendance 

It seems to us things were done in i 
very easy-going way in your school. — 
I appeal to the Court to examine as wit- 
nesses certain of the students and tbe for 
eigners who were connected with the 
school in order to prove that during those 
two months I was always at school. 

The Court gave no indication of desiring 
to call the witnesses applied for, and 
cal'ed Yang Ki-tak up for examination 

The name of Yang Ki-tak will be fami- 
liar to most readers of the ChroniclP. 
He appeared as a witness some years ago 
in the case in which Mr. Bethell, Editor 
and Proprietor of the Korea Daily Kf%cs. 
was charged with " inciting to disorder ' 
and was sentenced to three weeks' im- 
prisonment by a British Judge. This 
was in the extra-territorial days, but 
since the time Yang Ki-tak appeared as 
a witness In a British Court, he has been 
haled up more than once in a Japanese 
Court for various alleged political of 
fences. Last year he was sentenced to 
imprisonment under the Peace Preser- 
vation Law, and now he has been brought 

from jail to answer a more serious charge 
— that of conspiring to assassinate the 
Governor-General. From the following 
report of his examination, however, it 
will be seen that no more incrirainatin,'^ 
evidence has been obtained against him 
than against the other 122 alleged con- 
spirators. Yang faced the Court with 
dignified composure, and replied to the 
questions put to him respectfully but 
firmly. The following is a report of his 
examination: — 

By the Court: Were you sentenced by 
the Seoul District Court in April last year 
to imprisonment with hard labour for 
violation of the Peace Preservation Law? 
— Yes. 

What is your religion? — I am a Chris- 
tian, and a member of the Presbyterian 

What education have you had? — I 
studi'ed Chinese until I was 15. and then 
I studied foreign languages and the new 
learning, but I am not a graduate of any 

Did you study in Nagasaki? — I did not 
study there, but I taught Korean. 

Did you ever hold any office? — I held 
office in the Household of the former Em- 
peror of Korea as interpreter to the Board 
of Masters of Ceremonies. 

How long did you hold that office? — I 
held it for two years. 

When did jou lose your position? — 
Seven years ago. I left the day after the 
Five Article Treaty between Japan and 
Korea was signed. 

Did you have a Japanese badge, and 
return it? — Yes.. 

When did you start working with the 
Korea Daily JS'ewsf — When I gave up my 
official position. Mr. Bethell [the pro- 
prietor of the paper] came to Korea about 
this time. 

Did you work for this paper until May, 
1910?— Yes. 

The " KoBE.\ Daily News." 

What did you do then? — I tried to pub- 
lish a paper on the same lines as the Tai 
Han Mai-il Shinpo. but the scheme was 
not successful. I then joined the staff of 
the French-Korean Company. 

Are you a member of the New People's 
Society? — I approve the principles of the 
Society, but am not a member of it. The 
Society was established in the United 
States about 10 years ago, and six years 
ago An Chang-ho asked me to help the 
Society. I said I could only do »o by 

r 70 ] 

refprring to it in the paper, .but he did 
not want this done. 

It is said that you are Vice-President 
of the Society and a member of the Exe- 
cutive Committee. — That is inaccurate. I 
know nothing about it. 

Do you Itnow if Baron Yun is the Presi- 
dent? — An Changho told me that the 
Prrsidfnt of the Society was in America. 
I afterwards learned that Baron Yun had 
joined the Society, but I never heard that 
he had become President. 

Are An Tai-kuk and Ok Kwan-pin mem- 
bers of the Society? — 1 have never heard 


When you were in the Korea Daily 
2icus office did Kim have charge of collect- 
ing the money? — Yes. 

Did you send him to Pyong-yang in 
1910?— Yes, I think I did. 

Was that about the time the ex-Emperor 
of Korea went on a tour of inspection? — 

At the time that tour was made, did 
you send Kim to the Pyong-yang branch 
of the New People's Society to tell the 
members that the object of the Society 
■was to assassinate high officials, and that 
as Prince Ito would be in attendance on 
the ox-Emperor, he should be killed ? — 
That story is a fabrication. The object 
of the Society was not assassination. But 
even if that were the object, a youngster 
like Kim would not have been entrusted 
■with such an important mission as that 

We have evidence from Yi and others 
of your comrades in Pyongan Province 
that when Kim went about collecting 
money he also talked about assassination, 
and that he did this by your orders. — I 
do not know the man Yi, who said this, 
but I do know that the Society was under 
the control of An Chang-ho, who was in 
Pyongyang. He could give orders, but I 
could not. The Korea Daili/ Xews had 
nothing to do with the New People's 

Denial of Violent Pouct. 

There are some men who say that you, 
Yang Ki-tak, are a member of this So- 
ciety, and that you hold extreme views 
regarding the mission of this body. They 
eay that you insisted upon the assassina- 
tion of the Governor-General and the five 
Jllnistors of State of the former Korean 
Government. — There may have been men 
who have said so. The inirpose of Yang 
Kltak and the spirit of Yang Ki-tak are 

right and truth. How, then, could I think 
of such plans and give voice to 'such opin 

What are the objects of the New 
People's Society? — I have already explain- 
ed this at the Procurator's Office. The 
object of the Society ■was to overcome the 
old and decayed ideas of the ancient days 
of Korea, to lead the people into a new 
civilisation, and to help them develop into 
a nation of liberty. 

These were the ostensible objects of the 
Society, but in reality you planned to 
establish a military school at Chlentao, 
and to educate your children there to pre- 
pare for a war of independence when 
Japan should be engaged in war with 
Russia or America. Further, your Society 
planned to assassinate the Governor-Gene- 
ral and other high officials in order to 
arouse the spirits of the people, and to 
attract the attention of other countries to 
the dissatisfaction of the Korean people 
with the present political ri'gime. As- 
sassination, therefore, is one of the im- 
portant objects of yovir Society. — From 
what I said just now, the Court should 
have understood the objects of the So- 
ciety. What is known as " purpose " is 
disclosed to the world by action. The day 
after the annexation of Korea I conceived 
the idea of establishing a military school, 
and here [pointing to the red convict's 
dress which he was wearing] Is the result. 
Look at the clothes I have on! But this 
has nothing to do ■n'ith the charge of con- 
spiracy now brought against me. 

Was It not the Idea of the Society from 
the very first to establish this school? — If 
it had been, the idea would have been 
carried out from the first. No, the Idea 
was quite a new one. ^ 

The I.NrERrRETAnos or Evidence. 

What were your thoughts at the time 
of the annexation? Had you no idea of 
assassinating high officials ? — I had a 
mind to kill them and to establish a mili- 
tary school in Chientao at the time. Then 
I took a trip to Chientao to inspect condi- 
tions there so that we might settle there. 
The annexation is an event ■which no 
Korean will ever 'atop grieving over, but 
there is no help for it now. It Is only the 
fate which has been hanging over Korea 
for decades, and all that can be done 
now is to make plans for the future. This 
Is what I told Im Chl-chong. 

[Upon comparing the above report of 

Yang Kl-tak's reply, as interpreted Into 

I VI ] 

Japanese by the Court interpreter, with 
a note taken of Yang's own reply in 
Korean, it is significant to find that the 
words " I had a mind to kill them 
etc.," given above, do not appear in 
the Korean note. Yang's reply, as 
translated direct from the Korean, reads 
as follows: — " I have had the same 
thoughts from the day of annexation 
until to-day. On that day, as I went 
about the city, I found many people 
weeping. During that night, as I was 
thinking, I realised that it would be 
useless to grieve over the new condi- 
tions, so I tried to make out a new plan. 
I met Im Chi-chong, and said to him: — 
' It is natural for us to feel sad, but what 
profit will come from only feeling sad .' 
The destruction of our home is not the 
matter of a morning or of a night, but 
it has been gradually coming about 
through several decades. Let us make 
plans and work, waiting for a future 
opportunity.' " It will be noted that the 
reply as taken down in Japanese from 
the interpreter by our reporter is sub- 
stantially the same as the Korean ver- 
sion, with the important exception of 
the words: — "I had a mind to kill 
them etc." How it comes about that 
this admission appears in Yang's an- 
swer E.s interpreted to the Court, and 
is absent from a note taken in Korean 
of his reply, we are unable to explain. 
Those who have followed the report of 
the trial, however, will remember that 
complaint was made more than once 
about the interpretation. — Ed.] 
Did you not say you wanted to start a 
■war of independence, and to train the 
people in the military school you were to 
establish at Chientao ?^I gave all the 
facts ^bout this school last year, when I 
was tried and sentenced in the Seoul 

You need not answer If you do not want 
to. — Indeed, I shall answer all you ask 

Then you did not say anything about 
the school and the war of Independence? 
— I did not Intend to declare a real war 
of independence. I thought we could set- 
tle in Chientao and educate our people 
properly, for by developing knowledge the 
day of independence will come of itself. 

Assassination Condemned. 

It seems rather a far-fetched idea to 
emigrate to a place and start an indepen- 
dence war by means of education, which 

would necessarily take a long time. Mean- 
while, the Koreans would become sub- 
jected to Japan, and it would serni to 
others that they approved the annexation. 
It was to prevent this idea getting abroad 
that you planned to assassinate the high 
officials, did you not? — I believe the 
Korean people generally understand what 
my thoughts and opinions are about them 
and our country. Assassination is a small 
and useless act which is not at all ad- 

Did it not become the object of the New 
People's Society, after the annexation was 
effected, to kill the Governor-General and 
establish a military school at Chientao? — 
I confessed last year about the school, 
but I know nothing about the assassina- 
tion scheme. The military school was 
a new idea. I shall give an illustration 
from the Bible, for I am a Christian. 
Just as the Old Testament became uss- 
less after the New Testament came into 
being, so our old plans became useless 
after the new plans were made. 

The National Debt Redemption Scheme. 

But according to the evidence given by 
Baron Yun, you hold the most extreme 
views about the assassination of high 
officials. — I have met the Baron, and have 
talked to him in the presence of others, 
but if he said that about me he must havo 
told a He. 

[The Korean note of Yang's answer 
reads: — " I met Yun Chi-ho in regard to 
the scheme for the redemption of the 
National Debt. I met him at a place 
which is neither secret nor was It his 
residence. It was a place where many 
people assemble — the Y.M.C.A. building. 
We spoke only on the subject of paying 
off the National Debt."] 
About August 1910 you went to Im Chi- 
chong's house outside the West Gate ot 
Seoul, and in a secret room you met An 
Tai-kuk. Ok Kwan pin, Yi Seung-hun, 
Baron Yun, and Im Chi-chong to talk ovei 
your grievances about the annexation. 
You then said that if you men failed to 
publicly complain about the political 
change which had come about, it would 
be assumed that the Koreans were satis- 
fied with the annexation, and you would 
thus lose the sympathy of foreign Poweri. 
It was necessary for high ofTicials 
to be assassinated as an indication of 
your protest, and as the Governor-General 
was shortly going on a tour through the 
country, the chance thus afforded of as- 
sassinating him should not be missed. — 

[ 72 ] 

I never consulted these men on such a 
matter. Yi Seung-hun and Ok Kwau-pin 
■were then at Pyong-yang. 1 did meet 
Baron Yun, but not at Im's house, nor 
was it in connection with the alleged 

[The Korean note of the proceedings 
is rather more graphic. In reply vo 
the Court's question, Yang Is reported 
to have said: — 
What date was It ? 
In August. — But was there no date ? 
No date. — Since there was no such 
meeting and no discussion, there very 
probably ^'as no date. 

Yang then went on to explain that 
his conversation with Baron Yun was 
solely about the scheme for the re- 
demption of the National Debt.] 


But Baron Yun has said that you your- 
self proposed that the Governor-General 
should be assassinated, and the Barou 
says he endorsed the scheme.- — It is Im- 
possible. I have never proposed such a 

I The Korean note of Yang's reply 
reads: — "Some days ago Y'un Chl-no 
f during his examination in open 
Court) said that he did not so to Im'a 
house. If Baron Yun is not a foolish 
man, how could he actree with the al 
leged suggestion ? Further, Y'ang Ki- 
tak never Institutes plans, though 
sometimes he expresses his opinion tor 
or against things which have been al- 
ready decided."] 

Do you know that another conference, 
held in the same place and attended by 
the same men, was held in October ? — It 
is not true. 

Was it early In November, then 7 — It 
was not. 

But Baron Y'un has said that he and 
you others discussed the proposed assas- 
sination in August, September, and Nov- 
ember. — There Is no truth in it. 

Do you know a man named Yl, a ser- 
vant employed by Im ? — I know the 
'rlkishaman there. 

This man says that during those 
months you. An Tal-kuk, Ok Kwanp-pin. 
and Baron Yun met at the house and 
held secret conferences. — A servant may , 
Bay HO. but It would be probably dimciil' 
for this man to identify the Baron If I 
asked him now to do so. 

[The Korean note reads: — " I wish 
hr" (the 'riklsha-man) was a witness. 

If you call him now and ask him to iden- 
tify us could you not find out thu 
truth ? " ] 

Kang, who was formerly on the Tai Han 

Uai-il Shinpo, was also well known to 

j the Baron. Was it not through Barou 

, Yun's recommendation that Kang got 

[ into that olBce? — He was recommended 

by the accountant. 

Kudu, has stated that he also met you 
others at Im's house, and Introduced you 
to Baron Y^un. — It is not a fact. 

I According to the Korean report of 
Y'ang's reply, he said: — " I do not know 
whether he said that or not. At the 
meetings I attended we discussed the 
redemption of the National Debt, and 
not assassination. If Kang discussed 
assassination with us, why is he not 
present here In Court today with ■ 
us ?"] 

Y'ou deny all these facts, but as a result 
of the meetings at Im's house you decided 
to make an attempt on the life of the 
Governrr-General at Pyong-yang, Cliyong- 
ju, Syen Chuen, and other places. On 
August 20th, September 15th, and Octo- 
ber 20th, 1910, your party went to 
these stations with the object of killing 
him, but the Governor-General did not 
arrive as expected. In November he dm 
make a trip, but at so: le places he did not 
stop, at others he did not leave his car. 
and for one reason and another the plot 
was unsuccessful. — I cannot understand 
the present case. Nothing at all happened 
of this kind. 

Llvorean note of Yang's reply: — " i 
have heard all this several times durln«; 
the trial, but 1 do not know how suet 
reports have arisen. Though you say 
Yang Ki-tak, of Seoul, said all this, l 
know nothing at all about it, as I said 
just now."] ' 

In the course of your trial in the Seoul 
Court last year, you stated that you ha'I 
a mind at one time to restore the Han 
Dynasty. Do you remember this ?— I do 
not remember distinctly, but I remember 
saying that although the Han Dynastv 
was ruined, I could not forget It. 

Going a step farther, you said that yo'- 
wanted to sec Korea an Independent 
State. — If I said so It must appear on 
the Court records. 

Yea. It doe.s. Now, as a result of the 
idea, did not the project of assassination 
spring from the bottom of your heart ?— 
I have never thought abimt It. AdmlttUm- 
that the Court record contains my state- 

[ 73 ] 

ment that I desired to see the Han Dy- 
nasty re-established, that is no reason 
why I should plan an attempt on the 
Governor-General. It is evident that tne 
assassination of that official could never 
have brought the Han Dynasty back into 
power. Further, the Governor-General is 
not only one man; one Governor-General 
having fallen, another would at once take 
his place. 

This concluded the examination oi 
Yang Ki-tak, and left only two more pri- 
soners to be examined. The first of these 
to be called was Im Chi-chong, at whose 
house in Seoul the chief " conspirators " 
are alleged to have met. He said that 
he was a Methodist, and had lived five 
years in America. During that time he 
Joined the Xew People's Society, the ob- 
ject of which was to help Koreans living 
abroad. Upon returning to Korea he 
entered the office of the Tai Han Mai-il 
Shinpo, but had nothing to do with the 
editorial side of the business. 

By the Court: Did you occupy a house 
oned by Baron Yun? — No. I occupied 
a house belonging to Kang. 

What was the rent ? — I had it free, be- 
cause I had a claim of ¥300 against Kang. 
The house was Just outside the West 

What were the objects of the New 
People's Society when you entered the 
office of the Tai Han Mai-il Shinpo ? — 
As I have already stated, I Joined the 
Society about seven years ago when J 
was in America. The headquarters, j 
think, were in Hawaii, and the objects 
of the Society were not those which have 
been alleged. 

Were you arrested when Count Yi Wan- 
yong was stabbed ? — Yes. 

Were you arrested because you had been 
given a dagger by Yi Chai-myong, and 
handed it to him when he attacked the 
Count ? — No; but I was arrested on 
suspicion of being an accomplice. 

Were not conferences held at your house 
by Baron Yun, Yang Ki-tak, An Tai-kuk, 
and others after the annexation had been 
declared? — No such conferences were ever 
held in my house. Yi Seung-hun, Yang 
Ki-tak, and others came to see me at 
times, but Baron Yun has never been to 
my house. 

Did you not all agree to assassinate 
hi?h officials, and send Yi Seung-hun and 
An Tai kuk to carry out the plot, while 
Ok Kwan-pin was appointed to preach 
along the way on the objects of your 

Society ?— No; I know nothing about this. 
An and Yang often called on me, but 
not Baron Yun and Ok. 

Did these men meet at your house in 
October and November 1910 ? — No. 

But they did assemble there, and Yang 
proposed that the Governor-General 
should be killed, all those present sup- 
porting his suggestion. This is shown 
by the evidence of Baron Yun at the 
police headquarters and the Procurator's 
Office. — It is not so. As for Baron Yun's 
evidence, I should be obliged if the court 
would read the record out to me. [Baron 
Yun, It will be remembered, withdrew 
his " confession " at the police head- 
quarters on being examined in Court, and 
described how he had been trapped into 
" confessing." — Ed.] 

But Kang, the owner of your house, 
said that you aud the others met four 
or five times at your house. — Kang must 
have said that in " disagreeable circum- 
stances " [i.e. under torture or threats.] 

Your servant Yi has also stated that 
during the month of August these men 
met at your house three or four times to 
consult each other about the conspiracy. 
Is that true ? — Yi is about 60 years of 
age, and it is impossible for an old man 
like him to accurately remember things 
about other people. If he did make such 
a statement, it might be due to tue con- 
dition he found himself in [i.e. intimida- 
tion or torture.] I beg to request the 
Court to call him and allow me to ques- 
tion him. 

The Court ignored the prisoner's re- 
quest, and put one more question, asking 
accused whether he and others did not 
go to various places along the railway 
on certain dates with the object of killing 
the Governor-General. The accused re- 
plied to the effect that he had never taken 
part in any conferences regarding the 
alleged conspiracy, nor did he know any- 
thing at all about any such scheme. This 
concluded his examination, and there re- 
mained but one more prisoner to be ex- 

The last of the 123 men to be examined 
by the . Court ' in connection with the 
charge of conspiracy was Lyu Tong sol, 
a really handsome man who, dressed in 
spotless white Korean robes, made quite 
a distinguished figure as he faced the 
Court for examination. Lyu was former 
ly an officer in the Korean Army, and 
he replied to the questions put to him 
In the sharp but respectful manner 

[ 74 ] 

ot a military man. He spoke Japanese 
■well, so the services of the Court Inter- 
preter were dispensed with. 

Early Days in Japanese Army. 

In reply to questions by the Court, ac- 
cused said he held the Fifth Grade of 
the Order of the Rising Sun. He also 
had a war medal, having been attached 
to the Japanese Army during the Russo- 
Japanese War. He had no Korean decora 
tions. He said he graduated from tha 
Seijo Military Academy in Tokyo in 
1902, and served in the Army until the 
following year, when he entered the Mill 
tary Cadet School. In 1904, when the 
war broke out, he went to Manchuria 
with his regiment, and afterwards re 
turned to Korea, when he entorea the 
Korean Army as Ensign. He was pro 
moted to the rank of Major, and held 
that rank when the Army was disbanded 
about four years ago as the result of 
various political changes. Since leaving 
the 'army he had not engaged in any sort 
of business, and was not closely acquaint- 
ed with Baron Yun, whom he first met 
soon after his return to Korea from 
Manchuria. Accused said he met Yang 
Kitak about the same time, and Im 
Chichorg he had known for about four 
years. Accused said he had been told by 
An Chang ho about the Xew People's 
SociPty. He had said that the object oi" 
the Society was to encourage the Korean 
people to adapt themselves to the new 
order of things, and to encourage In 
dustry and commercf. So far as he (ac- 
cused) knew, there had been no change 
In the objects of the Society. 

By the Court: Do you not know that 
the object of the New People's Society 
was to establish a military school at 
Chientao, and to start a war of indeiien 
dence by taking advantage of the oppor 
tunity afforded if Japan were involved 
In war with Russia or America?— I do 
not know anything of the kind. 

This being a roundabout and slow- 
moving scheme, which would take a lorn; 
time to realise, your party resolved to 
take more prompt and decisive action by 
assassinating the Govt-rnor-Gfneral and 
other high onicials in order to demon- 
Ptrato to the world that the Koreans had 
not subjected themselves to ine Japanese. 
— I never heard anything about It 
Movements in North Korea. 

Did you go to Chientao about March 
or April 1910. and stay there until about ^ 
August?— Yea. I 

Did you then go to Vladivostok and 
return in October ? — Yes. 

What was your object In going to 
Chientao?— I was in Peking on business 
early in 1910, and An Chang-ho came to 
me with some friends and urged me to 
go to Chientao. I agreed, and went; 
that is all. 

Did you arrange to publish a news- 
paper there? — Yes. I had an idea ot 
publishing a magazine, but it was not 
carried out. 

Did you not Intend to propagate the 
policy of the New People's Society 
through thai magazine? — No, it is not 

Prior to this, about the end of 1908 
or the beginning of 1909. did you not 
plan the assassination of Prince Ito dur- 
ing his tour of Inspection throui;'a the 
country with the ex-Emperor of Korea? — 
I have heard about this scheme on 
several occasions, but it is a sheer fabrica- 
tion. I made a trip to Pyong-yang. New 
Wiju, and Wiju about this time, but my 
journey had nothing to do with any such 
plan, nor did I ever think of d-jing such 
a tl-ing. 

Did you make a trip to the north from 
Seoul in October 1910?— Yes. I left Seoul 
about the beginning of October tor 
I'yong-yang, where I stayed for two or 
three nights. I then went to Chinampo. 
staying there two days, and then v.eut ti 
Pyong-yang, where I stayed for two or 
three days. I also went to Wiju. wh.^ro 
I stayed one day, to New Wiju. where I 
stayed over one night, and to Charyong- 
kwan, where I stayed for one night with 
O Heui-won, one ot the men now accused 
in this case. The following day I went 
by train to Syen Chuen. and then went 
up to Pyongyang, where I stayed two 

Did you go to Chyongju at this time? 
— No. although I went there when Prince 
Ito was making his tour of inspection 
through the country. I have not sinco 
been there. 

You stayed In the house of Yun Syong- 
un at Pyong-yiing. and having assembled 
the members ot the New People's Society 
at the Taikeuk book-store, you addressed 
them to the elTict that although their at- 
tempt on the life ot the Governor Gonern! 
had been unsuccessful, the plot should 
be carried out without fail at New Wiju. 
— No. that is not so. 

You also consulted Baron Yun on the 
matter, and agreed to organise a " dare- 
to die " party to carry out the proposed 

[ 75 ] 

assassination.— No, such a thing has 
never happened. 

But there are some people who have 
admitted having heard your addresses at 
the book-store and at the Taisong School. 
— It is impossible. 

You then went up to Wiju and then to 
Pyong-yang, where you delivered further 
addresses. — No. 

Did you put up at the house of Hong 
Song-in at Chyongju ?^No, I did not go 
there, and the man is a stranger to me. 

But men from Chyongju have given 
evidence that you went there and ad- 
dressed them.- — It is not true; I did not 
go there. 

Paik Mong-kiu is one of those who said 
so. — I know nothing about it. 

Did you go to Chyongju ? — No. 

You also went to New Wiju and talked 
over the conspiracy with Yi Keui-tang, 
did you not ? — No, I did not. 

Did you meet him outside the south 
gate of Wiju and tell him to kill the 
Governor-General at New Wiju ?— No.» 

You also sent your wife's brother to 
Kwaksan with instructions to tell the 
members of the Society there that you 
were at Syen Chuen preparing to carry 
out the plot, but you wished them also 
to make preparations so that they too 
could repeat the attempt if necessary. Is 
this true ? — I never made any such state- 

You also met the local members of the 
Society at Yi Seung-hun's house at 
Syen Chuen, and addressed them. — It is 
not true. I only went to that place once, 
and that was as a scout during the Russo 
Japanese war. 

The Alleged Meeting at the Mission 

You also met the members at Yi 
Seung-hun's office in Syen Chu.-^n, and 
again at the mission school there, where 
— in the presence of McCune, the prin- 
cipal of the school — you addressed those 
present on the subject of the conspiracy. 
— I did not do so. I remember, too. that 
Yi, when questioned about this incident 
in Court the other day, said he knew 
nothing about it. 

You then went back to Pyong yang, and 
continued to address the members of the 
Society about the conspiracy, but warn- 
ing them that if anyone should ask any 
questions about your movements, they 
Tvere to sav that you were going round 
trying to get people to take up sltaros in 
a porcelain factory which you were about 

to establish. Is that so ?— No. I did not 
tell anyone to do any such thing. It I3 
quite true, however, that I did go through 
this district trying to interest people to 
take shares in a company which I pro- 
posed to establish. 

You do not admit these facts, but we 
have evidence which shows that you went 
round North Korea in November 1910 
speaking to the people and urging them 
to assassinate the Governor-General. On 
October 31st and November 2nd you weht 
to New Wiju from Pyong yang, and ad- 
dressed the local members of the Society, 
telling them to proceed to the railway 
station and assassinate the Governor- 
General when he passed through on his 
way to attend the ceremony held 'n cele- 
bration of the opening of the Yalu bridge. 
The men went to the station, armed with 
revolvers, but could not carry out their 
plans owing to the strict way in whicti 
his Excellency was guarded. — This has 
absolutely no connection with mt. 

You held that the plot should be carried 
out with the utmost care and energy. A 
Korean barrister first went to the place, 
and then you and your party went to tha 
railway station on October 31st, and No- 
vember 1st and 2nd. Altogether you went 
six times to the station with the inten- 
tion of killing the Governor-General, but 
each time you found he was too closel/ 
guarded. — Nothing of this kind has ever 
happened so far as 1 am concerned; more- 
over, I am not acquainted with anybod}' 
in Wiju or New Wiju. 

Did you call uion Yi Seung-hun in 
June 1911?— No. 

You deny all these questions, ye* mem- 
bers of your narty from Syen Chuen, 
Pyong-yang, Chyongin, Kwaksan, and 
New Wiju have admitted that you went 
round to all these places and told them 
that although previous attempts on the 
Governor-General had been unsuccessful, 
the next attempt must be successful. — it 
does not matter to me what any persons 
have said. They have said, so I have 
just been told by the Court, that I met 
men at the Taikeuk book store to talk 
over the conspiracy. That statement 1» 
nothing but a sheer lie. For one thing, 
the bookstore is in a wide and busy 
street, and is frequented by a very large 
n,umber of people. How then could it be 
possible to discuss there such a scheme 
as the killing of a man ? 

There is another room upstairs. — It Is 
quite evident that the men referred to 

L 76 ] 

have told lies against me. The story dors 
not stand to reason at all. 

Did you go to Syen Chuen and Chyong 
ju in connection with this conspiracy? 
— No. 

PeoJapajsese AcTI^T^T. 

Several men here 1 Indicated by the 
Court] have said that they saw you— They 
are all strangers to me. I am also ac 
cused of having gone into these districts 
to advocate an attack upon Prince Ito. 
I did go to these places, yes, but certain- 
ly not with that object in view. At thai 
time the Resident-General was very un- 
popular among the people of Pyongan 
province, and I did everything In my 
power to smooth things over and improve 
conditions generally. 1 did this all out 
of my own pocket. I went round to th" 
various commercial firms and to the 
schools at places along tne railway, and 
tirged people to do certain things when 
the Resident-General came along. 1 
persuaded the people to turn out and go 
to the railway station to welcome him as 
lie passed through. There was some dis 
pute as to whether Korean jtrople shouUl 
hang out the Rising Sun flag or not, and 
iventufllly the Japanese flag was display- 
ed, which made me think that I had ac- 
roniplistied what 1 had set out to do !n 
bringing about better relations. But 
alas! all those deeds have now paid mc 
very badly, and in a wholly unexpected 
way. I never thought that for this I 
should be charged with conspiracy. 

You may have been involved in the 
plot. — There is no help for It if you look 
at things in that way. The evidence 
given against me by Yi Keui-tang was 
quite false, as I hope to prove later 
on by evidence. I was also alleged to 
have conferred with certain parties at 
Wiju who were interested in the con- 
spiracy, but this is also wrong, and Kim. 
who gave this evidence against me, was 
then in Seoul. 

Many other men from the various dis- 
tricts have also given evidence to th>^ 
same effect. — Yes, but they also said in 
Court that they did not know me per- 
sonally, and that they had said what 
thoy did against me because they had 
been " forced by rircumstances." I be- 
lieve that no matter what has been said' 
against ine by othi'vs. that which Is not 
true must sooner or later be found out. 
and an Innocent man will he released 
from the charge made against him. 

Since you went to Chientao with An 
Chang-ho. you must have had some 
special object, and cannot be regarded an 
an innocent man. — You cannot judge my 
innocence or guilt from the fact that I 
was once with this man. It would be a 
very strange thing if you did. 

Are you an admirer of An Chung-keua 
(the assassin of Prince Itoj '.' — .No. 

Did you approve of his actr — .no, i cm 
quite opposed to such acts. 

What is this? (a framed photograph 
of An.)— That is a picture of An. The 
fact that that picture was found in my 
house does not necessarily indicate that 
I am an admirer of the man. There is 
no inference to be drawn from that pic- 
ture being in my house; 1 think I explain- 
ed the whole thing to the police authori- 
ties. I believe my children put the picture 
in a frame. 

But you decorated your room with this 
picture. — That depends on the .way you 
look at the matter. If you hold that I 
was an'admirer of An because I had his 
picture on the wall, you might ]ust as 
well conclude that the photogrnpner also 
admired An because he took his picture. 

Questions by Cocnsel. 

The Court having concluded its ex- 
amination of accused, Mr. Okubo. counsel 
for the defence, asked permission to put 
some questions to accused. The Cou-t 
acquiescing, counsel asked accusea If ha 
had had an interview with Count Tera- 
uchi. the Govtrnor-General, in reijard co 
the porcelain company which he was en- 
the advocates of the two schemes. 

Interviews with the Govebnob-Ubnkrai. 
In reply, accused sairf that he met the 
Oovernor-Gencial in the sprins- of last 
year, and bad frequently met his Excel- 
lency before he returned to Japan. Ac- 
cused said the Governor-General told 
him not to mix himself up with political 
affairs, but to start an Industrial con- 
cern. It was as a result of these various 
meetings with the Governor-General, con- 
tinued accused, that he started to or- 
ganise the porcelain company. Later on 
he was arrested and detained in custody 
for several days on suspicion of belun 
connected with a certain affair, and when 
he next met the Governor-General his 
Excellency told him not to be disappoint- 
ed nt the Mtrh which had occurred, but 
to push on with his scheme for establish- 
ing the company. Upon the Governor- 
General returning to Korea from Japan. 

L " J 

accused again had an interview with 
him, and on explaining his plans, the 
Governor-General warmly endorsed them. 

Mr. Okubo: Did you go to Pyongac 
province with the idea of getting men to 
stand as promoters of this company, after 
you had consulted the Director of the 
Agricultural, Commercial, and Industrial 
Bureau of the Government-General? — 

There being no further questions, the 
Court rose, and the long task of ex- 
amining the accused came to an end. 





Seoul, July 12. 
The examination of the 12:; men ac- 
cused of conspiracy having been conclud- 
ed, the Court yesterday morning review- 
ed the evidence, and in thp afternoon 
listened to the addresses of counsel for the 
defence. The proceedings in the morning' 
were somewhat dull and uninteresting, 
MHien the Court sat at about 10.10 the 
presiding Judge announced that the 
official records prepared in the Procura- 
tor's Office of the statements made by 
accused would be read in Korean. The 
record of Baron Yun's evidence was first 
read by a Court interpreter, the readin? 
occupying nearly twenty minutes. 

On the conclusion of this statement 
Mr. Ogawa, one of the leading counsel tor 
the accused, pointed out to the Court that 
the reading of these records in Korean 
was of no value to most of the barrister-^ 
appearing for the accused, as they wer- 
not acquainted with the Korean language. 
The presiding Judge, in reply to coun- 
sel's remarks, said that only the records 
of the most prominent men among the 
accused would be read. In regard to th.- 
language. the Judge said that the records 
were read in Korean because most of the 
accused were unacquainted with Japan 
ese. and it was for their benefit that the 
records were being read. 

Records of the statements made by 
Chang Eung-chin, Yi Myong-yong, Kim 
Si-cham. Yi Pong-cho, and La Seung-hut 
were then read, this occupying about two 
hours. The more important parts of the 

evidence given by Yi Yong-wha, Chong 
Won-pun, and Paik Yong-hui were read 
in both languages. 

Next the documentary evidence pre- 
pared from other sources was gone over, 
and the revolvers and cartridges, a long 
sword, a sword-stick, two or three pocket 
electric lamps, note-books, and books of 
songs — these last containing the "dan- 
gerous thoughts " and " inflammatory 
phrases " already quoted — were agaia 
produced and re-identified. It was now 
past one o'clock, and the presiding Judge 
announced that the proceedings woui'J 
be adjourned till the afternoon, when 
any counter-evidence and counsel's 
statements on behalf of the accused would 
be dealt with. 

Statement by B.\ron- Tun. 

When the Court reassembled at 2.30 
p m. Mr. Miyake. one of the counsel for 
the defence, informed the Court that 
Baron Yun wished to make a statement, 
and asked permission for him to do so. 

The Court giving the desired permis- 
sion, Baron Yun came forward to address 
the Court in his defence. Speaking ia 
Japanese, Baron Yun said that when he 
was first examined in February last at 
the police headquarters and questioned 
as to whether he met certain other men 
at Ini Chi-chong's house outside the 
West Gate, Seoul, he denied the allega- 
tion. For ten days he persisted in this 
denial, and then the police official who 
was conducting the examination told him 
that Ok Kwan-pin, An Tai-kiik. Yang Ki- 
tak, and Ira Chi-chong had each admitted 
that they had met him (the Baron) and 
discussed the conspiracy with him. Th'; 
police officer said that he would not allow 
him to regain his liberty merely bJ- 
cause he denied having met these men 
for the nurpose stated, and declared that: 
he would be made to confess by all and 
any means. 

Turning round and pointing to Yang 
Ki-tak and the other men, who were sit- 
ing to the Court to allow him to inter- 
declared that they were the men who had 
dragged him into the present affair. At 
the police station, when he heard th<:y 
had told the police that they had met hu i 
at Im Chi-chong's house in connectioa 
with the conspiracy, he aemanded to be 
confronted with these four men in order 
that he might question them directly on 
the point, but the police would not per- 
mit this. Baron Yun concluded by appeal- 
ing to the Court to allow him to inter- 

[ '8 ] 

rogate these four men In order to show 
that their statements were untrue. I 

Mr. Ogawa asked the Procurator whe- 
ther the indictment against Baron Yun 
included a charge of conspiracy against 
the Governor-General on the occasion of 
his Excellency's visit to" the Yalu In 
October last year. 

Chief Procurator Matsuhara replied In 
the negative. 

Mr. Ogawa then referred to various 
Inaccuracies in the evidence given against 
certain of the accused by two men who 
had already been arrested In connection 
with the conspiracy. 

Mr. Miyake, another barrister for the 
defence, produced a small note book, tht' 
property of Baron Yun and found in his 
houE«. Counsel pointed out certain en- 
tries in this book which, he said, would 
prove that Baron Yun was not in Seoul 
but in Kaisong on the days on which it 
•was alleged he met the other men at Im 
Chi-chong's house at Seoul. 

Exhibits for the Defence. 

Mr. Ogawa also put in as exhibits e 
number of orders for payments signed 
and issuid by the Baron in his capacity 
as principal of a school at Kalsong. 
Counsel iurther put in several cheques 
6igned by the Earon, the diary of 
a church which he had attended, and 
other documents to prove that on the 
three days in question — September 10th, 
November 16th, and early in December 
1910 — ^Baron Yun was not in Seoul but 
In Kalsong. Counsel added that by this 
evidence he sought to prove not only 
that the Baron was not at the con 
ferences about the conspiracy which wera 
alleged to have been held, but he also 
wished to show that the Baron's " con- 
fession " rould not be accepted as evi 
dence In its entirety. 

On behalf of Lyu Tongsol, the ex-Major 
In the Korean Army. Mr. Okubo put in 
as exhibits a list of thf promoters of and 
shareholders in the Korean Industrial 
Company, a concern which accused was 
trying to float, and a number of tele- 
grams. Counsel pointed out that amoni? 
the promoters and shareholders In the 
Company were the names of men in 
Seoul, I'yong-yang, Wiju. and Chin- 
nampo, and this fact went to confirm ac- 
cused's statement in the course of his ex- 
amination that he made a trip through 
the country In order to get people In 
terested In this new concern. This trip, 
counsel reminded the Court, was made 

with the knowledge and approval of the 
authorities, and it was therefore perfectly 
clear that the journey he took through 
the provinces had nothing whatever to 
do with the alleged conspiracy against 
the Governor-General. 

In regard to the telegrams submitted 
as exhibits, counsel said that according 
to the prosecution, accused went to Syen 
Chuen from Chyongju on November 27th, 
1910, with a party of twenty men, all 
armed with revolvers, who went to the 
railway station ostensibly to " welcome " 
the Governor-General, but actually with 
the object of killing him. Counsel said 
he had telegraphed to the station-master 
at Chyongju inquiring the number of 
passengers carried by rail that day be- 
tween Chyongju and Syen Chuen. The 
station-master had replied by telegram 
stating that only one passenger travelled 
that day by train between these two 
stations, which clearly proved that th3 
alienation that accused had gone from 
Chyongju to Syen Chuen with a party 
of twenty men was absolutely unfounded. 

Mr. Miyake submitted as exhibits a 
diary, an attendance-book from the Yang- 
si 1 school, Pyong-yang, where Kil Chiii- 
hyong was a pupil-teacher, to prove that 
he cotiUl not possibly have gone to Wiju 
and Syen Chuen as alleged. 

Mr. Hoshlda put in exhibits In favour 
of Piun Liu suh, including a certificats 
signed by the Rev. Mr. Batrd as principal 
of a Pyong-yang school. 

The Appijcation fob Witnessbb. 

Sundry other exhibits of a similar 
nature having been put In by Japanese 
and Korean barristers, Mr. Ogawa rose 
to make an application, on behaU of all 
the counsel, for the examination of wit- 
nesses for the defence. 

The PoamoK of Mb. McCunk. 

Mr. Ogawa first applied to th«? Court 
to call Mr. McCuue. Inspector Kunltomu, 
and Mr. Watanabo, a police interpreter, 
and examine them with a view to throw- 
ing more light upon the circumstances 
in which it was alleged this conspiracy 
had been planned. From what had 
been heard in Court during the hear- 
ing of this case. It would seem that Mr. 
McCune was very intimately connected 
with the case, yet strange to say he had 
not once been called upon to give evi- 
dence. The whole proceedings were 
; based mainly upon what the Court do- 

[ 79 ] 

scribed and regarded as the " confes- 
sions " of the accused men, but in hla 
(counsel's) opinion this foundation of 
the case was insufficient, especially when 
he came to consider that a man who was 
most closely connected with the con- 

endure the pain of torture. As a bar^ 
rister, continued Mr. Ogawa, he could not 
allow these serious allegations to pass 
without investigation, and it was for this 
reason that he asked the Court to call 
as witnesses the officials he had men- 

spiracy — judging from the Court record tioned, in order that the real facts o£ 
of the " facts " of the case — had not been ' the case might be ascertained. The very 
tried with the others for his share In ] serious allegations of torture — the " teas- 
the plot. Personally, counsel doubted j ing " and the hanging-up by cords — 
very much if Mr. McCune was connected should be thoroughly investigated, and 
in any way with the alleged conspiracy, ! the whole matter gone into very care- 
but supposing, for the sake of argument, i fully, lest the real truth never became 
that this unfortunately was not the case, known. He regarded the inquiry into 
it must then be assumed that Mr. Mc- the allegations of torture as a veiy 
Cune was one of the chief figures — a important matter, first because the accused 
ringleader — of the whole conspiracy. This jn open Court had retracted their former 
extraordinary position would naturally ■• confessions," and second because th3 
be assumed from the contents of the good reputation of the police authorities 
documents in the hands of the Court, was at stake. For these two reasons h<j 
but he (counsel) urged that this case considered it most important to thorough- 
must not be decided solely on the docu- ly investigate the charges made — first, to 
mentary evidence submitted to the Court : establish the genuineness or otherwise 
by the Procurators, and he therefore ap- of the " confessions," and second to as- 
plied that the witnesses mentioned should certain the authenticity or otherwise of 
be called, and their testimony obtained ^ the charges against the police, 
as to the real facts of the case. The Court j Speaking then in his capacity as coun- 
might, perhaps, assume that if Mr. Mc- I sel for Baron Yun, Mr, Ogawa applied to 
Cune were summoned to give evidence, j the Court to call one of the Baron's 
he would not speak the truth about this servants and a servant of Im Chi- 
aftair because he himself was impli- , chong, to prove that the Baron did 
cated, but that would be an unworthy I not meet Yang Ki-tak and the other 

suspicion. Counsel concluded by asking 
that in addition to the foreign witness 
applied for, Mr. Moffett be also summon- 
ed to give evidence. 

three men at Im Chi-chong's house 
at Seoul. Counsel also asked that Yi 
Chong-soou and another man, who weru 
alleged to have acted as Baron Yun's mes- 
r^ seneers to carry news from him to the 

THE AuJSQATioNS OF ToRTURE. alleged conspirators, be called as wit- 

In regard to his application for the j nesses. A further application was made 
calling of two Japanese oflicials as wit- to call the Rev. G, H, Winn, an American 
nesses, Mr, Ogawa said that they were | citizen, as a witness. All these witnesses, 
both directly concerned with the ex- - declared counsel, would be able to testify 
amination of the accused men at the that Baron Yun was not in Seoul but in 
police headquarters, the official record of Kaisong on the days on Which he was 
which examination was the essential part alleged to have met the others to dis- 
of the evidence in the present case. This j cuss the conspiracy. 

record purported to contain the " con 
fessions " of the accused men. and on the 
authenticity of those " confessions " the 
decision of this case to a very great ex- 
tent depended. The majority of the ac 
cused men. on being examined in open 
Court and faced with their own " confes- 
sions," had declared that these state- 
ments had been forced from them.. They book store 
asserted that they were compelled tn 
answer in the aflirmative all the ques- 
tions put to them by the police. In the 
event of refusal, they declared they were 

Mr. Takahashi applied to the Court to 
summon a Korean police inspector at- 
tached to headquarters and one other 
Korean officer, Mr. An, a Korean bar- 
rister, and Messrs. Moffett and Harris as 
witnesses. Counsel also asked that the 
Court should proceed to Pyong-yang and 
insDOCt the premises of the Taikeuk 
where the conspirators 
were alleged to have frequently met to 
discuss their plans. Counsel asked that 
the Court inspect these premises in order 
to see whether it was possible for a large 

ill-treated-suspended in the air fron. ! number of men to meet there, as was al- 
cords, or beaten-until unable to further i leged. Counsel further asked that Mi. 

[ 80 I 

■\\'atase, a Japanese pastor (formerly 
of Kobe), be called to give evidence in 
favour of Chang Eung-chin. Mr. Wata- 
se could prove that Chang was not a 
man to set himseli against the Japanese 
authorities in any way. It was Chang's 
object to bring the Koreans in Pyong- 
yang district to adapt themselves to thf> 
new ri'gime, and it was in this connec- 
tion that he had been introduced by air. 
■R'atase to an official connected witti 
the Government General. Counsel added 
that Chang had even prayed for a sub- 
sidy from the Government for the Tai 
song school, where he was engaged as a 

Mr. Okubo, on behalf of Lyu Tong-sol, 
applied for the examination of three wit- 
nesses to prove that Lyu did not go to 
Chyongju or Syen Chuen railway stations 
to " receive " the Governor-General. On 
behalf of Yi Seung-hun, counsel applied 
for two witnesses — Yi Taisyong and Yi 
Won-yong. the son and nephew respec- 
tively of Mr. Yi Chai-lcon, formerly Ko- 
rean Minister of Education. Counsel also 
applied for copies of the telegrams sent 
from the Pyongyang post-office to Mr. Vi 
Chai-kon In Seoul, announcing their 
arrival at the former place. These tele 
grams would prove Yi Seung-hun's state 
ment that he was with these two youn? 
men on his way to his porcelain works, 
and could not have been at Syen Chuen 
railway station, as alleged. Counsel re 
luarked that although the Court record? 
stated that some of the accused had es- 
eerted YI was at the station, and Yi him- 
Belf was also on record as having " con- 
fessed " to being there, these telegrams. 
If produced, would establish the facts and 
discredit the so called "confession.' 
Counsel further asked that two Korean." 
who had given evidence against YI, but 
who had not been proceeded against in 
this case, be summoned as witnesses. 

Mr. Tak, a Korean barrister, who spok'» 
Japanese fluently, applied to the Court 
to examine the police who were on duty 
at Pyong-yang and Svfn Chuen railway 
stations on the days upon which the un- 
successful attacks upon the Governor 
General were alleged to have been mad'^. 
Counsel remarked that the days In ques 
tlon were very soon after the annexation, 
and the authorities would naturally be 
very much on the alert for any untowiirc' 
Incident. It was easy to understand tli'' 
additional precautions which would be 
taken by the police at a railway station 
to which the Governor-General was 

known to be coming. In these circum- 
stances it was absolutely impossible that 
a large number of men, all armed with 
dangerous weapons, would have been al- 
lowed to stand on the platform. 

A number of applications for witnesses 
were then made on behalf of various of 
the accused by Japanese and Korean bar- 
risters. Among the names mentioned 
were those of Messrs. McCnne, Holdcroft, 
Moffett, Sharrocks, and Whlttemore, and 
a French priest residing in Seoul. 

Those of tlie accused who were not do- 
fended by counsel were then allowed to 
make applications to the Court in their 
jown defence. An Tal-knk asked that cer- 
I tain documents be obtained from the 
Taikeuk book -store, Pyong yang, and also 
wished an American missionary called to 
give evidence on his behalf. Ok Kwan- 
pin asked that Messrs. McCune. Shar- 
rocks. Roberts, Wells, and Graham Lee 
be called, while Yang Ki-tak asked for 
one witness to be called. 

Speech bt Public Pbocubatob. — The 

Co?I^^EcnoN of Foreiqnebs ■mxii rnr. 


Procurator Sakai opposed the applica- 
tions made by counsel and by accused In 
person, and argued that it was unneces- 
sary for the Court to grant the applica- 
tions. The accused had declared Inop.-'n 
Court that the statements made by them 
at the police headquarters and at the 
Procurator's Office were forced from them 
by torture. Judging from the manner in 
which they had made their statements m 
Court, they did not appear to him to Iw 
the sort of men who would " confess " 
anything under torture. From the very 
nature of this case the facts could not 
have been obtained by torture. It was at 
first believed by the judicial authorities 
that the crime committed by these meu 
was merely one of robbery with violence 
[referring to the alleged extortion of 
money from wealthy people to swell tha 
funds of the alleged conspirators], but 
after some fifty of the accused had been 
examined some new and very su-M'lcious 
facts came to light, and It was also seen 
that certain foreigners were connected 
! with the affair. In these circumstances 
I it was iinnecessary now to call either any 
foreigners or police officials as witnesses, 
for these points were already plain. a« 
could ho seen from the official records of 
the preliminary examination In the i)os- 
I session of the Court. There was no better 
I way of ascertaining the real facts of the 

[ 81 ] 

case than that which had already been 
followed out. 

In regard to the application which had 
been made to call the police who were 
on guard at the railway stations, the 
Procurator said that while It was true 
more or less of a guard was kept on the 
occasions of the Governor-General's visits, 
It must be remembered that the accused 
represented the leading men of their dis- 
tricts, and it was naturally impracticable 
to examine and search them one by one 
as they were admitted to the platforms. 
It was an established fact that some of 
the accused who could not otherwise gain 
admittance to the platforms -disguised 
themselves as students, and went on the 
platform with the students. 

As for the application that the Court 
should proceed to Pyong-yang to inspect 
the size of the premises of the Taikeuk 
book-store, the Procurator said this was 
quite unnecessary. The place was strong- 
ly guarded by the accused themselves 
when they met there. The number of men 
now charged with complicity in the plot 
was 123, but there were really about 300 
concerned, while the membership of the 
New People's Society was about 100,000. 
In short, the Procurator recommended 
the Court to reject the whole of the ap- 
plications made by counsel for the de- 
fence and by the accused themselves. 

Reply by Counsel for Defence. 

Mr. Okubo, rising to reply to the Pro- 
curator, submitted that if the Court, 
which was regarded as impartial, allow- 
ed itself to be persuaded by the Procura- 
tor's address to reject the whole of the 
applications which had been made for 
witnesses for the defence, it would be a 
matter for deep regret. The present case 
had attracted public attention all over 
the world, and even if there were but 
one innocent man among the 123 now 
charged who was wrongfully sentenced, 
it would be a very serious matter. Coun- 
sel concluded by expressing the sincere 
hope that the Court would very carefully 
consider its decision with regard to t'ne 
applications which had been made on be- 
half of the accused, for witnesses to be 

The presiding Judge announced thai 
the Court's decision in regard to the ap- 
plications would be given on July 13th, 
and at seven o'clock the day's proceedings 
came to a close. 




Seoul, July 15. 

The Court was crowded to-day with 
people anxious to hear the decision in 
regard to the applications made by 
counsel and the accused for witnesses to 
be called for the defence. Decision ou 
this point was to have been given on the 
13th, but was postponed until to-day. 

The proceedings were very brief. The 
presiding Judge announced that the 
Court had considered the application.s 
made, and had granted Mr. Okubo's re- 
quest for the production of the original 
of the telegram sent from Pyong-yang 
by the son and nephew of Mr. Yl 
Chai-kon, former Minister of Educa- 
tion, to Mr. Yi in Seoul, reporting 
their arrival at Pyong-yang. The tele- 
gram, it will be remembered, was ap- 
plied for by counsel to prove that his 
client, Yi Seung-hun, was with these 
two young men at Pyongyang at the tim^ 
he was alleged to- be with the " conspira- 
tors." The Court further announced that 
An Tal-kuk's application for the produc- 
tion of the original of a telegram sent 
by him to Y'i Seung bun at Pyongyana; 
dealing with business matters was also 
granted. Decision on all the other ap- 
plications was reserved, but the Court 
announced its intention of calling a clerk 
in the Railway Bureau of the Govern- 
ment-General to give evidence as to the 
number of passengers travelling by rail 
between Chyongju and Syen Chucn be- 
tween November 25th and 30th, 1910. 

The proceedings were then adjourned 
until the 17th instant. 



Seoul, Juiy 17. 
The proceedings in Court to-day lasted 
only about two hours, including a rather 
long recess, but were none the less ex- 
tremely interesting, and even dramatic. 
The evidence regarding the number of 
passengers carried by train on the days 
on which large parties of " conspirators " 

[ 82 ] 

are alleged to have gone to Syen Chuen 
was particularly interesting. There was 
again a large number of spectators, in- 
cluding about a dozen foreigners, of 
wlioni four wer« ladles. 

The witness called by the Court to give 
evidence regarding the number of pas- 
sengers carried between Syen Chuen and 
Chyongju gave some rather important evi- 
dence. Mr. Kawai Jisaburo, the witness 
in question, is employed in the account- 
ant's department of the Government- 
General Railway Bureau, and wore a 
neat military-looking uniform, with a 
short sword. After answering the usual 
preliminaries, witness said he was en- 
gaged in compiling statistics relating to 
the railway service, and could give any 
information required concerning th° 
number of passengers carried on the line. 
The Court asked a number of questions 
regarding passengers carried, which were 
fully answered by witness. It may be 
easier to follow the replies by tabulating 
the figures given by this witness: — 
Piisui iirjrrs from Chiionnju to Sinn Churn. 

December 26 1 

27 9 

28 9 

29 4 

30 : 9 

31 7 

Passi ngera from Kwaksan to Syen Chuen. 

December 26 7 

27 6 

28 6 

29 9 


31 3 

Paasf'ngers from Syen Chuen to Chyongju. 
December 26 4 

27 7 

28 1 

29 5 

30 4 

31 14 

Pas.ii'ngers from Syen Chuen to Kwaksan. 
December 26 26 

27 6 

28 5 

29 V 

30 2 

31 2 

The Court asked witness from what 

sources this information was obtained 
The witness replied that the figures were 
taken from the daily reports of pasann- 
gors and fares made up by the station- 
masters at the respective places. Witness 

1 then handed these documents to the Court 
for perusal, the presiding Judge announc- 
ing that the papers would be retained for 
] the time being. The Judge also remarked 
that the documentary evidence which had 
been collected by the Procurators was 
practically identical with that just handed 
in by witness. 

Mr. Okubo informed the Court that the 
telegram he had received from the stat 'on- 
master at Chyongju, stating that only 
one passenger had travelled down to Syen 
Chuen on November (December) 27th was 
I incorrect. According to the police, who 
had made inquiries, the station-master 
I had made a mistake in the date. 
I The Court announced that information 
. had been received from the Telegraphic 
I Bureau of the Government General, stat- 
ling that all the originals of telegrams re- 
1 ceived prior to December 28th. 1910, had 
I been destroyed. 

! Mr. Okubo said he had in his posses- 
j sion tho original of the telegram sent by 
An Taikuk (on behalf of Yi Seung-hun) 
to Yun Syong-un, the proprietor of a hotel 
at Pyong-yang, asking that accommodation 
I be reserved for three persons (Yi and the 
'two yoiing men witli whom he was travel- 
ling), that three 'rikisha be sent to the 
; railway station, and that half-a-dozen 
people be sent to meet the visitors. This 
telegram, continued counsel, was sent 
.from the post office at the West Gate, 
Seoul, on December 25th, 1910, and from 
this fact it was quite evident that YI 
Seunghun had nothing whatever to do 
with the alleged conspiracy at Syen 

On being shown this telegram, Yun 
Syong-un, the hotel-keeper, identified it as 
being the message sent to him by Yi 
Seung-hun from Seoul, though he could 
not say whether Yi had actually vritten 
it himself. 

An Taikuk testified that the telegram 
in question had boon written by him on 
behalf of Yi Seimg-hun, who was then 
going to Pynng-vang with tho son and tho 
nephew of the former Korean Minister of 

Mr. Okubo then produced, as an exhibit, 
a journal kept by Yun Syong-un in which 
were certain entries showing that pay- 
ments of money had been made for hotel 
expensos for Yi Seung-hun and the two 
young men who accompanied him. 

Arpi.ic.\TioN.s FOR Witnesses Rkkcseii. 
Mr. Okubo then applied for the Court's 
decision in regard to the remaining appli- 

[ 83 ] 

cations for witnesses to be called for the 

The Court retired to consider its deci- 
sicn, and on returning the presiding Judge 
announced that all the other applications 
were rejected. 

CpUNSELS' Protest. 

On hearing this decision Mr. Ogawr., 
the Tokyo barrister, rose and addressed 
the Court. Counsel said that his fellow 
barristers and himself had felt contidenl 
that thtir applications for the calling of 
witncssi s would be granted, but the Court 
having rejected the whole of the applica- 
tions, it was now necessary for counsel 
to discuss their future line of action. lie 
then applied to the Court that counsel be 
allowed to wittidraw for a consultatiof. 
The Court agreed, and at 10.10 adjcurneo 
until such time as the barristers had con 
eluded thtir consultation. 

On the Court re-assembling at 11. 'J5 
Mr. Okubo, on behalf of all the bar- 
risters appearing for the defence, rose to 
make a statement, and a little wave of 
excited expectancy passed through the 
Court. Counsel commenced by sayin.g 
that the present case involved a cri- 
minal charge of a very grave and serious 
nature. Counsel defending the accus- 
ed had done all they could to ac- 
cumulate evidence on behalf of their 
clients, with the object of disclosing the 
real circumstances attaching to the case. 
They had then asked for the Court's ap- 
proval of their applications to call certai i 
important witnesses, and the Court ha'l 
granted one or two of these application.^, 
reserving its decision in regard to the 
remainder. Counsel himself, and those 
appearing with him, had been fully con- 
fident that the Court would approve oi 
as many of these applications as werc- 
considered necessary, but these anticipa- 
tions had now been dispelled by the 
Court's decision that the whole of tho 
should be rejected. The only couclusioi 
remaining applications for witnesses 
which could be come to in these circum.- 
stances v/as that the Court was already 
convinced, in its own mind, that the ac- 
cused men were guilty, and did not con- 
sider it necessary to examine the points 
for the defence which counsel submitted 
were of a most Important nature. In 
these circumstances counsel for the de- 
fence were forced to assume that the 
Court was not an impartial tribunal, and 
that it was prejudiced against the in- 
terests of the accused. Consequently, it 

had been decided by the barristers ap- 
pearing for the accused that, in accor- 
dance with Article 41 of the Code of 
Criminal Procedure, a motion should b« 
applied for, for the exclusion of ttio .Judges 
on the ground that there were circum- 
stances forming sufficient ground of sus- 
I'icion that thev would give a biassci 
judgement. Counsel concluded by re- 
marking that this step had been decided 
upon with a view to upholding the 
dignity of the judiciary, and to fully pro- 
tect the rights of barristers and the'.r 

The motion was received by the Court 
without comment, and it was announced 
that the proceedings were suspended sine 





Seoul, Aug. 23; 

After an adjournment of about a month 
— during which application was made to 
two Courts for a re-trial of the case on 
the ground that the Judges before whom 
the case had been heard were prejudiced, 
both appeals being rejected — the hearing 
of the " conspiracy " case was resumed 
to-day. The general arrangements and 
appearance of the Court were the same as 
before, with one important exception — 
that everyone wore some mark of the na- 
tional mourning into which Japan has 
been plunged since these proceedings wore 
temporarily suspended. Judge TsukaUara 
and the two Associate Judges appeared in 
their semi-military uniforms, as beforo, 
but with a black band of crape round 
their arras. All the other oflicials, bar- 
risters, and spectators in Court wearing 
foreign-style clothes also had these badges 
of fourning, while those who wore 
kimono had the small butterfly-shaped 
black bows now seen everywhere in Japan 
pinned on the right "breast. Even the 123 
" conspirators " appeared in Court wear- 
ing these little black bows. 

There were again a large number of 
spectators in Court, officials, journalists, 
missionaries, and the general public, so 
far as accommodation permitted. Amo^ng 
the various officials who sat behind the 

[ 84 ] 

Judges were Major-General Akashi, Chief 
of Police and Commander of the Gendar- 
meri° in Kort'i., Mr. Xaka>aina, Chnf 
Judge of the Seoul District Court, Mr. 
Ikebe, Director of the Foreign Affairs 
Bureau iu the Government-General, and 
Police-Inspector Watanabe, whose name 
has been mentioned as being responsible 
for the alleged torture of the accused. 
The Japanese and foreign Press was well 
represented, among others in Court being 
Mr. Ohl, the Peking correspondent of the 
AVic York Herald, Mr. Bolljahn, the Seoul 
correspondent of the Associated Press, 
Mr. Zumoto, proprietor and editor of the 
Japan Times, and Mr. Yamagata, editor 
of the Seoul Press. The seats provided 
for the public were fully occupied, there 
being about 200 Koreans and about a 
dozen foreigners present, including fou"- 

The precautions taken outside and in- 
side the Court were much the same as b(-- 
fore, though there seemed to be a slight 
relaxing of the rules and regulations us 
compared with those enforced during the 
earlv dpys of the trial. The close scrutiny 
of the Koreans entering the Coirt to listen 
to thi^ proceedings was carried out as 
carefully as before. Every Korean, man 
or woman, was searched at an inner gate 
before being admitted to the Court, while 
the general public were kept a good dis- 
tance away from the entrance to the Court 
when the accused men were being take i 
In and out. The prisoners were hand- 
cuffed as before, and were tied together 
In parties of about ten men, each party 
escorted by two or three warders. On 
entering the Court the prisoners' bonds 
were removed, and they took their seats 
in the centre of the Court as before. All 
the accused appeared to be in good health, 
and some of them looked very much bet- 
ter than when I last saw them. All had 
had their hair cropped close to the head, 
and had been recently shaved. It seemed 
to me that Baron Yun and Yang Ki-tak 
looked thinner and more tired than they 
did before. The proceedings were opened 
about 9.30, and no reference was made 
by the Presiding Judge to the hearing of 
the case being resumed before the same 
Court. Me merely announced that the 
proceedings were to be resumed. 

Pi.EAS OF Ambi. 

At the outset the Judge said that thos? 
of the accused who were not represent- 
ed by counsel could make a statement 
In their defence It they wished to. On 

this notification being Interpreted about 
twenty of the accused — including Ok 
Kwan-pin, Paik. Yoiig-sok. Kang Pongo.i 
("ho Mun-p:iik, Kim Syong-haing, O Tai- 
eui, Pak Chion-hyong, and Choi Syong-mia 
— rose to n)ake statements. All these men 
denied having gone to Syen Chuen and 
other railway stations on the days alleged 
with the object of assassinating the Go- 
vernor-General, and said that they could 
prove, by the evidence of Witnesses whom 
th€y asked should be called, that they 
were not where the prosecution said they 
were. Several of the accused who were 
defended by counsel also applied to call 
witnesses to prove alibi. The Court at 
first declined the applications ot these 
men on the ground that they wrro de- 
fended by counsel who could speak on 
their behalf, but the accused begged hard 
to be allowed to speak, some of tl'em con- 
tinuing to talk in spite of the Court's 
refusal to listen to them. Finally the Pre- 
I siding Jtidge consented to hear them, when 
they made statements to the same effect 
as the other accused — that they were either 
I at home, or were away from their homes 
, on business, at the time they were charged 
] with being at the railway-stations waiting 
for an opportunity to assassinate the Gc- 
vernor-General. These men also applied 
ir> call witnesFPS to prove these alibi. 
With the exception of Ok Kwar-pin. ail 
the accused spoke in Korean, and owinf, 
to the very low tone in which their state 
ments were interpreted into Japanese. 1 
found it extremely difficult to follow what 
the interpreter was saying. The interpre- 
ter's version of O Taik-eui's statement, in 
particular, was addressed to the Court In 
such a low tone that I could not hear a 
word of it. Altogether, things were rather 
confused at this stage. The aerosed were 
so anxious to get a hearing that before 
one man had finished another would com- 
mence, and he was shouted at by the 
Judge and Interpreter to keep quiet. One 
of the accused held up his hand, ap- 
parently with the object of attracting the 
attmtion of the Court, and was severely 
reprimanded by the Judge for such un- 
seemly conduct, whereupon the unlucky 
man sank down on his seat without an- 
other word. 

Ok Kwan-pin, who spoke in Japanese, 
said that he was studying at the Taisong 
school in December 1910 (new calendar), 
land on the 22nd of that month a ceremony 
was held in connection with the closing 
of the school for the holidays. He gave 

L 85 ] 

an address on that occasion in the name 
of the students of the school. On the 
following two days the students' society 
held meetings, and on each day he gave 
an address, the audience on one occa- 
sion numbering 250 people. It was there- 
fore clearly impossible for him to have 
gone to the railway stations as alleged, 
and he applied to the Court for the sum- 
moning of the man who took the chair at 
the students' meeting to prove the alibi. 
Oil further stated that he wished to ask 
a few questions. 

The Presiding Judge said that the Court 
did not consider it necessary to listen to 
any questions from accused, who was 
then ordered to desist from making any 
further statement. 

Procurator Sakai, referring to the ap- 
plications which had been made by the 
various prisoners above mentioned for the 
calling of witnesses, said he was of the 
same opinion now as on the previous oc- 
casion when similar requests were made 
— that the applications should be dis- 

The Court then gave its idecision in re- 
gard to the applications of accused for 
the calling of witnesses, announcing that 
all the applications were dismissed, the 
Court not considering that there was any 
necessity to accept any ot the applications. 
The Court further announced that the 
examination of the facts of the case had 
been concluded, and the Chief Procurator 
would now address the Court. It was pro- 
per for the accused to remain standing 
during the Procurator's address, but as his 
speech would be a very lengthy one, the 
Court would permit the accused to re- 
main in their seats. 


The Chief Procurator then rose to ad- 
dress the Court, and made a lengthy 
speech in which the history of the case 
was reviewed in great detail. He said: — 
The Ewdence. 

" I shall first proceed to deal with the 
statements made by the accused at the 
police headquarters and the Procurators' 
Office. Of the 123 men now accused, only 
one — Kim Il-chon — has confessed to the 
facts of his crime in the open Court. All 
the rest have denied the facts, and have 
even withdrawn their own confessions 
made at the police headquarters and be- 
fore the Procurator. According to the 
records, however, the majority of the ac- 
cused confessed in detail the facts of this 

conspiracy when examined at the police 
headquarters and at the Procurators' 
Office; in fact, these extraordinarily volu- 
minous records now before the Court are 
really the written confessions of these 
men. There are, of course, other exhibits 
— the records of the evidence given by 
witnesses, and certain articles which have 
been seized from those connected with 
this case, — but the largest part and the 
strongest part of the evidence, in my opi- 
nion, is the record of the confessions of 
the accused themselves. Therefore I re- 
cognise the necessity of dealing with the 
question of the reliability of these re- 
cords as exhibits. 

Why the Coxfessioxs were Withdrawn'. 

" Bafore taking up this question of the 
reliability, I think it may be necessary to 
devote a few words to the manner and 
circumstances in which the accused, on 
being examined in Court, have denied 
thfir responsibility for the present charge 
which has been brought against them. 
It is quite a common occurrence in a 
Criminal Court to find an accused man 
denying the charge preferred against him; 
it is so common that it is not necessary 
to call any special attention to it. In 
Korea, however, this sort of thing is 
notoriously common, and I think the ex- 
planation is that -the majority of the 
Koreans do not understand the methods 
of Court procedure. Hitherto the system 
of Court procedure followed in Korea has 
been one based upon the old Chinese prin- 
ciple, by which decisions were delivered 
based mainly upon the confessions of the 
accused themselves. Consequently, the 
Koreans generally have the idea that a 
Court will find them innocent if they 
simply deny the facts brought against 
them, even though there may be other evi- 
dence to prove their guilt. It is probably 
almost impossible to find in the peninsula 
a man who realises that he cannot be 
found innocent of a crime when there is 
other evidence besides his own confes- 
sions against him, and who realises that 
it is better to confess the truth of the 
charge and appeal for leniency to be 
shown him. Moreover, the Koreans are 
a people who attach great importance to 
outward show, and would feel ashamed to 
face the criticism that they were men 
lacking in spirit and purpose because 
they confessed their crime before others. 
On the contrary, they have the idea that 
men who behave disrespectfully and show 

L 86 J 

their obstinacy In a place of authorilv 
lil<e this Court are great men. Such 
perverted ideas are widely held by the 
Koreans. The denial of the facts of tho 
case by the majority of the accused now- 
charged i3 due, I believe, to one or the 
other of these two reasons, and I thinl: 
that if they had been examined one uy 
one in the open Court, many of theai 
would have confessed to their part in the 
conspiracy, just as they did at the pre 
liminary examination. This iiidividua; 
examination, however, was impracticable, 
ns the Court procedure provides that the 
accused must be examined together at 
one place. 


" Turning now to consider the qature 
of the denials made by the accused of 
the facts of the case, I find there art 
many points which cannot be accepteu. 
For txampio, some of the accused deuiuO 
things which were quite evident, as in 
the cass of Yang Chom-miuug, who lu 
reply to a «iuestion said that his house 
at Sak Chang-ttng was so small I hat hi 
lamily could sci-icely be comionauly 
housed therein. Yet is is clear, from a 
plan of the house attached to the 
Court records, that ihere are three 
rooms in this house which stands, on 17 
tsubo of ground, and tan by no means 
b3 considered so small as he made it out 
10 b3. Then, again, Kim Chang whau said 
that he did not know; whc;re Yang's hous^ 
was. Now, Kim had'lived in Syen Chueii. 
for several years, and as the place was 
only a small country hamlet he oughi 
to knov/ every hole and corner of ii. 
Moreover, Yang Is a well-known man in 
the district, and Kim's statement that 
he did not know his house is incredible. 

" No small number of the accused made 
similar denials, while there are some 
who merely imitated others in making 
their replies to the Court's questions. 
One says that he was out at some place 
several miles away, attending an anniver- 
sary festival In memory of his fore- 
fathers, on the days he Is charged witl) 
bein.EC enrnRcd In an attempt to carry 
out the conspiracy. This sort of state 
ment is repeated by another man, wh'.. 
merely recapitulates what the first mai> 
had said. Again, another man said that 
he was In tho market selling beans on 
the day in qhostlon, which fact roul.l b- 
proved by reference to his book, where- 
upon nother man who was examined tho 
same day pleaded that he, too, was in 

liie market, selling rice. One said that 
j he was sick on the day under notice, 
I another that he was nursing his sick 
] father that day, or was at the bedside 
I of a sick cousin. In short, very litil":; 

importance ran be attached to their 
I denials, which cannot be regarded as 

truthful and sincere statements. 

The Alixgatioxs of Tokture. 

■■ The accused who withdrew the state- 
ments made by them at the police head- 
quarters and the Procurators' Office al- 
leged that they had been forced to spin 
these stories as a result of t'>e assaults, 
ill-treatm?ut, and v.nbcarable torture to 
which they were subjected at the iiolice 
headquarters. They also said that thty 
'lad confessed to the facts of this con- 
spiracy at the Procurators' Office because 
they wore threatened that if they failed 
to recognise their former confessions 
they would be sent back to the police 
to be subjected to further 'teasing.' Their 
> TlTiilions on this head were almost 
all the same. An instance of the extremity 
to which they went was shown when the 
Presiding Judge asked what were the 
objects of the New People's Society, in 
• at y c?.?"s their .first reply was th; t tney 
had b"fn sybjfcted to severe punishment 
at the police headquarters. Instead of 
replying to the question of fact, they 
m.ade these improper references to ill- 
treatment. The allegations of r.ccusfd 
that they were subjected to cruel treat- 
ment at the hands of the police are mere- 
ly commonplace subterfuges to invalidat<! 
their former' statements made to the 
police and the Procurator. This son of 
thing is often done in Korea, to say no- 
thing of the present case, and in Japan 
also, and such charges are not wor'.li 
listening to. liut since these chargea 
have been n-.ado against the police, anJ 
it has been alleged that the police re- 
sorted to ill-trcat!uent of the accused in 
order to forte confessions from them, I 
wish to absolutely deny the tru'ih of the 
allegations, which have no foundation 
in tact. \Vhen the accused in the present 
case were sent to pri.son to await tiial 
every man was physically examined, and 
not one of the 123 men had even a sign 
of having been subjected to such ill- 

TiiK Mission S( iiooi, axd tiik 


" Anyone examining this case from the 
very beginning, and taking Into con- 

t 87 ] 

sideration the contents of the confissions 

made by the attuscU, will, 1 think, find 
it a very easy matter to solve this ques- 
tion of alleged ill-treatment on the part 
of the police. The present cousijiracy 
case had its begiuuing in the examina- 
tion of the men who were arrested at 
Nap Chyongjong on a charge of burglary 
with violence. During the examination 
of these men it gradually came to light 
that something more serious was under- 
lying the charge which had been pret'errea 
against them. The statements made by 
these men in the course of their examina- 
tion implicated a small number of meu 
at Chyongju, and some of the teachers and 
stuQents at the Syeu Chuen mission 
school. At first it was thought that tho 
meeting place of these men was Yang 
Chom-miung's office at Syen Chuen, but 
as the investigation was proceeded with 
fresh facts came to light. It was found 
the majority of the teachers and students 
at the Syen Chuen mission school wert 
connected with the conspiracy, together 
with a number of Korean pastors in 
Christian churches and a number of the 
leading men in various adjoining districts. 
It was also discovered that their meeting- 
place, when they gathered in large nuai- 
bsrs, was not Yang's office, but the No. 
8 class-room at the mission school. It 
was also found that in No. 7 class-room 
the wall was so constructed as to allow 
a person to ascend above the ceiling, and 
it is an established fact that pistols were 
stored in this secret hiding-place. 

" Those concerned in the plot were not 
nnly men from New Wiju, Kwaksan, 
Chuisan, and Pyong-yang, but from Shin 1 
Chuen, in Whanghai-do. It was further 
found that this case was closely con- 
nected with the charge of burglary with 
violence against An Myung-keur., whicn 
had been already decided in the Courts, 
and the charge of violation of the Peace 
Preservation Law preferred against Yang 
Ki-tak. Examination of the accused ar 
rested in New' Wiju disclosed the fact 
that they had accomplices at Wiju and 
Yong Chuen, while the examination ot 
the men from Pyongyang led to furthe- 
serious developments of the case, it being 
found that they were acting in conjunc- 
tion with certain parties in Seoul. In 
this way the real position of what is 
known as the NeW People's Society cam.> 
to be known. The number of persons 
who through these records can be traced 
as being directly concerned in this affair 
is about 500. It is not only almost im- 

possible to examine all these men one 
after another on all the intricate points 
01 this aiiair, but if 11 were doi.e it is 
certain that the ramifications of the case 
would extend still further until a bound- 
less number ot men were implicated. To 
explain the situation metaphorically, the 
present conspiracy case started in a 
small stream at Nap Chyongjong, and 
being joined by numerous tributaries, be- 
came a gigantic river at Pyong-yang. 

" This case, when it first came to the 
notice of the police headquarters, was 
regarded as a simple one of armed bur- 
glary, but investigation brought out the 
fact that the case was extremely serious 
and complicated. This clearly show's that 
the authorities had no idea of the nature 
of the case when the investigation was 
first started, and never imagined that 
it would turn out as it did. None of the 
facts in this case, important or unim- 
portant, were known to the officers con- 
cerned in the investigation when they 
commenced their examination of the ac- 
cused; they were discovered sole'y from 
the voluntary statements of the accused 
men during their examination. It is 
obvious that the officers who conducted 
the examination of these men, not know- 
ing anything of- the facts which only 
subsequently transpired, could not have 
resorted to any measures calculated to 
force statements from the accused. There- 
fore it seems to me that we can absolute- 
ly deny the allegations which have been 
made by the accused that they were sub- 
jected to ill-treatment at the hands oi 
the officers who examined them, with 
the object of forcing them to make iu- 
1 criminating statements. 

•' In regard to the relations existing be- 
tween the accused, this is a matter which 
the officers conducting the investigation 
could not even have suspected. Let me 
quote two instances. A revolver which 
Im Hyong-wha had used was entrusted 
by him to his brother, Im Toug-wha, and 
a pistol belonging to Yi Keun-taik and a 
sword-stick were given by him to au 
elderly relative named Yi Chin-chai. 
These tacts were disclosed during the 
statements of accused, and as a result of 
doficiliary searches the weapons referred 
to were found, and are now before th3 
Court as exhibits. Again, in regard to 
certain matters which have no immediate 
connection with the present charge— such 
as the plot against Prince Ito, and the 

meeting of certain of the accused with 
Yi Chai-myong, who stabbed Count Yi 

t 88 ] 

Wan-yong, — all these facts became known 
for the first time to the officers conduct- 
ing the examination of the accused dur- 
ing the progress of that examination. 
The authorities had closely investigated 
these affairs at the time, but had failed 
to get any definite information. Ex- 
amples of this sort, where facts entirely 
new to the authorities were disclosed by 

with the object of obtaining confessions 
from them by force is absoluifly un- 
" The statements of those who confes- 
I ?ed at the police headquarters, when 
! compared with their confessions at th? 
i Procurators' Office, are found to differ 
I not a little. This indicates that tlieir 
second confession was the result of re- 

the accusvd, are really too frequent to be peated 
enumerated. The fact is that all the i and of 
roniplirated facts regarding this con- 
spiracy were brought to light through tho 
voluntary statements of the accused 
themselves, or their confessions supplieft 
the investigators with the necessary ma- 
terial for making further inquiries, but 
the investigators did not force these 
statements from the accused. These con- 
fessions are substantiated by various ex- 
hibits and the evidence given by wit- 
nesses. I am thus forced to conclud;.' 
that the confessions which were made by 
the accused correspond to the facts, and 
at the same time 1 deny that there is any 

consideration of their position, 
their having decided to amend 
their former statements in order to 
make them as truthful as possible. It 
cannot be admitted that they simply 
answered ' yes ' to the questions which 
were put to them by the Procurator. 
Further, there are some among the ac- 
cused who confessed two or three times 
when examined by the Procurator. Yang 
Chora-miung and Kim Il-choni were ex- 
amined three times by the Procurator, 
while Taik-eui and Yi Keun-taik were 
examined twice. They all confessed their 
guilt on each occasion. As these m.en 
were summoned to the Procurators' Office 

foundation for the allegations which have after they had been formally put under 

been made by these men of torture by 
the police authorities. 

The " VoLUNT.^nY " Confessions. 
" In regard to the confessions of the 
accused in the Procurator's omcc. I assert 
that these, too. werf voluntary confes- 
sions. Accused have said that the reason 
thoy have since withdrawn their con- 
fessions in open Court is that they were 
forced to make those confessions, and 
were threatened that it they did not ad 
mlt them before the Procurator they 
would be sent back to the police head- 
quarters. Now, as a matter of fact, out 
of the enormous number of men who 
were examined in connection with this 
case, there were three or four men who 
were sent back to the police headquarters 
from the Procurator's Office since Novem. 
ber last, when the Procurator first took 
up the case. These men were sent back, 
however, either for convenience of ex- 
amination or because it was Impossibl-; 
for the Procurator to conclude his ex- 
amination of them that day. I'ntll th? 
examination is concluded a prisoner can- 
not be sent to jail, as the Court cannot 
Issue a warrant for his arrest, and in 
such a case the ccuaed would be sent 
back to the police to await the conclusion 
of his examination. These are incidents 
which are unavoidable owing to the pro- 
cedure which has to be followed in such 
cases, hut the allegation that the accused 
were set back to the police heaaquarterj 

arrest, there is no possibility of their 
having been threatened with being sent 
back to the police. 

" There are some among the accussd 
who persisted in their former statements 
even when confronted with other men: 
Yang Chom-miung. Yi Chong-sun, and 
Chang Rung-chin are some of these men. 
Then there are others like Cha Li-sl't. 
who on being confronted with others of 
the accused, changed his former confes- 
sion. It must be admitted that the con- 
fessions made by the accused in the 
Procurators' Office were made in all 
sincerity and in a frank and open-hearted 
manner, the result of repentance for the 
wrong they had done. This beoomes stil' 
more clear when the confessions made 
at the police headquarters are generalised 
with those made before the Procurator, 
compared with the various exhibits whicn 
have been placed before the Court, and, 
further, compared with the confession of 
Kim 11-choni made in open Court. The 
whole circumstances of the affair un- 
doubtedly bear the impress of truth, and 
this is the reason why 1 submit that the 
confessions of the accused are the 
strongest and most convincing evidence 
in this case. 

The Unaccepted "Confessions." 
" Before going any further 1 would like 
to say a few words about the two men 
Paik Nal-hyo and Chang Pilsok, who 

[ 89 ] 

although they made confessions are not 
among the accused to-day. At the Pro- 
curators Office Paik denied his former 
statement, but Chang persisted In hia 
confession. There was some doubt, how- 
ever, about these men's confessions, and 
the police made further investigations 
into the matter, and found that at the 
time the other men accused in the pre- 
sent case went out to attempt to execute 
their plans at the railway station, theso 
two men were under arrest by the gen- 
darmerie on suspicion of being concerned 
in another offence. This fact being es 
tablished, both men were acquitted of the 
present charge. These two men, how- 
ever, were members of the Nap Chyong- 
jong branch of the New People's Society, 
and it is evident that they took part in 
the meetings of conspirators to discuss 
the proposed assassination of the Gov- 
ernor-General, and also that they were 
guilty of having broken into houses and 
obtained money by threats. It was only 
by mere accident that these men did not 
go with the others to the railway station 
at Syen Chuen on Novembes 27lh and 
2Sth (old calendar). They had already 
committed armed burglary and had 
taken part in the deliberations of the 
other conspirators, and knowing that 
they could not deny these facts they con- 
fessed even more, but in my opinion this 
does not in the least lessen the im- 
portance and reliability of the confessions 
of the other accused. 

The New People' .s Society. 

" I now propose to deal with the his- 
tory of the New People's Society, the 
nature and objects of which body can 
be clearly under-stood from a perusal of 
the records of the examination of Baron 
Yun, Yang Ki-tak, Im Chi-chong, and a 
good number of the other accused. Thi^ 
Society was first organised in America by 
a number of Koreans residing there. 
When, in 1905, the Japan-Korea Treaty 
was signed. An Chang-ho and his party, 
who were then in America, came to the 
conclusion that by that Treaty the sover- 
eign rights of the Han Dynasty were lost. 
Those of his fellow-countrymen who had 
the same idea he inflamed with anti- 
Japanese sentiments, which he also en- 
deavoured to disseminate among the 
Korean people in general. The follovi-- 
Ing year An returned to Korea, and ob- 
tained the support of other men who had 
the same ideas as his own. He succeeded 
in adding to the roll of the Society, -at 

various times and on various occasions, 
Baron Yun. Yan.g Ki-tak, Lyn Toiig-sol. 
Yi Seung-hun, ana An Tai-kuk. In luia 
way the New Peoples Society was or- 
ganised in Korea. 

■' In 1907 the Korean Emperor abdicat- 
ed in favour of the Heir to the Throne, 
and this was followed by the Seven 
Article Treaty between Japan and Korea. 
These events appeared to the members 
of the Society to .confirm their idea that 
the national rights of the Korean people 
had gone completely out of existence. 
Consequently, they became very active 
in planning out schemes for the restora- 
tion of their national prestige. Among 
other things they proposed to establish 
schools so that young Koreans might bo 
educated there and be encouraged to 
develop what these men termed tho 
' Korean spirit.' It was also proposed to 
establish various industries, the profits 
of which were to be devoted to the carry, 
ing-out of their further plans. Further, 
a plan was formulated tor emigrating to 
Chientao, to escape the strict official sur- 
veillance to which they were subjected iii 
Korea, and there set up an independent 
State of their own. It was also planned 
to establish a military school at Chientao, 
and to start a war of independence 
when Japan happened to be at war with 
China or the United States, with the ob- 
ject of driving the Japanese out of Korea, 
and recovering the lost national rights. 

" As the most radical way of carrying 
out. their plans, the leaders of this move- 
ment decided to assassinate the former 
Korean Ministers of State, w-ho were 
known by such scornful terms as ' the 
five traitors' and ' the seven betrayers.' 
It was also decided to kill saccessivo 
Residents-General in order to keep the 
minds of the people constantly inflamed 
and agitated, and to let the outside world 
know that the Koreans were not content 
to be subjugated by Japan. It was hoped 
in this way to obtain the sympathy of 
the Powers. These, then, were the ob- 
jects of the New People's Society. 

" The next step was to appoint local 
leaders in the various provinces, who 
selected others as their subordinates; 
various branches were established, and 
the work of obtaining new members in 
the country was started on. They also 
published newspapers and periodicals 
abroad, and in many ways endeavoured to 
inspire in the minds of the Korean people 
the ideas which they wished to spread. 
So actively was this movement carried on 

[ 90 ] 

that in 1910 and 1911 there were about 
200,000 members scattered about all over 
the world. The Society also had a num- 
ber of different names. In San Francisco, 
Honolulu, Vladivostok, liabarovsk, Yong- 
chu, and Harbin it was known as the ; 
National Society. In Korea it was | 
variously known as the Young Men's 
Classmates' Society, Young Men's Com 
paionship Society, Kauchang T°i, Yun- 
hak Tei, and Kuuchang Tei. All thes? 
facts have been testified to by the accused , 
•who were arrested in Pyong-yang Other 
branches under different names were 
established at Nap Chyongjong. at Yong 
chueu and Yangchi. 


"There was also a branch at 'ii 
Srung-hun's office at Syen Chuen, wher-^ 
a direct import business was carried on 
in conjunction with the I'ania Yang-beu 
at Chemulpo. These offices were ap- 
parently ordinary commercial establish- 
ments, but according to statements made 
by certain of the accused, the real ob 
ject of these concerns was to check tUe 
import of .Japanese goods into Korea. Tho 
New People's Society also established a 
porcelain factory and the Taikeulc book- 
store, which were also generally consider- 
ed to bo ordinary commercial eslublish- 
nifnts. but if the statements of some of 
the accuivd to the effect thHt a certain 
one of their number was appointed nire.- 
tor of the Industrial Department of the 
Society are taken into consideration, it 
Is not difficult to imagine that these coa- 
cerns were established with the obJ€Ct 
of making money for the Society. 

The Schools. 
" In regard to the establishment of 
schools by the Society, the Taisong school 
■was first founded at P.vong-yang in 190S. 
•Baron Yun being appointed Director. 
Here was published a magazine called 
Youth, which was the organ of the school. 
The New People's Society also establish 
ed the Kamiung school at Nap Chyonp; 
jong. the Yongsil school at Wiju. the 
Shinan school at Chyongju. and various 
oth'T schools elsewhere, in this way de 
voting Itself to inculcating the ' Korean 
spirit ' in the young Koreans. Certain 
of these schools, too. were conducted by 
principals, teachers, and clerks who were 
nil members of the Society, who wer^ 
placed In these positions in order that 
they might be able to carry on the work 

of the Society in many different ways. 
The members of the Society thus had 
the advantage of being able to hold their 
secret meetings in the schools. 

The Mission of Assassination. 

" Then, in regard to the plans of the 
Society in regard to assassination, a plan 
was made to murder Prince Ito when, aa 
Resident-General, he made a trip through 
the country with the Emperor. In Decem- 
ber 1909 an attack was made upon Count 
Yi Wan-yong, who was stabbed by Yi 
Chai-niyong. Two of the accomplices, 
Choi Chu-rik and Kim Chan-o, are now 
accused in this case. It has alro bee.i 
stated by certain of the accuted from 
Pyong-yang that for some years members 
of the Society have been trying to as- 
sassinate Prince Katsura, Prince Yaraa- 
gata, Resident-General Spne, Mr. Yama- 
gata, the Director of the Political Affairs 
Bureau in the then Residency-General, 
and others. Some of these attempts were 
to have been made in Japan. 

" 1 have now given an outline of the 
formation, nature, and objects of the New 
Peo|)le's Society. When the annexation 
of Korea was effected the members ot 
the Society became extremely indignant, 
and plotted the assassination of the Gov- 
ernor Geaoral, — the consi)iracy whilh has 
led to the present case. The majority ot 
the accused are members of the Society, 
of which Baron Yun was the Director, and 
Lyu Tong-sol the assistant Director. Th.3 
local leaders in North and Soti'h Pyong- 
1 an do were An Tai-kuk and Yi Seung-hun, 
while Yang Ki-tak and Im Chi-chons were 
the leading spirits in the central distric's. 
This fact has been testified by laany of 
the accused. .^ 

The Case of Baros Yun. 
" I shall now proceed to examine 
the case of Baron Yun and trace his 
connection with the conspiracy, and bis 
merlings in Seoul with Yanc Kl-t:i'; and 
others. When examined in open Court, 
Yun and the others who i>lanned and ar- 
ranged this conspiracy denied all re- 
sponsibility. Yun admitted that he had 

j clearly confessed to the plot at tho pnlce 
h.a<lquarfers and at the Procurator's 

' Office, but in defence of his subs' qucnl 

I denial In open Court asserts that oa 
harnlng that all the other accused had 
confessed, he did the same, thinking that 
he had been dragged into the alTaii by the 

! statements of others. For his part, he 

[ 91 ] 

did not wish to drag other people into 
the affair. This explanation is really 
most unreasonable. If a man is men- 
tioned by another as being his ac- 
complice in crime, but knows that 
he is not guilty, it is only natural for 
him to protest his innocence to the 
very last, and produce counter-evidence 
to support his plea. That Yun replied at 
random, and admitted things which were 
false, cannot possibly be believed. Ac- 
cused has also stated, in explanation of 
his confession to the police and the Pro- 
curator, that he could not free himself of 
the charge by merely denying the points 
put to him, so he thought he would re- 
ceive more liberal treatment If he con- 
fessed. This, too. sterns to me a most 
uTireasonable contention. It he has com- 
mitted a grave crime, it is qalte im- 
possible that he should be relieved o? 
even a portion of his responsibility mere 
ly because he confessed to the fac's. Such 
an explanation oifered by an ignorant 
man would be pardonable, but not from 
a man of the standing education, and re- 
putation of Yun. Therefore it is my opi- 
nion that the confessions made by Yun at 
the police headquarters and at the Pro- 
curator's Office represent statements of 
fact, and are not merely a fabrication, as 
he now suggests. 

•' Yun has admitted in the course of his 
examination in Court that he was ap 
pointed Principal of the Taisong school 
on the recommendation of An Chang-ho, 
and that he also accepted the post of Pre- 
sident of the New People's Socifty, ap- 
proving as he did of the principle of en 
couraging the ' Korean spirit ' among 
young Koreans. He also admitted that 
he was indignant at the time of the an- 
nexation. All these statements corre- 
sponded to those made by him in his con- 
fessions to the police and the Procurator. 
The annexation was effected in August 
1910, and the conference of the principal 
movers in this affair took place in Sep- 
tember, so that we may presume that at 
that time Yun was then full of regret and 
Indignation at the political change which 
had taken place. Now let us see what 
Yang Chom-miung said in the course of 
his examination at the police headquar- 
ters. He said he attended a school cele- 
bration meeting at Kaisoug and met 
Baron Yun there. Yun told him that he 
had planned the assassination of the 
Governor-General, and intended to send 
Ok Kwan-pin to execute the mission, but 

the plan had failed. The scheme must 
be carried out, howeirer, and as Yi 
Seung-hun was away, Yun said that 
Yang Chom-miung would have to act In 
his place. This is entered on the records 
as having been said by Yun. 

" Xow, in the police record of the ex- 
amination of Yi Yong-wha, this man says 
he accompanied Yang to Seoul in May 
1911 and then went to Kaisong to attend 
the school meeting and meet Baron Yun. 
This man Yi Yong-wha is the head of 
the Nap Chyongjong branch of the N'ew 
People's Society, while Yang Chom-miung 
held a similar position at Syen Chuen. 
XoT\', considering that these two men, 
both local leaders of the Society, declare 
they saw the Baron about May 1011 and 
consulted him about the C9n<^piracv, it is 
perfectly clear that Yun is gravely con- 
nected with this case. The fact that 
these two men did attend the school meet- 
ing at Kaisong is established by the roll- 
call taken by one Gillett (of the 
Y.M.C.A.). and sent by him to Baron Yun 
at the latter's written request. Then 
there is another point; the accused Chang 
Ik-no, in the course of his examination 
by the police, said that he was told, when 
in Seoul in December 1910, that tho 
Governor-General was about to make a 
trip north. On learning this news he 
and Yi Choon-ha went at once to Kaisong. 
where they saw the Baron next day. They 
had dinner with Yun, and told him the 
date and time of the GovernorGeneral's 
expected arrival. The Baron expressed 
his appreciation of what they had done 
in telling him this, and said it was a 
good chance for them to carry out their 
plans. He told them to go back to their 
districts and tell their comrades to maSe 
up their minds to carry out the plot. 
Meanwhile he (Baron Yun) would make 
further inquiries about the Governor- 
General's coming, and would communi- 
cate the result to the men at Pyong yang. 
This evidence also shows the close con- 
nection which Baron Yun had with the 
operations of the New Peoples' Society, 
and if we take the evidence of these 
three men together, it gives quite suffi- 
cient ground for us to conclude that Ba- 
ron Yun was one of the principal figures 
in the present conspiracy. 

" I shall next refer to the meetings 
between Baron Yun and others of the 
accused at Im Chi-Chong's house at Seoul, 
and their discussions about the con- 
spiracy. Yun confessed very minutely 

C 92 J 

on this point In his examination at the ] own birthday, but as these events oc- 
police ht^adquartejs and tho Procurator's curred some time ago, there is consider- 
Office, and this evidence may be out- able liltelihood ot a mistake being made, 
lined as follows: In August, September, i in these circumstances it is not proper 
and November 1910 he attended meetings | to base any decision absolutely on tho 
at Im's house in Seoul on three occasions evidence of one man, especially when we 
There were also present Yang Ki-tak, Im ! come to consider that it was on October 
Chi-Chong, An Tai-kuk, Ok Kwan-pln, ! ]5th that the accused, armed with re- 
and Kang JIun-su. After talking over volvers, proceeded to certain railway 
their plans for the assassination of the I stations with the object of carr/ing out 
Governor-General, Baron Yun ordered Ok i the plans of the conspiracy. I believe, 
Kwan-pin to proceed to North Pyongan- i therefore, that the meeting in Seoul was 
do. Yun added that he did not know jjgij before the date mentioned, and 
whether Yi Seung-hun attended these j accordingly 1 do not attach any weight 
conferences or not. The police records , ^^ ^^^^ evidence of Yi Chi-keun on this 

of the statements made by Yi Chi-keun 
and Kang Mun-su contain confirmatory 
statements, though they added that they 
saw Yi Seung-hun at these meetings. 
From this evidence and from the state- 
ments of Baron Yun himself it is proved 
beyond doubt that he was at Im's house 
at least three times during the mouths 
mentioned. Further, the records show 
that Ok Kwan-pin, An Tai-kuk, and Y'l 
Seung-hun admitted having met together 
at this house, and they also admitted 
having told the local members of th2 
Society that the plot to kill the Governor- 
General was the result of a conference 
they had hud with Baron Yun and Yang 
Ki-tak. Thus this question of Yun and 
the others meeting at Seoul to discuss 
the conspiracy is absolutely established. 

The Other " Rixoi.el^ders." 

■point. Baron Y'un has said that he 
does not remember the dates of these 
meetings, admitting only that he thought 
they were about the time mentioned 
Kang Mun-su also stated that he couia 
not remember the dates. This is the 
reason why the Procurator concerned 
with their examination did not put down 
the dates definitely in his iudlctment, and 
I maintain that there is no necessity to 
decide this question more definitely. 

The Evide.nce fob the Defe.nce. 

" Voluminous documentary evidence has 
been put in by counsel for the defence. 
One of these exhibits, described as a 
name-list of oflicial members of ihe 
church at Kaisong. is nothing more than 
a programme of the proceeiUngs at 
Kaisong (on the day Baron Yun is alleged 

"Let us now investigate the records to have been .n Seoul). Another exh.bu 
of Yang Kl-tak. Im Chi-chong, An Tai- (a roll-book of teachers in a school) re- 
kuk, and Ok Kwan-pin. These men have fers to matters up to about 11 a.m. on 
all denied the Baron's connection wiU> that day, and a note-book (belonging to 
the plot, and have also denied his Baron Yun) which has been jjut in has 
connection with the attempt to assas the part referring to the period from 
Binate the Governor-Gcueral. They September 12th to October 14th, 1910, mis- 
stated, however, that tho Baron conferred | sing. It is this period which we are 
with them in Seoul at the beginning ot , concerned with in deciding the case. lu 
November 1910 in connection with th > | short, the evidence which has been put 
proposal to emigrate to Chientao. 1 in fails to prove that Baron Yun was 
believe that this emigration scheme was , not in Seoul on the dates and In the 
one of the objects of the New Peoples' i circumstances stated, and in my opinion 
Society, and I do not hesitate to apply 1 the fact is clearly proved that Bnron 
these statements to prove the fact that i Yun and the other accused met together 
the accused did meet togelh-r in Seoul. | at Im's house in Seoul, and planned the 
The only point requiring explanation is present conspiracy." 

the dale and time of these meetings. Yi On the conclusion of the Procurators 
Chi-keun savs the first two meetings speech the Court adjourned for tiffir.. 
were held on August 7th and October 15th. 1 and in the afternoon the speech was 
1910 which dates he said he was certain translated Into Korean by the Court In 
of because the first day was the birthday I terpreter. after which the proceedings 
of his only son, and the second was his I were adjourned. 

[ 93 ] 



Seoul. Aug. 24. 

Following the speech made b.v the Chief 
Procurator yesterday, the Assistant Pro 
curator addressed the Court to-day, re- 
viewing various aspects of the case not 
touched upon by the Chief Prcourator. 
In opening his speech, Procurator Sakai 
Bald that the accused had been under ex- 
amination in the open Court for more 
than ten days. They had made their 
statements wltuout reserve and submitte.l 
a number of protests, while their legal 
representatives had pleaded earnestly on 
their behalf, and had done all that could 
be done in their defence. Counsel ha^l 
even resorted to the extreme step of lodg- 
ing a protest against the Court on the 
ground that it was partial. The Procura- 
tor said the accused had every reason to 
be satisfied with what had been done on 
their behalf by their lawyers, and shoulJ 
be grateful for what they had done. 
Whether they really did appreciate what 
had been done for them he did not know, 
but ^" difl know that they did not obey 
the Judge's orders, and had assumed an 
attitude towards the Court which was 
lacking in respect. Both .by word and 
action they had been disrespectful, and 
he regretted this, because he feared it 
might have the effect of losing them the 
sympathy of the Court which they might 
otherwise have had. With this brief in- 
troduction the Procurator proceeded: — 

" We do not know what ideas about 
this case may be held by those who as- 
sume, on the strength of the stereotvpod 
complaints of torture which have been 
made, that the whole affair has no founda- 
tion in fact. Those who have investi- 
gated the circumstances in which this 
crime was discovered, have perused the 
records of the case, followed the way in 
which the investigation of the case was 
carried out, and have read the confessions 
of the accused at the police headquarters 
and the Procurator's Office, will not re- 
gard this case as the figment of a dream. 
as is alleged by the accused, but will 
definitely recognise the existence of the 
crime and the justice of the charge 
against the accused, many of whom were 
actually concerned in the carrying-out of 
the conspiracy. As the Chief Procurator 
pointed out yesterday in his address, the 

confessions made by the accused at the 
police headquarters and at the Procura- 
tor's Office were voluntary acts, and I 
therefore consider that it is proper to 
conclude that the facts contained in the 
olficlal indictment against the a-;cused are 
now fully substantiated. 

" I shall now refer to the confessions 
of 106 of the accused made at the police 
headquarters, the 74 confessions made in 
the Procurator's Court, the confession of 
Kim 11-chom, and the tacit confession of 
Vi Keni-tans, together with the cxhibils 
seized in connection with the crime. [Yl 
denied his complicity in open Court, but 
admitted having confessed at the police 
lieadquarters and the Procurator'.^ Offf-e 
without having been tortured.] Pyong- 
yang being one of the centres of the New 
Peoples' Society, and the place of origin, 
as it may be called, of the present crime, 
I shall first deal with the movements of 
those men who lived in or near this place. 
-'ti I ward,-- dealing with thosi who lived 
in Syen Chuen, Nap Chyongjong, Chyong- 
ju, Chulsan, and Wiju. 

The TitE.\Ty of 1907. 

" In 1907, when the so-called Seven 
.Article Treaty was concluded between 
Japan and Korea, and national conditions 
in the latter country daily became more 
unfavourable, the members of the Nev 
People's Society became very indignant 
at the turn of affairs, and warmly pledged 
themselves to recover their lost national 
rights. In 1909 they got wind of the fact 
that the Korean Ministers of State were 
urging the annexation of the country by 
Japan, and Baron Yun, Yang Ki-tak, and 
others, availing themselves of ilie celebra- 
tion of the first anniversary of the founda- 
tion of the Taisong school at Pyoi;g-yang. 
proceeded to that place and h'>ld an ath- 
letic meeting and speech-making exer- 
cises, ostensibly as part of the celebration 
proceedings, but really for another pur- 
pose. Ok Kwan-pin delivered a speech, 
aggrieved and indignant in tone, dealing 
with loyalty and faithfulness to the Em- 
peror of Korea and to the State, with the 
idea of stimulating the minds of those 
present to oppose the expected change in 
the status of Korea. Yun also called a 
meeting of members of the party at the 
Taikouk bookstore, and in the course of. 
an address referred to the increasingly 
unfavourable condition of the nation's 
affairs, and said that the Ministers of 
State were about to turn traitor to their 

[ 91 1 

own country. He then proposed that 
Count Yi Wan-youg, Song Pyong-chun, 
and othfr Korean Ministers should all be 
assassinated. The suggestion was ap- 
proved by all present, and it was agreed 
that it would be advisable to have a brave 
ami [lalriotic man, with no relations de- 
pendent upon him, to execute the plot. 
An Tai-kuk recoiumendcd Yi Chai-myong 
for the mission, and he gladly accepted 
the task, swearing that he would carry 
out the mission entrusted to him. Later 
on Yi made an attack upon Count Yi Wan- 
yong in Seoul, being assisted by several 
other men from Nap Chyongjong who 
were specially nominated for the purpose 
by Yi Seung-hun. 

" About this time the members of the 
New Peoples Society established colleges 
and schools. These bodies kept in close 
communication with one another, and all 
aimed at realising objects of the Society. 
To quote an example — at the Taisong 
school a body known as the Chong-yun 
Tongchi Hoi was founded, the accused 
Chang Eung-Chin being th- Ku.jerintend- 
ent. and La 11-pong. Cha Lisik, and Kim 
Tu-wha — teachers at the school — boini; 
appointed omcials of this body. Another 
organisation known as the Myenkang Hoi 
was established in another school, with 
Choi Chang-han as chairman. In the 
Suong-sil school the Tongchi Hoi was 
organised, Pyen ll-syo being appointed 
adviser, and Yun Won-sin and An Sei- 
-whan being the chairnipn. Then the 
people interested in the New Peoples' 
Society set about organising what was 
called the Yun-hak Hoi. to which belonged 
Yi Tok-whan, Yi Choon-ha. O Tai-yung. 
Kim Tong-won. Chong H<-no, Y'un Syong- 
un, and others. All these various or- 
ganisations carried on an anti-.Iapanese 
campaign with great vigour, while Ihos- 
among them who were teachers took ad- 
vantage of the opportunities which 
offered for inculcating in the minds of 
their students dangerous thoughts re- 
garding .Tapani'se administration. The 
fact that these teachers devoted them- 
selves to the propagation of anti-.Japanese 
Fentimonts is proved by the hianner In 
which the composition papers of their 
pupils — now before the Court as exhibits 
— nro marked. 

Chang chin. 

"Chang Eung-chln in particular was a 
man specially favoured by An Chaug-ho, 
the founder of the New Peoples' Society 

in Korea, and of the Taisong school. 
When the attack upon Count Yi by Y'i 
Chai-myong occurred, and the otiicial 
surveillance of An Chang-ho became more 
strict, be found he could no longer be so 
active in his propaganda work, and he 
made preparations to flee abroad should 
occasion arise. He summoned Chang 
Eung-chin, who had graduated at the 
Higher Normal School in Tokyo, from 
Japan, giving him a generous sum for 
travelling expenses, and appointed him 
principal of Taisong school at a certain 
salary. After having entrusted Chang 
with the future care of the school. An 
went abroad, and became the leader ol 
the members of the New Peoples' Society 
at Pyong-yang. In spite of his having in- 
stilled anti-Japanese ideas into the heads 
of the people with all the energy at his 
command, Chang declared in the course 
of his examination in open Court that he 
had no particular feelings at the time of 
the annexation of Korea. He said that 
his confession to the contrary at the police 
headquarters and before the Procurator 
was due to a misunderstanding — a plea 
which to me serms only to display his 
shameful cowardice, and is certainly not 
to be accepted in his favour. 

" In about June cr July a rumour got 
afloat that Japan was about to anu'-x 
Korea, and this report made Chang more 
than ever dissatisfied with the condition 
of Korean national affairs. When, in the 
following August, it became known that 
the report was well founded, the lessons 
at the Taisong school were suspended 
from about the 10th pending the result 
of an imiuiry into the political situation. 
On the 29th the formal declaration of the 
annexation was made, and liV^he even- 
ing Cha.ig assembled his students at the 
school and addressed them. He expres- 
sed his deep i-egret that his country had 
tjeen ruined, and that he and his fellow- 
couiitrvmen had now to hoist the flag 
of the Rising Sun instead of their own 
flag. He concluded bis inflammatory 
speech by declaring that Ihey must re- 
store the Talkeuk flag as soon as pos- 
sible. The speech was received by the 
audience with great excitement. They 
shouted " Igo! " | which may be translat- 
ed as " By Heaven ! " and is used as an 
expression of profoiind griefl, they 
8tnmix>d theli feet on the floor, and In- 
dulged in such a noisy demonstration 
that it was some time before order could 
bo restored. 

[ 95 J 

Meeting at the Taisoxo School. 
" The members of the New People's 
Society at Pyong-yang agreed to a general 
meeting being called in order to dis 
cuss the steps to be taken in regard to 
the political change which had taken 
place. On the 30th of that month the 
teachers and students of the Songsil 
school, the Ilsin school, and the Keui 
rayong school met at the Taisong school. 
There were also several members of the 
general public, the audience altogether 
numbering about 200 persons. An Tai- 
kuk, one of the accused, gave an address, 
bemoaning the fact that their country, 
which had existed for 4,000 years, had 
now been ruined by the annexa'.ion. He 
and his 20 million brother Koreans could 
not look on idly at what was being done, 
and he suggested that they should start 
upon a speech-making campaign in order 
to make known their opposition to the 
change which had been effected, and 
so appeal to the world's sympathy. 
Chang, however, opposed this suggestion, 
and it was abandoned. As one of the 
objects of the Society, however, was to 
attract foreign sympathy for the Koreans, 
It was suggested that the best course to 
pursue would be to consult the foreign 
residents in the district and obtain their 
opinion as to what should be done. It 
was finally settled that these foreigners 
should be consulted, and a number of 
men who were acquainted with the for- 
eign residents — including La Il-pong, Yi 
Choon-ha, Kim Tong-won, Pyen In-syo, 
Cha Li-sik, Ok Song-pin, Yi Tok-whau, 
Chyoug Ik-no, and An Kyong-noK — were 
accordingly instructed to approach the 
foreigners and ascertain their opinions. 
The meeting then adjourned, and two or 
three days later the leading members met 
at the Taikeuk book store to receive the 
report of. the men who had been In- 
structed to approach the foreigners. 
These men reported that the foreigners 
had expressed themselves as being op- 
posed to the proposed speech-making 
campaign. An Tai-kuk, on hearing 
this, said that if they accepted the 
suggestion of the foreigners, it would 
mean that the Koreans, by remaining 
silent, would lose the sympathy of the for- 
eign Powers, and before deciding any- 
thing further he urged that they should 
call upon the leader of the Society. 
Baron Yun, in order to hear what his 
opinion was. This proposition was dis- 
cussed and finally accepted, and An, ac- 
companied by Kim Tong-wha, went up 

to Seoul to get Yun's opinion as to what 
should be done. Baron Yun said that 
the idea of delivering speeches' should 
be abandoned, as it would be of no 
advantage to the party. Yun then point- 
ed out that one of the objects of the 
New People's Society was the assassina- 
tion of high officials, and he told the 
deputation that a better way of de- 
monstrating their opposition to the an- 
nexation was by realising this object 
of the Society. Yun added that he would 
let An know later of a good oppor- 
tunity for such a demonstration. An 
agreed with Yun that this scheme was 
better than the other, and he accordingly 
went back to Pyong-yang and told the 
members of the Society there what had 
been decided. 

Formation of the Plot. 

" At the beginning of August 1910 YI 
Sang-choon, of the' Anglo-Korean School, 
Kaisong, came to Pyong-yang as a mes- 
senger from Yun Chi-ho, and delivered 
instructions that representatives should 
be sent to Seoul to consult Yun in re- 
gard to the assassination plot. Yi Seung- 
hun. An Tai-kuk, and Ok Kwan-pin ac- 
cordingly proceeded to the capital for 
this purpose, and about two days later, 
on the 10th, An and Ok returned to 
Pyong-yang. They called the members 
of their party to a meeting at the Tai- 
keuk book-store, and told them that they 
had met Baron Yun Chi-ho, Yang Ki-tak, 
Im Chi-chong, and others at Im's house 
at Seoul, and had been told that Count 
Torauchi, the Governor-General, was 
shortly going to visit North and South 
Pyongan provinces on a tour of inspec- 
tion. An and Ok then proposed that 
the Governor-General should be assas- 
sinated at one of the principal railway- 
stations between Seoul and New Wiju. 
It was considered that Pyong-yang would 
not be suitable for an attempt on the 
Governor-General, as it was always very 
5trictly guarded on the occasioE of such 
official visits, and it would be doubtful 
whether the plot could be carried out. 
At Syen Chuen, however, the conditions 
were considered more advantageous, as 
the station was a large one, and there 
were a large number of foreigners re- 
sident there, which fact led the con- 
spirators to conclude that the Governor- 
General would alight there. It was also 
presumed that the precautions taken to 
protect him would be less strict there 
than at Pyong-yang, and in consideration 

[ 96 ] 

of these various circumstances An and Im's house, and discussed plans for uiak- 
Ok suggested that their efforts should ing the members of the party in Xorth 
be concentrated on this one spot. The ' and South Pyongan provinces carry out 
leaders also stated that they would go the plot to assassinate the Governor- 
to Syen C'huen with the others on this General. The news that the Governor- 
occasion. In order to make the necessary ; General was going to visit these districts 

preparations for carrying out the plot, 
O Tai-yung and Cha Lisik went to An- 
tung to purchase revolvers, while other 
members of the party volunteered to 
collect weapons. 

The Pyo.\G-Y.\NG Station Episode. 

" About the middle of August a mes- 
senger came to Pyong-yang from Baron 
Yun named Yi Sang-choon, bringing the 
information that the Governor-General 
would visit Pyong-yang about the 201 h 
of the month. On receipt of this news, 
the leading members of the Society as- 
sembled at the Taikeuk bookstore and 
nominated the men who were to proceed 
to Syen Chuen and other places to tell 
the members of the Society to be in 
readiness. These men took with them 
a number of revolvers for distribution. 
An Tai-kuk left with a number of men 
for Syen Chuen. On the 19th the Pyong- 
yang men met at the Taisong school, 
where revolvers were distributed among 
them. Chang Eung-chin then outlined 
the plan of the arrangements for the 
following day, and the men were shown 
the places they were to take up at tht- 
station when the Governor-GEneral ar- 
rived. Between two and three o'clocS 
the next afternoon a party of about 21 
men, including Tai-yung and Choi 
Chun-hang, went to Pyong yang station, 
all carrying revolvers concealed under 
their clothes. It turned out, however, 
that the news of the Governor-General's 
coming was based on a false rumour, 
and so the plot failed. On the following 
September 15th and October 20th, on 
the strength of information received 
from Paron Yun in Seoul, the party 

on a tour of inspection was confirmed 
by information obtained from a certain 
source. It was agreed that the main 
force of the party should be concentrated 
at the Syen Chuen railway-station as be- 
fore, and about the 10th of the month 
Ok returned to Pyong-yang and reported 
to the local members there what had 
been decided at the meeting at Seoul. 
On or about the following day An Tai- 
kuk returned to Pyong-yang, and a 
meeting was held at the Taikeak 
book-store, when the members were 
assured of the reliability of the latest 
news regarding the Governor-General's 
coming, and they were urged to resolve 
to carry out their plans with decision. 
Then, in the event of the plot being 
carried out successfully, it was arranged 
that the principles of the Xew Peoples' 
Society were to be published abroad 
and foreign sympathy thus secured. An 
Tai-kuk said that he and Yi Seung-hun 
would go to Syen Cliuen with a party 
of members of the Society. An instruct- 
ed Ok Kwan-pin to go to the places 
north of Chyongju with Kil Chin-hyong 
to inform the members there of what 
had been decided upon at Seoul, and to 
tell them to prepare to carry out their 
plans. Ok and Kil in due course left 
on their mission. 

" Yi Sounp-liun at this time was in 
Seoul making inquiries into the political 
situation in the capital, and on learn- 
ing that the Governor-General was ac- 
tually leaving to make a tour of inspec- 
tion in the north, went back to Pyong- 
yang. While ho and other members of 
the Society were busily engaged in 
making their preparations for the carry- 

ap-ain went to the station, but on both j ing-out of the conspiracy, Kim Kwi and 
occasions the report was incorrect, and Kim llongyang. accompanying the ac- 
the plans for assassinating the Governor- 1 cused O Taik-eui and Pyen Kongyul. 
General at the station failed. About the .arrived at Pyongyang vift Syen Chuen. to 
beginning of November Kim Do-heul, an- ] ascertain the definite date of the Oov- 

other messenger from Baron Yun, came 
to Pyong-yang from Seoul with instruc- 
tions that the local leaders were to pro- 
ceed to Seoul. The principal members 
met at the Taikeuk book-store, when it 
was decided to send YI Seung-hun, An 
Tai-kuk, Ok Kwan-pin, and a few others 
to the capital. These men met Baron 
Yun. Yang Kltak, and Im Chichong at 

rnor-General's departure from Seoul on 
his tour. These men met at the Taikeuk 
bookstore and at the Taisong school to 
discuss their plans, and during this time 
definite news came from Baron Yun in 
S«'oul that the Governor-General was 
leaving the capital for New Wiju 6a the 
November 27lh. It had already 'Been ar- 
ranged that YI Seung-hun and An Tal- 

[ 97 J 

kuk were to go to Syen Chuen to take 
charge of the members of the Society 
there, but fearing that the plot might bu 
detected if a number of men were to be 
seen moving about at the same time, it 
was arranged that Yi should first leave 
for Xap Chyongjong on the 25th, accom- 
panied by La Seung-hui, An Syong-che, 
Kim Syong-haing, and Kim Eung-pong! 
who were all members of the Nap Chyong- 
jong branch, but were in Pyongyang to 
attend the meetings in connection with 
the plot. At Nap Chyongjong Yi callea 
a meeting of the members of the Society, 
when he and the others took an oath 
that they would go to Syen Chuen, and 
thither he proceeded at the head of the 
party. " The following day An Tai-kuk. 
with Paik Nan-chun, Cho Mun-paik, Kang 
Pong-oo, Kim Kwi, O Taik-eui, and Pyen 
Kong-yul started for Syen Chuen from 
Pyong-yang, proceeding in small parties 
of two and three in order to avoid arous- 
ing the suspicions of the authorities. 

'■ Just here I wish to devote a few 
words specially to the e.xamination of 
the documentary evidence put in by Mr. 
Okubo, one of the counsel appearing for 
the defence, and also by the accused An 
Tai-kuk. From the facts appearing on 
the records before the Court, it appears 
that Yi Seung-hun was in Pyong-yang on 
or about November 17th, But this mattor 
of the exact date is open to question. 
From a telegram addressed to the hotel- 
keeper at Pyong-yang by An Tai-kuk from 
Seoul, dated November 24th, it might 
be inferred that Yi reached Pyongyang 
on the 25th, and then went on to Nap 
Chyongjong. It is impossible to con- 
tend, on the strength of the telegram 
which has been produced, that Yi had no- 
thing to do with this conspiracy. In 
the books of the hotel-keeper at Pyong- 
yang there is an entry showing that a 
certain sum of money was remitted to 
Seoul by Yi Seung-hun, but so long as 
there is no evidence to show that Yi 
went direct back to the capital, this entry 
in the books is not sufficient to prove 
that Yi was not at Pyong yang on or abou' 
the dates mentioned. It is also evident 
from the records that An Tai-kuk went 
to Pyong-yang from Seoul on or about 
November 13th or 14th, but as his move- 
ments during the following days up to 
the 24th or 25th are not clear, it is not 
improper to assume that he went back 
again to the capital, and about tte 25th 
or 26th proceeded to Pyong-yang with V: 
Seung-hun. As to the letters, invoices, 
and other documents addressed to An at 

Seoul and put in as exhibits, it was quire 
a common matter tor letters and other 
communications to be addressed to his 
office at the capital, which was the Seoul 
branch of the Taikeuk book-store, and 
the mere fact of these letters being sent 
there is no proof that An himself was 
in Seoul at the time, and not at Pyong- 

Mass Meeting at the Taisoxg School. 

, " On the 26th a mass meeting of the 
Pyong-yang members of the New Peo- 
ple's Society was held at the Taisong 
school, at which Chang Eung-chin pre- 
sided. He allotted the men their posi- 
tions to be taken up at the railway sta- 
tion to await the arrival of the Gover- 
nor-General, and distributed among them 
the revolvers -which he had obtained. It 
was also decided at this meeting that 
La Il-pong should go to Eup Nai to assist 
the local members there. After it had 
been arranged that all the members of th? 
Society should go to Pyong-yang railway 
station the next day, the 27th, at about 
two o'clock in the afternoon, and take up 
the positions which had been allotted to 
them, the meeting broke up. Next day 
all the members, with the exception of 
La Il-pong, numbering about 20 men, pro- 
ceeded to the railway station at the ap- 
pointed time, and took up their positions. 
Some stood near the wicket, while others 
ranged themselves on both sides of the 
road near a monument, where they await- 
ed the arrival of the Governor-General. 
The train arrived at the station at 2.16 
p.m., but the Governor-General did not 
alight, and the train left again for New 
Wiju after a stop of about five minutes. 
The plot was therefore frustrated. Chang 
and the other leaders, however, had In- 
vitations to a reception to be given the 
Governor-General at the Keui-yang Club 
on the following day, the 28th, and they 
therefore knew that he would leave the. 
train and stfiy in the city for the night. 
These men accordingly assembled at the 
Club on the evening of the 27th and dis- 
cussed their plans, finally deciding to 
take advantage of the opportunity afford- 
ed them to carry out their scheme and as- 
sassinate the Governor-General the fol- 
lowing night. Armed with revolvers, 
they went down to the station again, this 
time accompanied by La Il-pong, who 
had come back unsuccessful from Eup 
Nai. The precautions taken to guard 
the station by the police and gendarmes 
were so strict, however, that the men 

[ 98 ] 

could not take up the positions they had 
occupied the previous day, so they al- 
tered their plans. Some ranged them- 
selves along the front of the third-class 
■waiting-room, and others stood on both 
sides of the road in front of the station. 
Chang Eung-chin and Yun Syong-un en 
tered into this plot as the leading educa- 
tor and leading businessman of the place 
respectively, and they were among those 
■who were waiting for the Governor- 
General's arrival. The special train ar- 
rived at about 4.30 p.m., and Count Tera- 
uchi alighted from his car. Upon leav- 
ing the station he reviewed a number 
of soldiers who were drawn up in front 
of the station, after which he proceedca 
to the Iveui-yang Club. During this time 
the accused were on the look-out for an 
opporiunity to carry out their designs 
upon the Governor-General, but the 
guard which was kept by the police and 
gendarmes was so strict that they could 
not carry out their plans. 

Mektinu aktkk tkf. Banquet. 

" The accused Chang Eung-chin, seeing 
that the Governor-General had driven 
safely away in his carriage, gave orders 
to the conspirators that they were 'c 
meet him that evening at the Taisong 
school, whither he would proceed after 
attending the banquet to be given a; 
the Club in honour of the Governor- 
General. This he did: on the conclusion 
of the function at (he Club he proceededi 
to the school, where he addressed the 
men who were already assembled there, 
lie said that it was not in his place to 
remonstrate with them for not having 
carried out their plans, as he himselt 
had not been able to do so, although he 
was on the platform when the Governor- 
General arrived, but he made a series 
of searching inquiries as to why they 
had failed to act in the manner decided. 
•The men all replied that their failure 
was due to the fact that the guard main- 
tained was too strict to give them an 
oppnrlunily to carry out the plot. Some 
of the men then spoke with a view to 
encouraging the otliers, pointing out that 
faintheartedness would be detrimental 
to the carrying-out of their plans, and 
urging them to be brave. It was subse- 
quently deci'ded to make another attempt 
to assassinate the GovernorGi-nera! 
when hf started for Cliinnampo the 
following day. Accordingly, on Novem- 
ber 2!ith, they again went to the railway 
station, and took up the same positions 

they had taken before. Count TerauchI 
arrived at the station in a carriage at 
about 8 a.m. and entered his train, which 
left for Chinnampo. Again the conspira- 
tors were unable to get an opportunity 
to carry out their plan. This is a general 
description of what happened at Pyong- 
yang: I shall next refer to the incidents 
which took place at Syen Chuen. 

" At Syen Chuen there were three men — 
Syon Oo-hyok, Cha Kuin-sul. and Ti Yong- 
hyok — who were actively en.eaged in pro- 
pagating this rebellious spirit in the minds 
of the students of the mission school, 
with a view to making them join the 
New People's Society. Syen Chuen was 
the administrative centre of the New 
People's Society in this district, which 
Included Kwaksan, Chyongju, Chulsan, 
Wiju and Yong Chuen. 

A Later Scheme. 

"In August, 1910. Ok Kwan pin con- 
ferred with Yun Chi-ho and other lead- 
ers of the movement at Seoul in regard 
to the assassination of the Governor- 
General. They came to the conclusion 
that they should concentrate their best 
efforts at the railway-station at Syen 
Chuen. Ok went back to Pyong-yang, 
and after consultine the members there 
went on to Nap Chyongjong, Chyongju. 
and Eup Nai to explain the position to 
the members there. He thence proceed- 
ed to Syen Chuen, accompanied by Im 
Hyong-wha, from Nap Chyongjong. At 
Syen Chuen Ok invited all the local mem- 
bers and others interested in the prin- 
ciples of the Society to the Chong Chi- 
chom, Yl Seung-hun's head office where 
he related what had taken place at the 
conference at Seoul. Ok then unfolded 
the plot against the life of the Governor- 
General, and the proposal was approved. 
The members of the Society at, Kwaksan, 
Chyongju, and Chul San also went to 
Syen Chuen to discuss the plot. More- 
over, they dispatched the accused Yl 
Yonghyok and Choi Tak-vun to China 
to purchase revolvers, while others col- 
lected from ■ several sources revolvers 
and other weapons. Further, they caused 
the hot-blooded men of the party to com- 
mit annxl burglary to obtain funds for 
the plot. When the reports of the Gover- 
nor-General's roming on August 20th, 
September 15th, and October 20th were 
received the majority of the members, in- 
cluding the accused Sin Hyo-pyon and 
Cha Yung-chi:n. went to the railway- 
station at Syen Chuen, each carrying a ro- 

[ ^-y ] 

.volver. The reports were incorrect and 
these auccessive failures to carry out the 
plot caused great dissatisfaction among 
the conspirators, who complained of the 
carelessness on the part of the leaders 
In Seoul in sending false reports. On 
November 14th or 15th Ok Kwan-pin went 
to Yi Seung-hun's office with Kil Chin- 
hyong, where he met the principal men 
of Syen Chuen. He told them that ac- 
cording to a report obtained from a cer- 
tain reliable source the Governor-General 
was shortly starting on a tour of inspec- 
tion to North and South Pyongan-do, 
and that they should seize this oppor- 
tunity to kill him. This was the plot, 
continued Ok. which had been planned 
by him in conjunction with Yun Chi-ho. 
— it was an order issued by the Baron, 
Yang Ivi-tak, and other leading men, ana 
therefore must be executed. Ok called 
other meetings at the same place and 
in the No. S class-room of the Syen 
Chuen mission school. These meetings 
were attended by members of the Society 
from Kwaksan, Chyongju, Chul San, 
Yong Chuen, and Wiju, and also by the 
teachers and students of the school. At 
these meetings an account of the plot 
was given, and those present consented 
to take part. Ok then went to Wiju and 
district with Yi Keui-tang to canvass for 
further support for the Society, and 
shortly returned to Syen Chuen to take 
part in the conspiracy. Meanwhile, the 
other accused met in No. 8 class-room 
at the mission school and other places 
and delivered inflammatory speeches. 
Other collected revolvers, of which as 
many as 156 were obtained. 

" About November 24th Kim Kwi and 
Kim Hong yang, of Whanghai-do, O 
Taik-eui, Pyen Kong-yul, and others, 
numbering more than 10 in all, came 
down to Syen Chuen to join the party 
there. v,-hom they met at the mission 
school. Kim then delivered an inflamma- 
tory address in which he said that the 
national spirit was exceedingly well de- 
veloped in that place, as was proved by 
the efficiency of the arrangements made 
by the local members for the assassina- 
tion of the Governor-General. The exact 
date and time of the Governor-General's 
arrival, however, being still ambiguous, 
Kim proceeded to Pyongyang with some 
of his men that night to obtain further 

" The Syen Chuen men — now accused — 
thought that in view of the praise 
bestowed upon them by Kim Kwi it wouM 

be a disgrace ou their part if they wero 
forestalled by any other party of men 
in executing the plot. They also thought 
it was necessary to keep the students 
determined to realise their ambition, am 
so they held meetings of students almost 
every evening in the No. 8 class-room, 
and urged them by various moans to 
carry out the plot with decision. The 
accused Kwak Tai-chong, Chang Si-ook, 
and Syong Oo-hyok, selected the boys of 
the most fearless and daring character 
from the student body, and armed them 
with revolvers when going down to the 

" About November 25th the members 
from Kwaksan— Yi Keun-taik, O Hak-su, 
Chi Sang-chu, and Kim Si-cham — came 
to Syen Chuen to help the local members 
in compliance with instructions from 
Yang Chom miung, requesting them to 
do so. Kim Kwi and party, who had 
been to Pyong-yang. got reliable intelli- 
eence that the Governor-General was to 
leave Seoul for the New Wiju districts 
on the 27th. Accordingly, he left Pyong- 
yang with An Tai-kuk and party, num- 
bering more than 10 men in all. and In 
separate parties they went back to Syen 
Chuen on different occasions. A meeting 
was held in No. 8 class-room at the mis- 
sion school on the evening of their ar- 
rival, and Kim Kwi addressed the as- 
semblage, urging that the plot against 
the Governor-General must be executed 
in any circumstances, as it was by order 
of Baron Yun Chi-ho and Yang Ki-tak. 
Inflammatory speeches were also delivered 
by certain other leading men to excite 
and stimulate the people, and after an 
announcement that the party would be 
given revolvers the next day, the meet- 
ing concluded. The following day 
(November 27th') the party again met 
at the mission school, and in class-room 
No. 7 revolvers were distributed among 
the students and others who did not 
possess weapons. Preparations for car- 
rying out the plot were thus completely 

The Conspirators from Nap Chtoxojoxg. 

" I believe it is now necessary to refer 
to the arrangements made by those of the 
accused from Nap Chyongjong. This 
place may be regarded as the base of 
operations of the accused Yi Seung-hun. 
It is close to his birthplace, and he was 
also closely connected with it in certain 
other ways. Yi founded schools there, 
and used to inspire anti-Japanese ideas 

[ "'0 ] 

in the minds of the local people. In 
1908, at the Sinheung school, ho de- 
livered excited speeches on natioutil 
affairs, instipating the people to assas- 
sinate the " Five Traitors " and " Seven 
Betrayers," and to start a war of in- 
dependence when an opportunity was 
presented. Accused sent young men like 
Ini Hyong-wha to Tokyo under the pre- 
text of study, but in reality to observe 
political conditions in Japan. Yi sub- 
sequently closed the Sinheung school 
and the Osara school, and established the 
Kaniiung school at Nap Chyong-jong. 
He appointed Yi Yong-wha as managing 
director, Im Hyong-wha as head teacher, 
and Yi Tai-kyong, Choi Syong-min, and 
certain others as teachers, while on the 
other hand he got into close relations 
with influential Christian pastors in the 
district like Cho Tok-chan. He exerted 
himself to develop the influence of the 
New Peoples' Society, and to propagate 
the anti-Japanese spirit in the minds of 
the local people. Yi's efforts resulted in 
the production from his school at 
Kaming of men of dangerous 
thoughts like Kim Syonghaing, La ' 
Seung-kiu, and An Syong-che who would 
go through fire and water for the cause 
of the Society. At the time of the attack 
on Count Yi Wang-yong, Yi sent the ac- 
cused Kim Chan-o and Choi Chu-sik, 
whom he had specially selected, to assist [ 
III the dangerous enterprise. Yi devoted 
himself almost entirely to the work of ' 
the New People's Society, and the mem- 
bers at Nap Chyongjong did just what 
he wanted. | 

" In regard to the conferences in ' 
Seoul of the accused YI Seung-hun with 
Baron 'Yun Chi ho and oiher lead'-rs 
of the movement over the plot for 
the assassination of the Governor- 
General, Yi used to go to Nap Chyongjong 
after each conference to give an account 
of what had transpired to the local nwrn- 
bers, and he also used to repeatedly \irge 
them to carry out the plot. On or about 
AuEUst 20th. September 15th. and Octo- 
ber 20th, the conspirators at Nap Chyong- 
lorig went to the railway-station at 
Chyongju with the object of assassinat- 
ing the Governor-General, but the Gov- 
ernor-General did not arrive as expected, 
and as had been reported by Yi Seung- 
hun in circumstances already referred 
to. This point was not made clear by 
the examination of the accused from Nap 
Chyongjong in regard to their movements, 
and there is no direct evidence to prove 

it. But, according to the statements of 
the accused from this place, these men 
^lid that YI Seung-hun went to Nap 
Chyongjong In August, September, and 
October, 1910, to collect funds for the 
construction of a military school. It 
was then that YI Tal-hyon, Im Hyong- 
wha. and Yi Chuug-yong instigated th« 
hot-blooded youths La Seung kiu, Kim 
Syong-halng, An Syong-che, and Kim 
Chan-o to commit armed burglary 
In order to obtain funds for the 
Society. Further, In the confession ot 
La Seung kiu, this man says that he went 
to the station at Chyongju several fimea 
to carry out the plot, but on each oc- 
casion the Governor-General failed to ar. 
rive. If all these statements be taKen 
into consideration, together with the 
relation of the movements of the mem- 
bers at Pyong-yang and Syen Chuen, the 
evidence is sufficient to justify the belief 
that the facts are as I have stated. 

Nkws of the Goveknor's Movements. 

" About the middle of November an 
authoritative message was received In 
Nap Chyongjong that the Governor- 
General was shortly startlujg for his tour 
to the western provinces. It was also 
said that Baron Yun and other leaders, 
as a result of several conferences, had 
decided to exert their best efforts to 
execute the plot at the railway-station 
at Syen Chuen. The accused Im Hyong- 
wha and Yi Yong-wha began to collect 
revolvers for the purpose, while other 
members committed burglaries to obtaia 
funds for the proposed military school 
and also for the conspiracy. Owing to the 
position of the parties at Pyongyang and 
Syen Chuen not being qnlte clear, the 

: party at Nap Chyongjong thought it 
advisable to send Kim Syong-haing, 
La Seung-kiu, and An Syong che to keep 
up the relations between the local bodies. 
This was done, and all were in readi- 
ness for a good opportunity for execut- 
ing the plot. 

" Meanwhile YI Seung-hun. alter con- 
sultations at Seoul and Pyongyang over 
the plot, proceeded to Nap Chyongjong 
about November 25th, accompanied by. 
Kim Syong-haing and others. Upon ar- 
rival there they met the local members 
of the Society at the Kamiung school, 
and told them about the conferences at 

' Seoul with Baron Yun and other leaders. 
Yi then disclosed the fact that the 

; Governor-General was leaving the capital 

r 101 ] 

for New Wiju, and submitted the pro- 
posal to carry out the assassination at 
Syen Chuen station in co-oppration with 
the local members of the Society, His 
proposal was adopted, and small parties 
of men started from Nap Chyong- 
jong that very day and up to the morn- 
ing of the 27th. They went at different 
times, and in different parties, but all 
carried revolvers or swords. Yl Seung- 
hun went to Syen Chuen on November 
27th via Chyongju with his own partv 
and a group of Chyongju members, in- 
cluding Hong Song-in and Choi Syong- 

The ■' Very Ob.stinate Membeb." 

" It is now necessary to review the 
movements of the accused belonging to 
the Chyongju group. Choi Syongchu waa 
the head teacher of the Sin-an school, 
Chyongju, and was a notorious man of 
anti-Japanese sentiment. He was the, 
very obstinate member of the Society loho. 
at a meeting on the first anniversary of 
the birthday of the Emperor of Japan 
after the annexation of Korea, refused to 
how before the Imperial pieture on the- 
ground that such an act was worship- 
ping an image. The accused Hong Song, 
in was once the chairman of the Chyone;- 
ju branch of the Syepuk Society, formed 
by men of anti-Japanese ideas, and he was 
regarded as an influential man in the 
district. Yi Miung-yong, Im no-myong. 
and Paik Mong-kiu were in their turn 
the leading members of the Society In 
Chyongju. About the middle of August 
1910. Ok Kwan-pin came to Chyongju 
with Im Hyong-wha, with details of the 
s'-heme for assassinating the Governor- 
General originated by Baron Yun ana 
others in Seoul. The Chyongju men fell 
in with the plan, and when they got the 
reports from Yang Chom-miung on 
August 20th, September 15th, and Octo- 
ber 20th, 1910, they all turned out at th-j 
railway-station at Chyongju, armed with 
pistols, ready to assassinate the Gover- 
nor-General, who, however, did not arrive 
as expected. 

" About the middle of November Hong 
Song-in, Paik Mong-kiu, Im Do-myong, 
and some others of the accused went to 
Syen Chuen as a result of a communica- 
tion from the party at that place. Upon 
arrival at Syen Chuen they met Ok Kwan- 
pin and the local members at Yang.Chom- 
miung's house, and took an oath that 
they would carry out the assassination of 

the Governor-General at the railway 
station in Syen Chuen when he stopped 
there on his way north. They subse- 
quently returned to Chyongju, where thej 
discussed the matter with the other mem- 
bers of the Society. They also exerted 
themselves to collect dangerous weapons 
and were anxiously awaiting the Gene- 
rals visit. On November 27th Yi Seung- 
hun dropped in at Chyongju on his way 
from Nap Chyongjong to Syen Chuen. 
with the information that the Governor- 
General was starting from Seoul on his 
trip. The accused Choi Syongchu anrt 
a number of other interested men, about 
10 in all, accordingly proceeded at once 
to Syen Chuen. 

" I here propose to touch upon the evi- 
dence produced by one of the counsel for 
the defence in regard to the number of 
passengers travelling between certain 
points on November 27th. 

The Railway Officiai/.s EvmE.NCE. 

" Mr. Okubo produced as an exhibit a 
telegram from the station-master at 
Chyongju. [This message, sent in reply 
to an inquiry made by counsel, stated 
that on the day in question 9 passengers 
travelled from Chyongju to Syen Chuen 
by rail.] Later on it became evident 
that this message was inaccurate, owing 
to a mistake on the part of the railway 
official. At the same time, it is not un- 
likely that the accused from Nap Chyong- 
jong and Chyongju — numbering 30 men 
in all — did not go down to Syen Chuen 
by rail that day. But when we consider 
the fact that Kim Syong-haing, La 
Seung-kin, and An Syong-che had been 
preparing for the plot for some time, 
travelling up and down the line between 
Pyong-yang and Syen Chuen, it is not 
difficult to assume that some of the men 
may have proceeded to Syen Chuen a 
few days previous to the day on which 
the attack was to be made. Further, the 
distance between Nap Chyongjong and 
Syon Chuen is about 11 ri, and there is 
no reason why we should not conclude 
that most of the accused went to Syen 
Chuen on foot in order to avoid attract- 
ing official attention. Thus, even admit- 
ting that the number of passengers from 
Chyongju to Syen Chuen on the day in 
question was less than the number of 
the accused concerned, this does not 
prove that the men from Nap Chyong- 
jong and Chyongju now charged were 
not concerned in the conspiracy. 

[ K'2 J 

The I.nciue.nt at Sye.n Chvex Station. 

" As I have already mentioned, the 
members of the New People's Society in 
all the surrounding districts arrived ai 
Syen Chuen at about 3 p.m. on Novem- 
ber 27th, 1910. By this time, the nien 
at Syen Chuen were all ready for action, 
all the revolvers having been distributed 
among them. All the conspirators as- 
sembled in the No. 8 class-room of the ' 
mission school to 'finally discuss their I 
plans. Although it was definitely known ] 
that the Governor-General was coming 
on that evening, it was still uncertain 
whether he would alight from his car 
or not. Consequently only a portion of 
party, armed with revolvers, went to 
the railway-station and awaited the ar- 
rival of the Governor-General's train out- 
side the building. The train entered the 
station at about 6.18 p.m. but the General 
did not alight from his car, and the train 
started for New Wiju about seven 
minutes later. 

" The conspirators then held a meet- 
ing at the mission school, when Yi 
Seung-hun declared that the assassina- 
tion of the Governor-General was the 
order of Baron Yun Chl-ho and Yang Kl- 
tak, the representative voices of the 13 
provinces of Korea. The plot must be 
carried out, he went on, at the risk of 
the lives of the members of the whol? 
Society. The General would alight from 
his car the following day, continued- Yi. 
so that this good opportunity for execut- 
ing the assassination should not be 
missed. All present swore that they 
would carry out their mission with deci- 
sion and bravery. 

" Seeing that the Governor-Goneral hart 
not left his car at Syen Chuen, YI 
Seting-hun thought that Count Teraucht 
might not alight from his car on the re- 
turn trip, and he thousht the best thing 
to do was to distribute the conspirators 
at Chyongju. Kwaksan, and some other 
principal stations, so that they migh'. 
be able to oxecute the plot in one place 
even if it failed in another. The accused 
Choi Syong-chu was accordingly ordered 
to go to Ch'ongju. accompanied by Yt 
Keun-taik, Chi Sang-chu, O Hak-su. Im 
Do myong, Palk Mong-kiu. and Yi Myong- 
yong. The accused Hong Song-ln was 
sent to Kwaksan with Kim SI cham and 
others. All these men had Instructions 
to kill the Governor-General If he stop- 
ped at these places. The men proceeded 
to their respective places, all armed with 
revolvers and other dangerous weapons, 

at about 9 p.m. the following day { No- 
vember 28th). Those who were to attack 
the Governor-General at Syen Chuen sta- 
tion met again in the No. 7 class-room 
at the mission school, and distributed 
revolvers among those students who had 
been chosen on account of their beln^ 
brave youths. This was done in the 
presence of Yang Chom-miung, Syon Oo- 
kyok, Kwok Tai-chong, and Kim Il-chom. 
Revolvers and swords were also given 
to the teachers and others. These wea- 
pons were concealtd under their robes. 
Some young men who were not students 
were allowed to enter the files of stu- 
dents, wearing school caps and robes. 
They were led to the station by the ac- 
cused Sin Hyo-pyom, with the teachers 
in front and behind the rows. They 
formed in lines on the platform, th.j 
teachers and others standing at the 
head of the files of youths, or before or 
behind. In this order the party awaltea 
the coming of the Governor-General. 

The Gover.nor's Return Joubnev. 

" The special train reached the station 
at about 12.33 p.m. The Governor- 
General got out of his car, and walked 
along the files of the students, salutln-; 
as he walked along, and then went back 
to his car. The accused wanted to make 
an attack on the General as he passed 
close in front of them, but were unable 
to do so, partly owing to the strict guard 
which w3s maintained, and partly owin? 
to their lack of determination. 

"The accused — including Uong Song-lu 
and Kim Si-cham — who went from Syen 
Chuen to Kwaksan by order of YI Seung- 
hun, went to the railway-station at Kwak- 
san with revolvers hidden und<'r their 
clothes, and awaited the arrWal of the 
Governor-General's train, which entered 
the station at about 1 p.m. on November 
281 h, 1910. The train, however, did not 
stop, merely slackening speed as it passed 
through, and so the accused .could not 
carry out their scheme. 

" The party — Including Choi Syong-chu 
— which went to Chyongju assembled at 
the Sin-an school, and after consulting 
the local members of the New Peoples' 
Society proceeded to the railway station. 
They were accompanied by a number 
of students from the school mentioned, 
with themselves either at the head or 
the end of the files. All were armet' 
with revolvers. They went on to the 
platform pretending to bv Innocent 
people wishing to welcome the Governor. 

[ i03 J 

The train arrived at about 1.25 p.m., and 
the Governor-General got out of his car to 
salute the people present, but the accused 
could not assassinate him on account of 
the strict guard which was kept. 

The Movements ok the Chvl S.\n Group. 

" Let me now review the movements 
of the accused O Heui-won and three 
others at Chul San. O Heui-won was a 
wealthy man at Chul San, and was once 
Governor of the district. He had the 
surname of O Yong-chuen, which was 
notorious in connection with the antl 
Japanese movement in that quarter. He 
gave ¥3,000 towards the building fund 
of the Taisong school, and was a share- 
holder in the Chong Chl-chora, Yi Seung 
hun's general office at Syen Chuen Thus 
he did very much for the cause of th,^ 
New People's Society, and was the leader 
of the party at Chul San. The accused 
Chyong Won-pyong and Lyu Hok-lium 
were also leading figures in tha* district. 

" About the middle of August 1910, Y: 
Yonghyok of Syen Chuen went to O 
Heui-won's house as the messenger of 
Yang Chom-miung, and told Yi to sen'l 
some representatives of the local party to 
Syen Chuen to attend conferences in 
connection with the plot which were 
being held there during the visit of Ok 
Kwan-pin from Seoul. As a result of con- 
sultation with the principal leaders at 
Chul San, the accused Heui-won, Chang 
Wan-pyong, and two others were sent to 
Syen Chuen, where they attended the 
meetings, and swore that they and their 
party would carry out the assassination. 
Upon returning to Chul San, Chang re 
ceived ¥400 from 0, and together witn 
Choi Tak-yun, of Syen Chuen, proceeded 
to Antung. where he purchased ZD 
revolvers. Later on, about August 20th 
and September 15th, Cha Kiun-sul and Yi 
Yong-hyok went to Chul San as messen- 
gers of Yi Seung-hun, with news of the 
expected coming of the Governor-Gene- 
ral The accused from this place, armed 
with revolvers, went to the station at 
Charyon-kwan on the days mentioned, 
but the Governor-General did not arrive 

" About the middle of November Cha 
Kiun sul, of Syen Chuen, went to Chul 
San and told the local members that OK 
Kwan-pin was at Syen Chuen talking over 
the conspiracy with the members there. 
Four rhul San members, with a volunteer, 
Kim Tai-keun, proceeded to Syen Chuen, 
but arrived too late to attend the meeting 
at Yang Chom-miung's general office. 

They attended a meeting, however, held 
in the private residence of Yang, and 
having seconded the proposed plana, re- 
turned to Chul San. Kim Tai-keun re- 
turned from Syen Chuen on November 
26th, bringing news that the Gover- 
nor-General was leaving Seoul for New 
Wiju the following day. 

" The accused men assembled at O 
Heui-won's house and agreed to meet 
at the railway station at Charyon-kwau 
by about 2 p.m. next day (November 
27th). When they went down to the 
station, all carrying revolvers, they were 
not allowed to go on the platlorm. anl 
were obliged to await the arrival of the 
Governor-General's train near the wicket. 
The train arrived about 6.55 p.m., but 
stopped for only about a minute. The 
accused were therefore unable to carry out 
their plans. They then assembled on a 
small hill n^ar the station to discuss 
what steps should next be taken. They 
agreed that they should go to New Wiju 
and work in co-operation with their fellow- 
members there. It was, however, agreed 
that the accused Chang Kwan-san should 
stay and kill the General on his return 
trip, if an opportunity offered itseli. The 
accused O, Lyu, and Chang went to New 
Wiju by rail that evening. On the fol- 
lowing day (November 28th) Chang 
Kwan-san proceeded to the railway- 
station at Charyon-kwan with other 
members of the party. With ' re- 
volvers concealed under th'iir lobes 
they walked on to the platform as 
though they were innocent people waiting 
to welcome the Governor-General. The 
train arrived at about 12.04, but started 
again after stopping only for about a 
minute. Once again the conspirators had 
to turn back withou.t having had a 
[ chance to attack the Governor-General. 

Analysis of Careeii of Accused. 

" The accused Yi Keui-tang was an in- 
j fluential member of the New Peoples' So- 
1 ciefy in Yong Chuen, Wiju, and adjacent 
' districts. The accused Kim Chang-kyon 
was the managing director of the Yang- 
! sil School, Wiju. He became a Christian 
] when a young man, later o^ becoming a 
pastor. He used to inspire the school 
I students and local people with anti-Japan 
ese ideas. The accused An Kwon-ho and 
Song Cha-hyong were also leading mem- 
bers of the Society In Yong Chuen. About 
.August 1910, Ok Kwan-piii and Im Hyong- 
wha went to Wiju via Syen Chuen, and 

[ If)! ] 

Informed tbe members of the party there 
of the coiiferuiice they had had at Seoul 
■nith Baron Yun Chi-ho and Yang 
Ki-tak. They also proposed that the 
W'iju men should assist in executing 
the plot in co-operation with tne 
members at Yong Chuen. The ac- 
cused Yi Keui-tang, Paik Yong-sak 
and Kim Chang-keun endorsed the pro- 
Vosal, and together with the Yong Chuen 
members — An Kwong-ho and Song Cha- 
hyong — purchased revolvers from China, 
or i-nlli'rlod funds of the foundation 
of the proposed military school in Chien- 
tao. Upon getting information en Sep- 
tembpr l.'ith and Octobt-r 2(ith of the 
coming of the Governor-General, thev 
went to N'(»\v Wiju. taking revolvers with 
them. The Governor-General, however, 
did not come. Later Yi Keui-tang fell 
ill and went to Chon Hiun-chik, p. doctor 
at Syen Chuen, where he stayed for medi- 
cal treatment. About the middle of No- 
vember Yi Yong-hyok came to the doctor's 
house as a messenger from Yang Chom- 
niiung to confer with the doctor about 
the projected assassination. The doctor 
then went to Syen Chuen with his patient, 
Yi Keui-tang. As already stated. Ok 
Kwan-pin, Kil Chin-hyong, and others 
were then assembled at Yang's general 
office, and were discussing the conspiracr. 
The accused Yi strongly supported thi 
proposed plans, and next day went to 
Wiju with Ok Kwan-pin, in spite of hl.< 
Illness. At Kim Choon-keun's house they 
vn the accused I'aik Yong-sok and Kim 
Chang-kyon and about 10 others, and tell- 
ing them of the conference at Syen 
Chuen they had just attended, demanded 
the approval of the local members. Yi 
and Ok further proposed that the part.v 
should act with the men from Yons 
Chuen. There were some among the Wljn 
men who said that it was doubttul whe- 
ther the men at Yong Chuen would join 
them, as the Yong Chuen men had so 
often had journeys for nothing as tnc 
result of inaccurate reports received from 
the \\"ju nuMi about oxnected visits of the 
Governor General. Eventually Ok wns 
instructed to discuss the matter directlv 
with the niombers at Yong Chuen. 

"The foltowing day Yi and Ok called 
Song Cha-hyong, An Kwong ho. and a 
few others to Wiju from Yong Chuen 
They all met nt the Yangsil school, to- 
gether with several scores of teach<'rs 
and studenra of the school. YI and Ok 
delivered intiamniatory speeches urging 
the assassination of the Governor-General, 

and on the conclusion of the meeting 
about 46 of the leading members met 
secretly, and Ok urged that no matter 
how many times they might fail to carry 
out the plot, they should not be dis- 
appointed, but with dauntless determina- 
tion should persevere in the attempt to 
execute their mission. The plot was 
ordered by Baion Yun and Yang Ki-tak, 
and this order had been accepted by the 
men at Pyong-yang and Syen Chuen, 
where a programme had been prepared, 
and the men were getting ready to execute 
the plan. Yi and Ok said all this to 
strengthen the minds of the hearers. 

" They further thought it necessary to 
keep pace with the members at Syen 
Chuen in preparing to carry out the 
conspiracy, and so about October 19th Vi 
Keui-tntig and Kim Chang-keun, together 
with Ok Kwan-pin, proceeded »o Sy>A 
Chuiii, while Soi:g Cha-hyong and An 
Kwong-ho went back to Yong Chuen to 
prepare for the attempt on the Governor- 

" The leaders who had gone to Syoa 
Chuen — including Yi Keui-tang — travelled 
up and down between that place and Wiju 
making preparations. About October 24tli 
Vi l^'ciii-tang came to Wiju, and gathering 
those Interested in the plot and the 
students of the Yangsil School together 
reported the plans which had been made 
at Syen Chuen. He also said that tne 
exact date of the Governor-General's ar- 
rival would be made known later, and 
when he came they should carry out their 
plars with the utmost care and deter- 

" Later a report was received at Wiju 
that the Governor-General was leaving 
Seoul on the 27th and would arrive at 
Ncv.- Wiju the same day. The conspira- 
tors again assembled at the Yangsil school 
on the nieht of the '26th. when Yi Keui- 
'anc and Ok informed them that Count 
Terauchl was dtie there the following day, 
and urged them not to fail to effect his 
assassination. The meotine broke up after 
the leaders had instructed the others to 
meet at the school next morning. The 
following morning, all the conspirators 
assembled nt the school, and revolver:3 
were distributed to them in the presence 
of Yi Keui-tang and Kim Chang-keun, be- 
fore these two led the party to New Wiju. 

'■ .Vn Kwong-ho and Song Cha-hyong. ac- 
romnanylng the students from the school 
at Yong Chuen were already In New 
Wiju, and the two parties of men, all 
armed with revolvers, joined forces and 

L 105 ] 

proceeded to the railway-station. Tlip.- 
scattered tliemselves in front of thV 
station and awaited tlie arrival of (lie 
Governor-General. About S.-^O p.m. the 
train arrived, but for some reason tin 
Governor did not leave the train all ni.£;ht. 
The accused, therefore, could not rio 
anything, and decided to return the fol- 
lowing day. The leaders of the party put 
up for the night at the house of Pak 
Pong-yup and elsewhere. 

" The same night O Heui-won, Chang 
Wari-pyonff. and I.yu Hak Hum, who han 
followed the train from Chul San, callec' 
at Pak's houpe. The other leaders were 
summoned to Pak's house to discuss w*\ai 
steps should be taken in the unexpected 
circumstances which had arisen. A pro- 
posal was made that the conspiratois 
should keep a close watch on thp Gover- 
nor-General's train all night, in the hope 
that a good chance might offer itself to 
make an attack upon him. This sug^e.s- 
tion was unanimously adopted, and at 
about midnight a party of men -went out, 
armed with revolvers, and walked round 
the train at some distance. They at 
tempted to gel nearer, but were unable 
to do so, owing to the strict guard whicii 
was kept. After a fruitless wait the.v 
withdrew from the station. Soon after 
daylight they went back to the station, 
placing themselves as before in front 
of the building. The Governor-General 
left the train at abont 8 a.m., and drove 
into the town to maxe a tour of inspec 
tion round the Government offices. He 
came back to the station about two 
hours later. The accused again decided 
to make an effort to execute their plans, 
but again were frustrated by the strict 

" I shall next deal with the circum- 
stances of the offences committed by 
Lyu Tong-sol. The accused organised 
the New People's Society, together with 
An Chang-ho, Baron Yun, Yi Seung-hun, 
and Yang Ki-tak. He was one of the 
leaders. In December 1910 (new calen 
dar), he was proceeded against by 
the police for violation of the 
Peace Preservation Law. At this time 
the annexatioii of Korea had not been 
effected by Japan for more than a couple 
ot months, and a general amnesty was 
proclaimed throughout the peninsula. 
Lyu was favoured with special treatment, 
his offence being given special considera- 
tion. He was released from the charge 
after an admonition from the Procurator, 
when he (accused) took an oath that 
he would be very careful about his words 

and behaviour in future. Despite this 
pledge, the accused interested himself in 
the New People's Society, and got Into 
touch with Baron Yun. Yang Ki-tak, anJ 
Im Chi chong. In July 1911, Yang Chora. 
miung and Yi Yong-wha, as messengers 
of Baron Yun, called upon Lyu, who ur£,vd 
them to exert themselves for the develop- 
ment of the Society, and to take up the 
management of the Society's affairs iu 
North Pyongan-do during the absence of 
Yi Seung-hun. Later, the accused Lyu 
learned that the Governor-General was 
going to attend the opening ceremony of 
the Yalu bridge, and he planned the as- 
sassination of the Governor-General at 
the hands of the members of the Socieiy 
in North Pyongan-do. Under the pretext 
of obtaining promoters for a new in- 
dustrial company, the accused first pro- 
ceeded to Pyong-yang, staying there at 
the house of Yun Syong-un. Lyu gather- 
ed the local members of the Society at 
the Taikeuk book-store and the Taisong 
school, and urged that they should kill 
the Governor-General when he passed 
through on his way to the Yalu bridge. 
The suggestion was approved by tha 
Pyong-yang members, whereupon Lyu 
went on to Anju, where he discussed tl'.e 
plot with a local member, An Syek Lyu 
tlien proceeded to New Wiju, where h3 
put up at a hotel managed by one Kim. 
Lyu invited the accused Yi Keui-tant: to 
the hotel, and expressed his regret 
the scheme for the establishment of a 
military school, which was one of t'ue 
objects of the Society, was not progress- 
ing as well as he wished. At the same 
time he urged YI to assassinate the Go- 
vernor-General. Lyu then visited Wiju, 
staying at a hotel kept by Yi Yong-chin. 
Here he met Paik Yong-sok, Kim Chang- 
kyon, and others, and persuaded ihein 
to join the plot. Lyu next returned to 
New Wiju and again invited YI Keni-tang 
to Kim's hotel, where he described tha 
result of his conference with tie men 
in Wiju. Lyu then made his way to 
Chul San, passing the night at O Heui- 
won's house, where he met the local 
members of the New people's Society 
and explained the plot to them. He then 
went over to Syen Chuen, where he niet 
the local members at Yi Seung-huu 3 
general office and the mission scl-ool and 
further discussed the plot. Then he 
went once more to Pyongyang to report 
on what had been arranged at the vari- 
ous places he had been to, and then re- 
turned to Seoul. It was as a result ot 

[ 106] 

Lyu's activity In canvassing that tne 
members of the New People's Society 
prepared to assassinate the Governor- 
General when an opportunity offeren 

" I may also mention the fact that it 
was through Lyu's canvassing that a 
certain number of men contemplated r.n 
attack on Count Terauchi at the rail- 
way stations at Pyong-yang and Charyon- 
kwan as he passed these places on his 
•way to the Yalu bridge. This fact, 
however, is not included in the i.iresent 
indictment, and so I shall not refer to 
it further, but will go on with the ac- 
cused's movements at New Wlju. 

Pro(i-u.\tor'r SrMMixG Up. 

" While the members of the Society 2t 
Wiju and New Wiju — including Yi Keui- 
tang — were holding a conference at tne 
Yangsil school on October 28th, 1910. a 
number of men from Pyong-yang — Kim 
Keung-yung, Sye Ki-poong, and a few 
others — came to assist them at the 
instruction of Lyu Tong-sol. who meant 
to concentrate the strength of the 
party at New Wiju, as the Governor- 
General was expected there on Octobor 
.•iOth. On the 29th Kim Ik-kyon, Yi Pong 
cho. and Chang Si-ook came from Sy?n 
Chueu to help at New Wiju, as the at- 
tempt at Syen Chuen the previous year 
had been detected, and it was impossihl'- 
to repeat the attempt at Syen Chuen 
station. These men assembled at vli^ 
Yangsil school to diacuss their plans, and 
on the 31st, all armed with revolvers, 
they went to New Wiju station, and met 
the men from Yong Chuen. They s'.p- 
pointfd Kim Keung-yung in command of 
the party, and disbanded for the tim" 
bcinir. thoy then proceeding to the statt'>n 
individually at about 2 p.m. They then 
found that it was impossible to take up 
their positions as projected, owing lo 
the presence of a large number of sot 
diers, so they went to the old railway 
stjition, where they scattered themselves 
about along one side of the buildlns. 
The Governor-General arrived after durk. 
and as he came out of the station Yi 
Keui'tang tried to draw near, but was 
unable to do so owing to the soldiers and 
gendarmes. The conspirators again ni'i 
in the fields, and decided to make an- 
other attempt to assassinate Count Tera- 
uchi the following day (November Ist ) 
when he went to the place of ceremony 
They then disbanded, but the leaders 
gathered at Pak Pong-wha's house, where 

they met Choi Tok-yun, Lyu Hak liuc. 
and O Heui-won, who had come in pur- 
suit of the Governor's train from Chul 
San. A number of these men wandered 
about the streets of New Wiiu during 
the night, in the hope of finding a chaut-i- 
to make an attack upon Count Terauclii, 
but without success. Next morning 
(November 1st), at about 8 o'clock, the> 
wont to the new station and scatters J 
themselves in front of the building to 
await the coming of the Governor-Gene- 
ral. I'e subsequently came and entered 
the station on the opposite side to wh.>re 
they were standing. When the Governor- 
General came out of the place where 'he 
oiiening ceremony was to be held, the 
acclised Yi Keui-tang and other mem- 
bers several times wanted to attack him, 
but were unable to get near owing to 
the soldiers present. On the following 
day, when the Governor-General left New 
Wiju, they again arranged to attack aim 
at the new railway station, but were 
again unsuccessful owing to -the strict 
guard maintained. 

" As I have shown in the course of 
my review of this case, all the accused 
were members of the New Peooie's 
Society. Their objects were to assas- 
sinate various high officials, including 
the Governor-General, and — when Japan 
was engaged in war with China or Ame- 
rica — to hoist the flag of independence 
and establish a Republic. Their schemes 
have been frustrated, and I sincerely hopc 
that they will not resort to making 
cowardly and effeminate excuses, and 
thus lose any public sympathy there may 
be for them. They should confess their 
crime openly like men. here in open 
Court, and thus throw themselves upon 
the clemency of the Court. And 1 hope 
that In future they will become good 
and faithful subjects of the Japanese 


After Procurator Sakai had completed 
his lengthy speech, the Chief Procurator 
(Mr. Matsudera) addressed the Court, 
and set forth the law aplying to the case, 
which he declared to be one of unconsum- 
mated murder. In conclusion he demanded 
a sentence of 10 years' penal servitude on 
G of the prisoners, these being Baron Yun 
Chi-ho, Yi Seunghun, Yang Ki-tak. Im 
Chl-chong. An Tai-kuk. and Lyu Tong-sol. 
Kight years' iuiprisonmont on 21 of the ac- 

[ I"' ] 

cused, including Ok Kwanpin, Im Hyong- 
■wha. anl Yang Choni-miung. Si-' years 
Imprisonment on 42, including Kim II- 
chom and Hong Song ilv. Five years' im- 
prisonment on 54, including Kil Chin- 
hyong, Cho Mun-paik, and Kang Pong-oo. 




Seoi'l, August 26. 

Saturday's proceedings came to a con- 
clusion with the termination of the Pro- 
curator's lengthy speech reviewing th? 
" facts " of the case and the Chief Pro- 
curator's speech as to the application of 
law in the present case. Today (Monday I 
the first of the speeches for the defence 
was heard, and in anticipation of iome in 
teresting proceedings, there were more 
spectators than usual, quite a large 
number of foreigners being present, in- 
cluding about a dozen ladies. The official 
seats behind the Judges were also well 
filled, and I noticed that Dr. Kruger, the 
German Consul-General, was watching the 
proceedings from a seat on the left-hand 
side of the dais. 

There is one feature about the ap- 
pearance of the Koreans who are daily 
peen in the public part of the Court which 
I have not previously mentioned — that is, 
that practically all the men one sees in 
Court have had the old-fashioned top- 
knots cut off. while the women, or most 
of them, have their hair done up in a 
style something like European fashion. 
instead of the old Korean style. It was 
about ten o'clock when the proceedings 
were commenced, and the opening speech 
for the defence was begun by Mr. Miyake. 
who was formerly a Judge In the Seoul 
Court, but who is now practising as a 


" In dealing with this case," said Mr. 
Miyake. " I propose to deal with the 
points of the case in the same orde- 
as they have been dealt with by the Pro- 
curator, but before doing so I shall deal 
with certain matters which affect all the 
accused collectively — I refer to their con- 
fessions. Now the confession of an ac- 
cused man may be the most convincing 

evidence one can have, but It may 
also be the most doubtful evidence. 
When a man's confession agrees exact 
ly with the facta of the case against 
him. judgement may properly be delivered 
.solely upon the strength of his confession. 
When, however, a confession does not 
agree with the facts of the case, it be- 
comes a very dangerous piece of evidence. 
The Chief Procurator has said that the 
confessions of accused should be accepted 
as evidence because they were the 
voluntary statements of accused, made in 
reply to questions addressed to them by 
the Procurator who made the prelimi- 
nary examination into the facts of the 
caye. I have my own opinion as to whe- 
ther these statements were voluntary or 

The False Confessions. 

" As a result of my own observations, 
I have come to the conclusion that most 
Koreans have the faculty of reading other 
people's minds. They can understand 
another person's thoughts after talking; 
with him for about half an hour, and will 
then try to talk in such a way as they 
think will please the other. In this the 
Japanese are no match for them. In the 
present case it is certainly true that some 
of the accused understood what their 
questioners — the police and the Procurator 
— had in mind in examining them, and 
thought that they would please their 
examiners by making the answers whir-h 
they thought were expected from them, 
whether true or untrue. The officials con- 
ducting the examination thought these 
replies were authentic statements of 
fact, and were thus led into a bewildering 
maze of confessions. I ask the Court, 
what were the confessions of Pak Nal- 
hyo and Chang Pil-aok ? Did not they 
confess that they were accomplices in this 
alleged conspiracy, nnd had gone to the 
railway-station armed with revolvers with 
the intention of killing the Governor- 
General? But, as a matter of fact, the 
Procurator — as a result of further investi- 
gation—found that on the day in question 
these two were under arrest at certain 
gendarmerie stations, and could not pos- 
sibly have gone to the station as they con- 
fessed they did: therefore they were 
acquitted. This is a striking example of 
the loose and random manner of talking 
adonted in renlying to questions by the 
authorities. The Procurator says that 
the confessions of the accused are to be 
accepted because they correspond with the 

[ lf)8 ] 

facts of the case, but it is evident that we 
must firdt ascertain whether these confes- 
sions do correspond with the facts before 
they are adopted in deciding this case. 

JrsTincATioN OF Korean Indignation. 

" I shall now deal with the position of 
the N'ew People's Society. This organisa- 
tion has as its object the encouragement of 
education and industry in Korea. It was 
founded before .Japan declared Korea to 
be a Japanese Protectorate. It is gene- 
rally admitted that a very great defect 
in Korea is the absence of education 
and of organised industry, and those facts 
being recognised by those who are called 
' men of the country ' or patriotic men. 
they organised the New People's Society 
with the object of malcing good these de- 
fects. The scheme was not a selfish on>j, 
for any one man's own interest or benefit; 
It was something quite different. It is 
certainly true the majority of the mem- 
bers chanaed their views about the 
country's future when that great national 
crisis, the annexation, rame about. The 
statements made by the accused in opi'P 
Court that they had no particular feelings 
at the time the annexation was declared 
Is probably not true. It is only natural 
that they should be distressed at the 
thourht of the downfall of a dynasty 
which had lasted for about .'iOO years. To 
have such feelings, however, does no; 
necesparlly indicate a desire to taite 
action to resist annexation. There were 
some Koreans who exerted themselves to 
bring about the surrender of their 
country's national rights to Japan, while 
others were grateful to Japan for what 
she had done. Rut even these people had 
some natural feelings of regret at the 
change which took place, just as men could 
not easily forget the gratitude owing to 
an old master. There may have been 
some men who were so overwhelmed with 
the sense of misfortune at what they con 
eldered was the ruin of their country that 
they entertained dangerous thoughts 
against Japan, but even so, it was only 
proper that as Koreans the;>- should have 
such thoughts. 

" It can be easily understood that a 
political change like the annexattdn of 
Korea would seem to offer to those un- 
acquainted with the general trend of 
political affairs an opportunity to under- 
take a decisive scheme te oppose the new 
ri'ginir. For example, at the tlrse of 
the annexation the Korean papers urged 

the assassination of the Ministers known 
as the ' Five Traitors ' and the ' Seven 
Betrayers.' Moreover, the assassination 

of Prince Ito and Mr. Stevens, and the 
attack made upon Count Yi, the former 

i Korean Premier, were the forcible da- 
monstrations of this spirit of opposition. 
Such ideas, however, are not peculiar 
to members of the New People's Society, 
but I believe are general among those 
who feel very strongly upon their na- 
tional affairs. It is reasonable to sup- 
nose that some of the members of this 
Society brooded in much the same way 
over the change that took place, and even 
had dangerous thoughts against certain 

j Japanese of high rank, but it cannot 
be said that it was because they were 
members of the Society that they hnd 
these ideas. Every man who thought 
over the position of his country might 
quite naturally have such thoughts. It 
is a fact that the majority of the accused 
are members of the New People's Society 
but it would be quite improper to assume 
that they all held dangerous thoughts 
against the Japanese authorities merely 
because they belonged to the Society. 

" When we come to consider the facts, 
it seems to me that if the Koreans really 
had the intention of killing the Governor- 
General, there was no necessity for them 
to invite tens of thousands of men to 
join the movement, as the Procurator has 
said belonged to it. The collecting of an 
enormous membership would be no good 

, for the Society,— in fact, it would be 
rather detrimental to the carrying-out of 
its alleged object of assassination. 
Therefore. I submit that it is right and 
proper to conclude that the New Peo- 
ple's Society had for its object the en- 
couragement of education and industry 

, in the peninsula, and the only question 
which has now to be considered Is whe- 
ther the accused, members of this So- 
ciety, had the dangerous thoughts at- 
tributed to thtm or not. 

" The majority of the accused are re- 
ligious men, — men of morals, but not men 
of politics. Moreover, many of them are 

. Chrtetians, and not likely to assassinate 
a man, and thus violate one of the Tei 
Commandments. I can prove this point 
by personal evidence. Including that of 
foreigners, who doubt most strongly the 

I possibility of these men doing such an 
act. Therefore I cannot believe that the 

! accused are guilty of plotting the as- 

Isassinatlon of the Governor-General un- 

' less some very strong and conclusive proof 

'is produced to substantiate the charge. 

[ '0'.» J 


Among the accused there are quite a num- 
ber of the national religion. Their friends 
assure me that these men are quite in- 
nocent of the charge which lias been 
brought against them. 

" I am of opinion that if the jury sys- 
tem was in force in Japanese Courts, the 
men who are now accused would not 
have been brought up for trial. During 
the proceedings in Court I noticed some 
of the accused sitting perfectly calm and 
resigned, a fact which I think the Judges 
also observed. I could see by their de- 
meanour whether they had made true 
or false statements; there is no reason 
why one man of sincere mind cannot 
understand another, and I am sure that 
the Judges too were convinced as to 
whether the statements made by the 
accused in Court were true or not. I 
feel confident that the Court will care- 
fully examine the statements and con- 
fessions of the accused and compare 
them with the exhibits of doci-mentary 
and personal evidence, resolved to 
punish the accused if they are guilty 
of the crime charged against them, and 
to acquit them if it is found that they 
are innocent. 

•' The idea that the Japanese nation is 
one which is always guided by righteous- 
ness is believed to be true by the Ja- 
panese people themselves, and is admitted 
by other nationals. The present case is. 
nothing more than a natural explosion 
of remonstrance against the Japanese in 
bringing about the ruin of the Han dy- 
nasty after an existence of 500 years. In 
doing this the Koreans acted according 
to their ideas of righteousness. 

" As a matter of course, the Court will 
enter solemn and dignified judgement ia 
this case, but I would like to urg« the 
Court to exercise keen discrimination be 
tween the men who are to be punished 
and those who should be acquitted with 
sympathy and justice. Such a judgement 
would represent the Japanese mind— to 
proceed in accordance with righteousness 
This is desirable not only tor the good 
name of Japan, but for the cause ot 

" I should now refer to the circiiw- 
stances of the alleged crimes with which 
the accused are charged, but I am com- 
pelled to stop my speech for a time m 
order to give place to Mr. Ogawa, who 
has come down from Tokyo to address 
the Court. I shall have "the honour ot 
resuming my address to the Court later.' 


Mr. Ogawa spoke at very great length, 
the following being a translation of the 
speech: — 

" In the case now before the Court 
there are 123 Koreans concerned in a 
charge of having taken certain action 
against the Japanese authorities in Ko- 
rea. Among the accused there are a fair 
number of youths who are students at a 
■ertain school which is under tl.e nianagi-'- 
ment of a foreigner, and this fact had 
attracted attention all the world over. 
The Court has accordingly examined ilif* 
evidence in this case very carefully, but 
we barristers w-ho are defending the ac- 
cused had to take the extreme measure 
of appealing for a change of Judges, on 
the ground that the Court was not im- 
partial. We did this simply because we 
considered the step advisable in the in- 
terests ot our clients, and wished to do 
all we could in their behalf. Our pro- 
test, however, was dismissed by two 
Courts, a fact which compels us to assume 
that the Court is impartial, and we now 
await the judgement of the Court. 


" Before proceeding to deal directly 
with this case, I should first of all like 
to remind the Court that the customs, 
manners, and dispositions of the Koreans 
differ in m.any respects from thosp of the 
Japanese. I have been told, by Mr. Mi- 
yake, who is also appearing with me for 
the defence, and is an old resident in 
Korea, that even for those who have lived 
a long time in the peninsula it is im- 
possible to understand certain customs 
and peculiarities of disposition among 
the Koreans. It is therefore difficult to 
gather the real story of this case from 
the records— extremely complicated — ot 
the statements made by the accused. It 
is a matter for congratulation, however, 
that the Judges in charge of this case 
are well acquainted with Korean condi- 
tions and peculiarities, and I am sure 
will detect the real facts of the case. I 
merely wish to point out that a great 
and serious blunder may be made in de- 
ciding this case if the peculiarities which 
T have mentioned are not fully taken Into 

The New People's Society. 
" Turning now to a general review of 
this case. Most of the prisoners charged 
with being concerned in this alleged con- 
spiracy are members of the New People's 

[ 110 ] 

Society. It seems to me that among the 
members cf this Society were some who, 
after brooding over various ideas of re- 
venge, msorted to illegal acts; this 
Sfenis Indisputable. It Is erroneous to 
think, however, as some people do, that 
the New People's Society is an organisa- 
tion ■ttorked on any such principles. This 
Society, as far as ray investigation goes, 
was not a strong body, nor was its policy 
and administration under the control of 
a few individual members, as has been 
alleged. It is wrong to conclude that the 
crime of which the prisoners are ac 
cuscd was the result of any party or- 
ganisation. In other words, the leader 
or leaders of the party did not propose 
the crime with which they are charged, 
nor did the members of the Society carry 
o>it the said scheme. This point, I think 
It is hardly necessary to deal with r-t 
any lenfth, as it is already clear to the 
Court, but at the same time I should 
like to devote a few words to the point. 

Natural Korean Indignation. 

" The New People's Society, In my 
opinion, is not a systematically organised 
body. It is qul»e a superficial Idea to 
suppose that the Society was founded on 
certain definite principles, and that the 
present plot was founded by Baron Yun 
and Yang Ki-tak. It was not the result 
of the ideas of a few persons holding anti- 
Japapese views, nor was it instigated and 
organised by such por.sons. It was merelv 
a natural political phenomenon arlsins 
out of the changed national condition of 
Korea as a result of the annexation by 
Japan, following closely upon the pro- 
tectorate declared over the country. It 
was a demonstration of the rash and wild 
Ideas held by those who are not fully 
acouainted with the real situation of the 
world's affairs— an eruption of conserva- 
tive thoughts of ignorant people which 
took place when they realised the down- 
fall of the Han dynasty. Such pheno 
niena are not peculiar to Korea, but are 
quite common all over the world in simi- 
lar circumstances. Such affairs, however, 
arc not the result of instigation by a few 
people, but are the result of an outburst 
of strong conservative feeling. The pre- 
sent conspiracy case is an affair of thts 
kind, where men of conservative opi- 
nions, opposed to any change, have un- 
consciously come together aa a result 
of their strong feelings of remonstrance 
at the fall of the Han dynasty. It is 
possible that where large numbers of 

men have come together certain men of 
rank, means, and influence have been 
appointed to work on behalf of less 
favoured members. But what I wish the 
Court to specially bear in mind Is that 
the alleged plot was the result of the 
general feeling of remonstrance on the 
part of conservative Koreans against the 
annexation of the country by Japan. 
This fact, in my opinion, is very im- 
portant in estimating the gravity of th» 
charge preferred against these 123 men. 
It is an essential point In considering 
the question of putting the whole respon- 
sibility upon one man, Baron Yun, as 
the originator or leader of the conspiracy. 

The Growth of Anti-Japanese 

" In order to support my argument 
that this plot was the outcome of gene- 
ral opposition to the annexation of Korea, 
let us examine some earlier facts. 
Shortly after the Russo-Japanese war 
Japan declared Korea to be a protec- 
torate. This was about 1906. and the 
event caused something like a panic 
among the conservative Koreans. The 
anti-Japanese campaign which was car- 
ried on was simply wonderful. Thi 
newspapers were full of burning words 
and expressions against Japan. The 
Japanese were described as intr\iders: 
Prince Ito, the Resident-General, was 
flescribed as a robber; and General Oku- 
bo, then in command of the Japanese 
army in Korea, was referred to as a 
burglar. There was a strong movement 
for developing the ' Korean spirit.' In- 
flammatory writings and speeches were 
of daily occurrence in every corner of 
north-wrst Korea. The Residency-General 
seized or suppressed many of these 
papers and I myself have seen a plW 
of documents of this character which 
had been seized. Whether this dis- 
orderly demonstration was mere show 
on the part of the Koreans I do not know, 
but there Is no question that such a 
canipaign was carried out against Japan 
and the Japanese. The authorities did 
all they could to stamp out this move- 
ment, but apparently with little success, 
for eventually Prince Ito was assassinat- 
■ d, and now there are 12S Koreans 
charged with the attempted but uncon- 
summated assassination of Count Tera- 
uchi. the Governor-General. I often pro- 
phesied in the early days of Korean dis- 
(O.Ttent that their feelings might end in 
some fatal attempt being made upon high 

[ 'II ] 

Japanese officials. Prince Ito and Count 
Terauchi were of the same opinion, as 
I myself have heard them say. 

" I. have already said that the present 
case has resulted from an involuntary 
explosion of indignation at the downfall 
of the Han dynasty. It was certainly not 
planned by any one set of people. Such 
a movement was only natural in the cir- 
cumstances, but I have reasons to be- 
lieve that it is almost impossible for tho 
Koreans to have any hope, and certainly 
none of accomplishing, the plans they 
had at the time of the annexation — de- 
claring thefr opposition to or indepen- 
dence of Japan. This to me seems an 
unwise policy in view of Japan's position 
and influence in the Far East and in the 
world. If some of the Koreans did have 
such an idea in the early days of the 
annexation, it would be as vain as trying 
to hold back the progress of the sun 
towards the west. No well-informed 
people would listen to any such plan, 
even if it were advanced, and ii is most 
improbable that any further occurrences 
of this nature will happen. 

Baron Yun's Position. 

" I shall now proceed to deal with this 
case as it specially affects Baron Yun. 
There is no more reason to associate 
Baron Yun with this affair than there 
is to anticipate any further movement 
of the Koreans against Japan, now that 
they understand the power and position 
of Japan. The present case has been sent 
up for trial by the Procurator as one ot 
premeditated but unconsummated mur- 
der. But on examining the written in- 
dictment of the Procurator, it will be 
seen that the accused, in opposing the ad- 
ministration of the Government-General 
only had a political object in view — to 
restore the independence of Korea. It 
is said they planned the assassination of 
the Governor-General as a means of 
realising their object, but this was diu- 
covered and frustrated their sch-eme. In 
my opinion, however, the accused shou'd 
be charged with rebellion, and not with tho 
charge which has been filed against them, 
for, even assuming that they had ar- 
ranged this plot, it was not Count Tera- 
uchi as an individual whom they wished 
to assassinate, but Count Terauchi, the 
Governor-General. I shall leave this 
point, however, to be dealt with by the 
other barristers who are appearing for 
the defence, as I understand that the 
Court agrees that the offence with which 

the accused are charged is a political 

" Pecuuab Action " of the Authorities. 

" Now, in regard to the application of 
the law to this case. The Criminal Code 
of the old Korean Government is to be 
applied, a few articles of which survive 
even to the present day. I should like 
to know why it is a few Articles of this 
old Code are retained in view of the 
new Code recently promulgated by the 
Japanese authorities and enforced in this 
peninsula. I have tried to get at the 
true meaning of this peculiar action by 
the authorities, but have not been suc- 
cessful. But although I confess that I 
do not know the reason for the applica- 
tion of the old Code to this case, I do 
know that the surviving Articles of that 
Code are to be applied in arriving at a 
judgement of this case. I have examined 
these Articles, and found them to be in- 
ferior to the laws in force in any civi- 
lised country. Article 86, which the Pro- 
curator says should be applied to the ac- 
cused, provides that those who have ' pre- 
pared ' to carry out a conspiracy shall 
be punished. ' This is a very striking 
Article. If the men who made this law 
intended it to apply to such a case as 
the present, then we must accept it. But 
I wish to point out to the Court that 
this law is not what it ought to be, and 
that it does not agree with the modern 
civilised standard of penal law. The 
Court should therefore not strictly adhere 
to the spirit of this now out-ofdate luw. 

" Again, Article S6 provides that those 
who have made preparations for carrying 
out a crime, but have been unable to 
execute it on account ot unforeseen cir- 
cumstances, are held liable to meet the 
charge of unconsummated crime. I can- 
not agree to this provision. I believe 
that if a man makes his preparations for 
committing a crime, but abandons the 
idea, he is not liable to be charged with 
unconsummated crime, but with suspend- 
ed crime. Supposing that the accused did 
prepare to carry out the conspiracy, 
I they suspended the crime on their own 
{ accord, or they had to give up the iCea 
owing to force of circumstances or mis- 
understanding. This point must be very 
carefully considered. It is evident that 
the law is not intended to punish th^jfe 
who may have had a scheme to commit 
an offence, but who have not carried it 
into practice, for a suspension of crime 
is what is wished for or expected by 'he 

[ i'-^ ! 

law. Even the Chinese law recognises 
that a suspended crime is no crime at 
all. I therefore respectfully urge that 
the Court should take into consideration 
the fact that the accused, assuming that 
they had joined in a conspiracy, suspend- 
ed the crime either voluntarily or were 
compelled to do so by force of circum- 

What .\re " Unforeseen 


" The Procurator said that the accused 
proceeded to the railway stations with the 
object of carrying out their conspiracy, 
but were unable to execute their plans 
owing to the strict guard which was 
maintained. I thought, in listening in the 
Procurator's speech, that by the words 
' strict guard ' the Procurator meant the 
'unforeseen circumstances' mentioned in 
the old Code. It is stated In the records 
of this case that some of the accused went 
to the railway stations to kill the Oo- 
verr.or-Opnoral. but could not do so owlnc 
to the strict police surveillance Tt is 
a question whether police surveillance 
constitutes an ' unforeseen circumstance,' 
and whether the presence- of police and 
gendarmes at the stations really did con- 
Ktitute ' unforeseen circumstances' to pre- 
vent the consummation of a crime. 

" Count Terauchi, the Governor-Gene- 
ral, has really the same position and au- 
thority in the peninsula as the late Em- 
peror of Korea. No doubt as Governor 
General he required to bo more strictly 
guarded than a Resident-General when 
nakine a tour of inspection. V.'e may 
certainly conclude that the accused, 
who knew what was done in this respecr 
in the days of the Resident-General anJ 
who saw how strongly Prince Ito was 
guarded when he made his tours through 
the country, would know that the Go- 
vernor-General would be still more 
strictly guarded, especially during the 
weeks Immediately following the annexa- 
tion of Korea. The accused must hav<! 
known that the guards at the stations 
•would be very strict. Would it then be 
loglcnl to say that the suspension of the 
execution of the alleged conspiracy ■was 
duf^ to ' unforeseen circumstances.' when 
those circumstances were the strict guard 
which was maintained, and so render 
these men liable to a charge of uncon 
sumniated crime, in accordance with the 
Article of the old Korean Code alre.-iTly 
referred to ? 1 hold that this Artictc 
does not apply to the present case at all. 

Was TiiEKE Any Intention to Kill? 

" Much more strongly do I submit that 
this Article does not apply when we come 
to consider that there is some douht 
as to whether the accused really Intended 
to assassinate the Governor-General at 
all. According to the records of this 
case, some of the accused stated tliat 
when they came face to face with the 
Governor-General they trembled :it the 
thought of the deed they were to do, and 
could not take out their revolvers to 
attack him. Others are represenied to 
have said that they did not tire because 
certain other persons whom it had b^en 
prearranged should -shoot first did not 
do so. When the Procurator asked them 
why they did not step out from their posi- 
tions among the files of men ana shoot, 
they said— according to the ofncial docu 
ments in this case — that they did not 
think of it. Others said that they saw 
the Governor-General walking along 
within three paces of them, but failed to 
attack him. and returned with hurdreds 
of others, with their weapons unused. 
All this sounds to me as though thn 
Koreans, out of vainglory, were unable 
to resist the temptation to take part in 
a plot, and went to the station without 
any real intention of assassinating the 
Governor General. I am really very sorry 
to refer to the accused in this way, but 
if they had really decided to kill the Gov- 
ernor-General, and had even corrmltte'l 
armed burglaries in order to obtain funds 
for carrying out their scheme, it is im- 
possible that they should not have found 
some oi)portunity to make an attack upon 
the Governor-General at one or otncr of 
the many places at which they assembled. 
From the fact that the accused all blame 
another man for not having fired a shot, 
I must be allowed to doubt whether anv 
of them ever had any real intent! n of 
carryinir out the plot from the very begin- 
ning. One of the accused, in explainInK 
why he had failed to shoot the Governor- 
General, said in his examination in the 
Prorurators Offiro that he could not 
do so because of his weak mind. In sucH 
a case as this, the Procurator's recom- 
mendation to apply Article S6, which pro- 
vides for those who give up the Idea of 
crime owing to ' unforeseen circum- 
stances,' Is obviously illogical, since the 
accused being of a weak mind was unable 
from the first to carry out any plan. He 
had no courage to commit a crime even 
though he wished to. and so naturally 
had to suspend execution of the crime. 

[ H3 ] 

" According to the records of this case, 
Baron Yvin appears to have planned thr 
whole plot himself, and to have got others 
to carry it out; he is made to appear to 
be the originator of the crime. Now, 1 
submit that even supposing the Baron 
was implicated in this affair, it is im- 
possible for him to have been the in- 
stigator. The charge, as the Procurator 
has said, is based upon the confession 
of the accused; his confession is the most 
es.'^ential part of the evidence. The Pro- 
curator has said that no one having 
perused the record of the evidence could 
doubt the soundness of the case for the 
prosecution, and this statement seems 
reasonable enough, inasmuch as it is 
impossible that these bulky records couh'. 
be nothing but a mass of misrepresenta- 
tion and untruth. On the other hand, 
it seems to nie that it is impossible to 
assume that the whole of this evidence 
is true and based upon fact. Chang Pil- 
sok and Pak Nai-hyo were acquitted of 
any connection with this charge, because 
the Procurator recognised that their con- 
fessions were not true, and this opens 
the wav for every other man among the 
accused to deny the truth of his con- 
fession. These statements bv the accused 
are very important to us barristers for 
tho defence, for we have to ascertain 
whether the confessions are to be im- 
plicitly relied upon. The Procurator has 
•admitted that t^e confessions of the 
two men just mentioned left ' room for 
doubt ' as to their genuineness, and led 
him to make further inquiries, when it 
was discovered that their statements were 
untrue, and the%' were acquitted. We 
who are appearing in defence of the 
accused have been unable to find one 
eonfess'on which seems to us to be truth- 
ful and convincing. 


" In their confessions Chang and Pan 
made statements as to their alleged move- 
ments which, as the Procurator says, 
their questioners could have had no pre- 
vious knowledge of. They gave full de- 
tails about the conspiracy, the names of 
those who went to the station with them 
to carry out the plot, and the positions 
they took up. On reading the records 
of the police examination of these two 
men, I was surprised at the minuteness 
with which they had described everythin;; 
in connection with the affair, and con- 
cluding from this that they were certainly 
guilty of the charge, I looked for thel." 

names on the list of the accused. To 
my great surprise, I could not find their 
names, and I wondered how they hal 
managed to evade responsibility for their 
self-confessed crime. I was still more 
surprised to find that they had bofh been 
acquitted by the Procurator, as further 
investigations had shown that on the day 
on which these men had confessed that 
they went with others to the railway 
station they were actually in custody at 
gendarmerie stations in different parts of 
the country on totally different charges! 
This incident shows that the Procurator 
himself does not hold that the confession-3 
of the accused must be accepted without 
question as being accurate and truthful. 
But what of the men whom Pak and 
Chang declared went to the railway sta- 
tion with them ? Does the Procurator 
believe this part of the confession and 
not the other ? If so, the remarkable 
situation comes about that the authorities, 
in investigating certain charges against 
the accused, reject one portion of a con- 
fession as being untrue, but accept the 
other as evidence against other men, al- 
though those who ' confessed ' were ad- 
mittedly not with the men whom they 

Another Mysterious Pact. 
" Then there is another mysterious fact. 
According to the confession of one of 
the accused, two police inspectors in thfl 
service of the Government-General took 
part in the preliminary arrangement of 
the conspiracy, and by virtue, of their 
position as officials actually led the con- 
spirators on to the platform at the rail- 
way station. These officers are also said to 
have given information as to the expect- 
ed arrival of the Governor-General. The 
accused who confessed these statements 
also said that, after a fruitless journey 
to the station, the other conspirators re- 
monstrated with the two officers and 
blamed them for not carrying out the 
plan, since they were quite close to the 
Governor-General. The officers replied— 
so the confession goes on— that they 
could not execute the plot themselves 
since none of the other conspirators 
dared to fire, but at the same time they 
apologised to the other conspirators for 
not having taken advantage of the op- 
portunity they had. On reading this 
extraordinary confession, T wondered how 
it was that these two officers had not 
been prosecuted for their share in the. 

[ n^ ] 

affair. 1 can hardly believe that these 
two officers are still in the service of the 
Government-fjeneral, — that is, if the con- 
foss'oa implicating them has been ac- 
cepted by the Procurator. But the fact 
that they are still in the service, despite 
the evidence given in the confession of 
one of the other accused, shows that the 
Procurator has again come to the con 
elusion that this confession — so far as 
it i'"plicates these two officers — is un- 

The Po.<!ition of tmk Mi>Jsiox.\!tn;s. 

" The man who made the confession 
implicating these two officers was ex- 
amined several times. From the record;i 
of his examination it seems that certain 
foreign missionaries at Syen Chuen and 
Pyong yang were actually the ringleaders 
of the conspiracy They are represented 
in this confession to have urged the ac- 
iiisoil men to carry out the plot, to have 
distributed revolvers to the men. and to 
have given them money with which to 
get away and escape the clutches of 
the police. Mr. Moffett has complainel 
that this man has represented him as 
having done various things in connection 
■with the affair at a time when the mis 
slonary in question was actually away 
from Korea. Of the foreign missionaries 
•who have been implicated by the confes- 
sions of the accused, Mr. McCune is re 
presented to be the prime mover. Now. 
if the man who made this confession is 
to be pimished, it stands to reason thar 
Mr. McCune must also be punished for 
his share in the affair as set forth in 
the confession. Now. 1 ask the Court, 
can the confession of this man be ac- 
cepted In its entirety ? Have not the 
authorities some doubt about the evi- 
dence he has given ? Tf they have not. 
if his confession is to be accepted, whv 
have they not arrested Mr. McCune ? I 
can only conclude that the foreign mis- 
sionaries, like the Korean police-inspec- 
tors, are not held to be implicated in 
this charge, but this clearly shows the 
unreliability of the evidence upon which 
the whole case Is founded, altho\igh the 
anrhorlties have attempted to make use 
of it by rejecting certain portions and 
retaining other parts. 


" I have atill more examples of the un- 
reliability of the confessions which have 

been made by the accused. According to 
the examination of the men alleged to 
have been concerned in an attempted 
attack upon the Governor General at 
Sycn Chuen railway station, they all said 
that they went from Chyongju to Syen 
Chuen by railway, and that the party 
jiumbered some scores of men. Investiga. 
tion made later, however, showed that 
on the day In qucsUon only 9 passengers 
were carried from Chyongpu to Syen 
! Chuen. and only 1 passenger in the op- 
j posite direction. This fact was established 
, by evidence given by a Government offi- 
cial in open Court. Yet many of the ac- 
cused are stated in the records of their 
examination to have confessed to having 
gone to Syen Chuen from Nap Chyong- 
jong in large parlies. Now, what can be 
the motive of these men in making such 
confessions ? 

" I cannot see why men should confess 
to this effect, nor can I believe that their 
confessions are true when th.'v differ 
so much from one another on pointa 
which are supposed to be identical. We 
have heard from the Procurator that 
j some of the men must have gone down 
to Syen Chuen on the day previous to 
j that on which they were at first believed 
j to have gone, and the Procurator has also 
suggested that some of the accused 
covered the distance between the two 
; places on foot. Such statements are like 
so much gossip over a cup of tea; I car- 
\ not take them seriously. 1 maintain that 
j those who have to decide the guilt or in 
I nocence of men accused of a crime cannot 
do so on mere supposititious evidence, but 
can only come to a decision on aitual 
facts. I therefore hold that the socallefl 
confession of the accused to the effect that 
they went to Syen Chuen via Nap Chyong- 
jong and Chyongju cannot b? ac<ept- 
od as a statement of fact. In what light 
docs the Court regard this evidence ? If 
this point, which does not correspom* 
I with the evidence given by a railway 
official, is nevertheless accepted, but thi 
Court deilims to accept another point 
which, if similarly i|n-estigaled, might 
be found to be true,— it is in this way 
the Chief I'rocurator urges that judge- 
ment should be given — it will be a most 
remarkable course to pursue. I must 
say that since I have read the records oT 
the evidence taken In this case, my opi- 
nion as to their accuracy and validity baa 
greatly changed. The Procurator himself 
has denied a portion of these confessions. 

[ 115 J 

and I think that the Court, too, is con- 
vinced that this evidence is not worthy 
of credit. In short. I submit that this 
case must not be decided solely upon the 
evidence contained in the so-called con- 
fessions of the accused. 


" Turning now to this case ai it 
affects Baron Yun. I shall not dwell 
just now upon the point as to whether 
his statement is to be believed or not, 
but the general circumstances of the 
case make it very clear to me that we 
must not draw any conclusions as to 
his guilt merely from his so-called con- 
fessions at the police headquarters 'md 
at the Procurator's Office. Much more 
careful should we be in acc-epting the 
confessions oi the other accused so 
as they implicate the Baron, for thej 
are still more "dubious. I contend that 
the Baron's connection Vv-ith this affair 
must be proved by something more sub- 
stantial than this evidence if he is to 
be found guilty of the charge brcufhi 
against him. The particular charge, as 
the Procurator pointed out the other day, 
is that Baron Yun, in August, Octohor, 
November, and December, 1910, met 
Yang Ki-tak and others at Im's house 
in Seoul, and together with them plan- 
ned this conspiracy. Now, even assum- 
ing that Baron Yun did meet the othor& 
at Im's house, there is not sufficient evi- 
denc-e to prove what took place at the 
meetings. The evidence given by Yi, the 
old servant of Im, is the main testimony 
on this matter, but I shall show the 
Court that this man's statements are 

The Question of Dates. 

" The main point in connection with 
proving or disproving these visits id thr 
question of date, and this is a niattei- 
about which people are apt to muse 
mistakes, as we have already seen. But 
in regard to the man Yi, there is no uiis- 
take. When he gave his evidence be 
said that he could not forget the date 
of the first meeting between Baron Yur. 
and the others at the house, because i'. 
was bis son's birthday, September 10th 
Now this statement is false, for I hive 
proof that the Baron was not there that 
day. In reply to this the Procurator — 
rather unfairly — says that Baron Yun 
must have been there some other da" 
If he was not there on the day mentioned 
by Yi. But if it is proved that the 

Baron did not go to Im's house on the 
day which Yi is so certain about. It 
shows that Yi's evidence is not to be 
relied upon. In regard to the alleged 
second visit. Yi says he could not have 
made a mistake about th's date either 
since it fell upon his own birthday. Then,' 
in regard to the alleged third '\isit, YI 
says he is certain about this date because 
he was ill at the time, and he also re- 
members that one of his neighbouis moved 
that day. All this evidence given by YI 
is false, and my brother counsel and 
myself have put In a number of exhibits 
to prove that the Baron was not in Seoul 
on the dates mentioned by Yi. Baron 
Yun was at Kaisong at this time, engaged 
in matters connected either with the 
church or scholastic business, and it wag 
impossible for him to have been at Im's 
house at Seoul. In reply to this, the 
Procurator suggests that if Baion Yun 
was not in Seoul on the dates mentioned, 
he might have been there on other days. 
Now, I have produced exhibits proving 
where the Baron was on the days which 
were mentioned in the indictment on 
which this case is based. If the Procura- 
tor meant to infer that Baron Yun was 
also attending these alleged conferences on 
other days, he should have mentioned the 
dates in the indictment or disclosed chem 
before the conclusion of the hearing of 
evidence, when I am certain I should hav» 
been able to put in further evidence to 
disprove these allegations. Despite the 
alleged fact that Yi's testimony in regard 
to dates is substantiated by being con- 
nected with certain important events in 
his life. I have shown it to be absolutely 
worthless and unreliable. The other evi- 
dence against Baron Yun is that of two 
men who are alleged to have discussed 
the plot to assassinate the Governor- 
General with Baron Yun at Kaiscne and 
to have taken a message from the Baron 
to the me-nbers of the New People's 
Society at Pyong-yang. Both these state- 
ments are denied by the Baron. We now 
come to the confession of the Baron 

Baron Yun's Confession. 

" The confession made by Baron Yun 
has rather an important bearing upon 
this case, and I have taken some trouble 
to investigate the reliability of this evi- 
dence. The Procurator has said that the 
ground upon which the Baron letracte.i 
his confession was a very weak one. 
I thought It advisable to investigate the 

[ 116 ] 

actual circumstances in which the Baron i man who would resort to extreme niea- 
made his confession, and I called upon ' sures on his own inltiatlTe; he was 
him in prison to learn from h'm whar ' in fact blamed for his lack of courage 
took place. He told me that while hi? j to do anything decisive, but at the same 
statements at the police headquarters ! time he was respected and trusted by 
and at the Procurator's Office were untrue, ihem, and he was not subjected to any 

yet when he was examined in open Cour.. 
he could not bring himself to actually 
admit that his former statements were 
devoid of truth. 

" Now, why should Baron Yuri have 
made the statements attributed to liiai 
In the record of his confession? Yun 
tells me that at the time he was ex- 
amined and made the statement in ijucs- 
tion, he thought the examination was 
in connoction with a criminal caio lor 
which Yang Ki-lak was tried the previous 
year. Baron Yun had succeeded to iiis 
father's title and property, and sinc^ 
he had come to beclcr mdprstand the 
position of Japan in world-politics, was 
not a little sorry tha* li- .va.^ connected 
with the Xew People's Society, which 
he had joined some years priviously. 
The Baron, than, when he was examined, 
was under the impression that he was 
being reexamined in connection with 
the Yang Ki-tak affair, and his exairiners 
asked why it was that while Yang .and 
the others had already confessed to ih-,' 
facts, he still declined to admit them. 
Moved by the sense of regret at being 
connected with the Society, as I have 
already mentioned, Yun decided that it 
would be better for him to endorse whai 
Yang was reported to have said, anr* 
take his punishment as soon as possible 
"W^hen afterwards he learned that he was 
under arrest in connection with an en- 
tirely different charge, he was astounded, 
and he was also greatly distresstd to 
think that he had said that which was 
rot true. 

" There must be some doubt as to 
•why Baron Yun made such a confession 
against his own will, and on such a 
ground. At the same time, it must he 
admitted that his ideas and thoughts 
are different from ours, just as his social 
position and his career are diff'^rent. 
Although I confess It is dlfflcult for me 
to understand his reason for confession 
to certain matters which have no foun- 
dation In fact, yet I realise that he him- 
self must have had good reason for 
doing so. 

" Baron Yun contributed his share to- 
wards bringing about the annexation c' 
Korea. TTo Is a man of good educatlnr 
and social standing. Among the antl- 
Japancse party he Is not regarded as a 

official surveillance. Moreover, he wa-- 
well acquainted with the general trend 
of world politics, and It is only natural 
to conclude that he would not take part 
in any extreme measures which may 
have been suggested. I have heard a 
number of the Baron's friends remark 
that he was not the sort of man to be 
mixed up in an affair of the character 
of this case, and I am inclined to be- 
lieve that this is so. He is certainly not 
the man who would dare to kill a single 
Governor-General, and he must realio'S 
that even if he assassinated one Gov- 
ernor-General, a hundred other Gov- 
ernors-General would follow, and that 
even the disposal of all these officials one 
after another would not make any 
change in regard to Japan's administra- 
tion in the peninsula. Thinking this 
over, I cannot help expressing some 
doubt about the alleged confession of 
the Baron. It is stated in the record of 
his examination that he said he would 
bring the Yang Ki-tak affair to an end 
as soon as possible by saying whatever 
he thought advisable, and this suggests 
to nie the state of mind in which he 
confessed to statements which had no 
foundation. He also said in open Court 
that he did not admit that he was a 
ringleader, but that he said he would 
take the whole responsibility of the 
affair— meaning the affair of the pre- 
vious year, in which Yang Kl-tak was 
concerned. I cannot help but sympa- 
thise wl'h the Baron In his position in 
connection with (his case. In con- 
sidering his confession with those of 
the other accused, does It not seem as 
though a man who has no connection 
with the case Is being dragged in ? Does 
the Court intend to give judgement 
against Baron Yun on such evidence as 
I have reviewed, and on such a con- 
fession ? To me It seems most improper 
to judge a case merely upon the confes- 
sion of the accused party, and I think 
that even the fact that there Is such a 
plentiful lack of evidence against him 
should be sufflclent to ensure the Baron 
being acquitted of this serious charge. 

The T.eoal Aspect of the Case. 
" Referring now to the legal aspect, 
the plot referred to In this case Is a 

[ 117 ] 

suspended crime ' [i.e. a crime that has 
not taken actual shape] and is there- 
fore not within the purview of the law 
But even if this were not the case, th- 
fact that the Baron took part in the 
conspiracy is ,not established by the 
evidence which has been produced. In 
the event of both these arguments beine; 
overruled, and the Baron is found guilty, 
I urge that his sentence should be made 
as light as possible. The Procurator Is 
himself in favour of a light sentence 
since it Is recognised that this affair is 
only a natural phenomenon resulting 
from the peculiar political circumstances 
attending the fall of the Korean dynasty. 
There is no occasion to impose a heavy 
sentence in order that the punishment 
awarded may act as a deterrent to th3 
Korean people, because the peninsula is 
now in a settled condition, so that a re 
petition of the conspiracy which is said 
to have been formed need not be feared. 
The one thing we should retain in. our 
minds is the subjective observation of 
the mental conditions of the accused in 
regard to this plot, and try to discover 
whether it would be planned for a self- 
ish purpose or from public-spirited mo- 
tives. Assuming that the Baron was re- 
sponsible for the conspiracy, we must 
also assume that his reason was either 
that he did not understand the move- 
ment of world-politics, or that he could 
not resist the temptation to join in the 
plot when he thought of all that he and 
his ancestors owed to the ruined dynasty. 
In these circumstances the act would 
be done for the sake of the country and 
her people. The enterprise might be 
a foolish one, but it should be recognis-'d 
that the motive was good. 

" My first idea of this case, from what 
I had been told, was that it concerned 
an insurrection on the part of a large 
number of men of influence, who hafi 
formed a plot against Japanese autho- 
rity, but on looking closely into the cas' 
I have been unable to regard the affair 
as a really serious matter. An army of 
some hundreds of men Is said to hav-: 
been formed to kill a single man, yet 
when this one man faced them, they 
every one drew back and shrank fro:n 
the idea of carrying out their allegi'! 
plans. I am unable to understand ihi? 
real circumstances in which this wonde-- 
ful scheme was formed, and though it 
may be regarded _as an offence of an in- 
excusable nature, there is no necessity 
for imposing severe punishment upoi- 

those concerned in it. Such an affair 
as this IS not peculiar to Korea; similar 
affairs have occurred in all parts of 
the world when similar political changes 
have taken place, and they have some- 
times been very dangerous affairs. I 
think it is possible that the reason this 
affair was not carried further is the re- 
lationship which exists between the Ko- 
reans and the Japanese, the similarit/ 
of many of their customs, religion, 
and learning. The troubles which havo 
tnkcn place abroad, between Russia and 
Finland, for example, and between Ger- 
many and Alsace-Lorraine, were of quite 
a different nature, and had their begin- 
nings in different circumstances, inas- 
much as the annexation of Korea wa«! 
effected on the authority of the Emperor 
of Korea. Reviewing all these various 
points, I am unable to regard this case 
seriously, and I feel compelled to urge 
that any foreign precedent in dealing 
wth smlar affairs be not adopted in de- 
ciding this case. I would therefore re- 
spectfully urge the Court to regard this 
case as not being a serious one, and 
to deal w'ith those who are accused of 
complicity in it with leniency." 

The Court then adjourned tor tiffin, and 
on re assembling Mr. Saito, a Seoul bar- 
rister, addressed the Court. He com. 
menced by saying that the case was based 
solely upon the confessions of the accused, 
and pointed out that the unreliability of 
those confessions had already been shown 
by other counsel for the defence. He 

" According to the records of the ex- 
amination of the accused, they confessed 
that a number of foreigners were con- 
cerned in this affair. The foreigners a.1 
Pyon.g-yang were alleged to have de- 
livered inflammatory speeches to mem- 
bers of the New People's Society at meet- 
ings held in the Taisong school, while 
the foreigner who is the princlpsi of the 
mission school at Syen Chuen was said 
to have gone so far as to tell the con- 
spira'ors that they should shoot the 
Japanese officer with whom he would 
shake hands. These foreigners, however, 
were not proceeded against by the Pro- 
curator, which as I understand it in- 
dicates that he considered these confes- 
sions were unreliable. There were other 
men who confessed that they were con- 
cerned in the alleged plot, but who wero 
openly acquitted. Are these same con- 
fessions, regarded by the Procurator as 
unreliable, • to be accepted as authentic 

[ 118 ] 

by the Court ? " Counsel concluded by 
sayiriK that the case was one of a political 
nature, and that if the accused were sen- 
tenced to punishment, they should be 
treated with l&nience on that ground. 

Korean Counsel's Speech. 

Mr. Kim Chung mok, a Korean bar- 
rister, next addressed the Court, his 
speech being translated Into .Tapanese b.\ 
the Court interpreter as follows: — 

" This case has attracted attention all 
over the world. .Although Baron Yun 
is regarded by the authorities as one i 
of the ringleaders, he Is as a matter of 
fact a man of the highest character, ready 
to lead men to the temple of righteous- 
ness, and alwavs free from any sort of j 
wickedness. Though it is a fact that An | 
Chung-keun, Indignant at the conchi 
slon of the Five Article Treaty and the 
Seven Article Treaty, assassinated Prince , 
Ito. his act was not endorsed by the , 
whole of the Korean nation. The Chief ] 
Procurator has said that no tracj of tor- 
ture had been found upon the bodies of 
any of the accused when they were ex- 
amined, but how could such traces be de- 
tected some ten months after the torture 
was inflicted ? The accused denied their 
guilt In open Court, and In view of the 
circumstances I am forced to conclude 
that the confessions of accused as re- 
presented In the records of their ex- 
amination at the police headquarters and 
the Procurator's Office must be absolutely 

On the conchision of the Korean 
counsel's speech the proceedings were ad- 
journed until next day. 




Seoul, August 27. 
To-day the counsel appearing for the 
defence continued their speeches on be- 
half of their clients. Mr. Mlyake (for- 
merly a Jtidge In the Seoul Court, but 
now practising at the Bar) resumed his 
speech, which it will be remembered he 
Interrupted in order to allow Mr. Ogawa, 
who had come down from Tokyo, to ad 
dress the Court on behalf of Baron Yun, 
Mr. Mlyake also took up the defence of 

the Baron, and continuing his speech, 
which he began yesterday, said: — 

Why Baron Yun " Confessed." 
" Baron Yun's idea in making the 
confession he did at the police head- 
quarters was this — he wanted to take 
upon his own shoulders the entire re- 
sponsibility for the affairs he believed 
he was being examined about (i.e. the pre- 
vious charge against Yang Ki tak). He 
did not care what other people said about 
him; all he wanted to do was to finally 
settle the matter by taking all the 
responsibility upon himself. He placed 
himself upon the altar of sacrifice at 
the risk of his own life. I was given 
by Yun himself four reasons why he 
made such a confession, but, it is hardly 
necessary to state them. Now, there 
should be no other reason for a confes- 
sion than that it is a voluntary admis- 
sion of facts, and if there is any other 
reason for a confession, such a statement 
is bad in law, no matter what the object 
or cause, because it is nothing else than 
a lie, and to tell a lie is also a crime 
from a moral point of view. Such an 
offence cannot be committed by those 
who believe in God, and the fact that 
Yun first confessed to that which ho 
did not mean, and then withdrew it is 
simply a demonstration of the truth of 
this statement. Though some people 
may call him a coward, Yun Is absolutely 
sincere about his denial of his first 
statement. His object in making the 
first statement was admirable in its way, 
and there is no reason why he should 
feel any shame about retracting it. 

" But while the object of Baron Yun 
in making his confession In the first 
plate was a noble one, his reason for 
retracting it was still more pure and 
noble. It was not due to any selfish 
motive. Being an educated man, he 
knew what would be the best way to 
protect himself, but he considered 
neither his own reputation nor Im- 
munity. He Is a scrupulous man, and 
like most religious men does not un- 
thinkingly endorse any proposal which 
may be made. He would not lend his 
support to any scheme which was not 
for good, and it Is Impossible to conceive 
a man like the Baron planning anything 
like a plot himself. He consented to 
become director of the Talsong school 
at the urgent solicitation of An Chang- 
ho, because a man of good name and 
position was wanted tor the post; he 
was put up as a sort of signboard for the 

L 119 ] 

school. And at this point I wish to 
urge the Court to very closely ascertain 
whether the Taisong school was, as is 
alleged, an institution for turning out 
young men with their heads full of 
dangerous ideas, or not. It is most 
important that this case should not be 
decided on any preconceived opinions, 
and I would urge upon the Court the 
importance of very carefully examining 
the record of the facts of the case. 

" According to these records, Baron 
Yun is reported to have said that An 
Chang-ho, in explaining the objects of 
the New People's Society, dwelt upon 
the fact that there was no systematic 
effort to encourage education and in- 
dustry in Korea, and it was on the 
understanding that this work was to be 
undertaken by the Society that Yun ac- 
cepted a leading position in that Society. 
I believe that this statement is quite 
true. The Baron also said that while the 
objects of the Society were legitimate 
and peaceful enough, some of the mem- 
bers were moved by the political change 
which took place to harbour dangerous 
thoughts against Japan, but this, of 
course, was not due to the influence of 
the Society. Yun is not the sort of man 
who would join a society which had 
assassination as its object. He is a man 
who is well-to-do, with a happy home and 
loving children, and it is impossible that 
such a man, living in such quiet and 
happy surroundings, would join, much 
less start a conspiracy to assassinate 
anyone. The men who engage in such 
wicked enterprises are men of no posi- 
tion, no property, and no scruple. If it 
is argued that the Baron was tricked 
into joining the Society in order that 
his name might be used as having or- 
dered the assassination of the Governor- 
General, he must still be held to be 
innocent of the charge which has been 
made against him, and if he should be 
punished on the basis of his Implica- 
tion on this ground, it w^ould show thai 
the Court is unable to distinguish 
pebbles from gems, as the saying goes. 

The Alleged Meetings. 

" As for the alleged meetings between 
Yun and others at Im's house at Seoul, 
the evidence which has been put in by my 
brother counsel and myself has com- 
pletely refuted the official allegations on 
this point. From the Procurator's last 
speech it seems that he has now no de- 

finite idea as to the date of the Baron's al- 
leged visits to Im's house. Since no de- 
finite date is mentioned, I am placed in 
the position of being unable to produce re- 
butting evidence. If Yun had never gone 
to the capital, there would be no occasion 
for me to produce counter-evidence, be- 
yond a plain denial, but it so happens that 
he used to go to Seoul about once a month 
to see his mother. If he ever called at 
Im's house, it must have been on one of 
these occasions. But the dates do not 
agree, and moreover he never did call 
upon Im. It is not likely that a man of 
Baron Yun's position would call upon 
Im, whose position and rank were so 
much inferior; it would be quite contrary 
to Korean custom. 

" Further, it has been alleged that 
Baron Yun met Yang Chom-miung at. 
Kaisong at a summer meeting there called 
to discuss the plot for the assassination 
of the Governor-General. This allegation 
scarcely needs refuting when it is con- 
sidered that the meeting was purely edu- 
cational, was open to anyone belonging to 
the South Methodist Church, and was at- 
tended by several foreigners. It is most 
unlikely that on such an occasion as this 
there would be any talk about such a 
matter as a conspiracy, and moreover, 
there is no proof that any meeting be- 
tween Yun and Yang took place on this 
occasion. Again, in preparing such a 
great affair as this conspiracy is made out 
to be, these concerned must have met and 
discussed their plans on several occasions, 
if they really formed a plot at all, but 
the evidence which has been submitted 
on this head is extremely vague. The as- 
sertions that the Baron framed the plot, 
instructed his followers to abandon the 
idea of stirring up public speaking and 
to resort to assassination, and made a 
speech at the Taisong school meeting urg- 
ing the assassination of the Governor- 
General — all these points are extremely 
ambiguous, and have not been established 
by the prosecution. If the Court allows 
itself to be influenced by any preconcep- 
tions formed of Earon Yun and these mea 
who are charged with him, what will the 
world say about Japanese justice? 

" The charge that Baron Yun was the 
instigator and promoter of this alleged con- 
spiracy is not supported by any evidence 
whatever. If he had been, he must have 
taken part in the attempts which it is 
alleged were made upon the Governor- 
General before he could be adjudged 

[ 120 ] 

guilty of attempted but unconsummated 
murder. I do not remember even the Pro- 
curator suggesting that Baron Yun took 
part in any of the alleged attempts, and 
binte the accused also denies that he took 
part in the alleged scheme, he must be 
acquitted. His father did good work to- 
■wards bringing about the annexation of 
Korea, and he has succeeded to his 
father's title and honours. It would be 
unjust to pass sentence upon him and 
make him forfeit the good name of his 
family merely on account of a little 
blunder on his part. I urge the Court to 
pronounfe him innocent of this charge." 

When Mr. Miyake had concluded his 
long speech in defence of Baron Yun, ho 
made another address on behalf of a 
number of the Korean accused. He de- 
plored the unsatisfactory manner in which 
the facts of the case had been investi- 
gated, and also expressed regret that the 
Court had seen fit to dismiss in toto the 
applications which had been made for the 
calling of witnesses and the production 
of evidence for the defence. Mr. Hoshl. 
a Seoul barrister, followed, his speech 
being on the same lines, and he also con- 
tended that the accused could not be dealt 
with under Article 86 of the old Korean 
Code, as urged by the Procurator. 
A Curious I.ntioent. 

Mr. Nagai, a barrister who has for a 
long time been practising in Seoul, next 
rose and announced that he was appear- 
ing iu defence of Yi Keui-tang. Yi at 
once rose from his seat and asked the per- 
mission of the Court to make a state- 
ment. Permission being given, Yi said 
that he did not wish the lawyer to speak 
on his behalf. 

By the Court: What is your reason 
for thus protestitig against the barrister? 
Did you not sign an application asking 
that he should defend you ?— Yes I did, 
but until now 1 have never seen the law- 
yer, and have not had any conversation 
with him about my defence. 

That may be explained by the lawyer 
himself: just listen to him. — I cannot un- 
derstand him, and I do not want him to 
defend me to-day. 

.\Ir. Nagai addressed the Court, saying 
that us the accused did not want to be 
defended by him, he would of course re- 
tire, but he wished that the accused had 
given notice of his wishes a little sooner. 
Korean Counsei. on the " Confem3ion8." 

Mr. Pak Yong-tal, a Korean barrister, 
then stood up to address the Court, which 

he did in mast fluent Japanese. His 
speech, which was mainly devoted to a 
criticism of the " confessions," was as fol- 
lows: — 

■' Although the Procurator has said that 
the confessions of the accused wers 
voluntary, I wish to express ray very 
grave doubts about it. The confessions 
of Chang and Pak at the police headquar- 
ters were exactly the same as those of the 
other accused, according to the official 
records, but these two men were d'schar^- 
ed on the ground that their statements 
' did not correspond with the facts. Even 
supposing that the confessions of the 
other accused were not wrung from then> 
bv torture, but were made quite \olunta- 
rily. I cannot believe — in view of the ac- 
quittal of these other two men who made 
precisely similar confessions — that these 
statements are of any value as statements 
of fact. It has been stated that two 
I police-inspectors also took part in this 
' affair, but they, too, have not been pro- 
I ceeded against, which only goes to sho\^ 
that the Procurator does not wholly be 
lieve in the confessions which have been 

"-Seeing, then, that the confession's are 
not trustworthy, let us iiroceed to see what 
can he taken as evidence in tMs case. 
The most important point, it seems to me, 
is in connection with the revolvers whicti 
the accused are alleged to have carried 
down to the railway stmions with the oti 
jpct of using them for assassinating the 
Oovernor-fieneral. Only two or threa 
weapons have been seized by the authori- 
ties and produced as exhibits in Court, 
whereas according to the confes-.^Ions ot 
the accused there should be at least 200. 
Some of the aicused have said tha; these 
weapons were entrusted to foreigners for 
safe keeping. If this is so. doTnlclliary 
searches might be made even now. but 
this has not been done. This again shows 
that the authorities theniselvf^ reco^nis" 
that the confessions of the accused are 
unreliable, and therefore I contend that 
the accused should be found not guilty or 
thi.-5 charge, or. in the al'ernatlvo. that 
their sentences should be postponed." 

Mr. Nakamura. another local barrister 
appearing for the defence, also made an 
attack upon the case for the prosecution 
so far as it rests upou the alleged con- 
fessions. He said: — 

" The Procurator has declared that 
when the authorities in charge of this 
case first started to examine the accused, 
they had no idea that such a serious 
offence as afterwards came to light hal 

[ 121 ] 

ever been contemplated. In conducting the 
examination of tlicsc men it was contend- 
ed (hat as tile authorities had no sus- 
picion of the disclosures which were even- 
tually made, therefore in these circum- 
stances the confessions of the accused 
must be credited. I cannot accept this 
argument of the Procurator, for I do 
not believe it possible that the authorities 
could have been ignorant of the alleged 
facts of this case. My opinion is that the 
authorities had information leading them 
to suspect that a plot had been formed, 
and when they e.xamined the accused, 
the latter made just whatever statements 
they thought would gratify their ques 

•' The Procurator also said that the 
accused, being ignorant of Japanese legal 
procedure, had the idea that th?y would 
be acquitted if tUey denied the chargt 
in open Court. This, however, is no; 
so; on the contrary, they have pleadea 
that they are not guilty and that theri' 
is no evidence against them to the con- 
trary. The Procurator has also said that 
the statements of the accused in open 
Court, withdrawing their previous con- 
fessions, could not be accepted becaus' 
they all made statements of the same 
character. If this sort of argument is 
accepted by the Court, I should like t^ 
argue that all the official records which 
the Procurator holds are unacceptable, 
inasmuch as they are all in the same 
style — that is, all the confessions of the 
accused are similar to each other. The 
confessions also implicate Heui-won 
and Baron Yun, and various well-known 
men are alleged to have taken part in 
the plot. Those of us who have had ex- 
perience in handling criminal cases in 
Korea know very well that it is quit? 
usual for a Korean charged with some 
offence to endeavour to incriminate some 
well-known man or the other. Therefore 
I am not surprised to see that O, who 
is a man worth about ¥4,500,000, has 
been dragged into this case. 

" As Mr. Ogawa and Mr. Miyake have 
already pointed out in their addresses to 
the Court, the present affair — assuming 
it to have been of the nature alleged by 
the Procurator — must be regarded as the 
natural upheaval of public opinion after 
the annexation of the country. The an- 
nexation, however, was carried out witti 
the consent of the Korean Empevor, and 
before it was effected the country was 
the centre of all sorts of unrest and in- 
trigue. This was because the administra- 
tion was wrong, and it was wrong tJ 

such an extent that people used to hida 
their money whenever they got any in 
order to prevent it being seized by of- 
ficials. All this is now changed, and the 
new administration is quite different from 
the old, and a man of wealth can enjoy 
peace and security. How then i.s it pos- 
sible that a wealthy man like O could 
have taken part in such a wickel schem-i 
as that alleged by the Procurator ? The 
sort of men who take part in conspira- 
cies are those who have no property, no 
position, and no knowledge, or else they 
are young men with hotheaded tdeas. I 
again say that O was not the sort of 
man to take part in a scheme of thi« 
kind, and I urge that he and the other 
accused also should be acquitted of thia 

In the afternoon three Korean bar- 
risters addressed the Court in their own 
language, their speeches being interpreted 
by the Court interpreter. Mr. Yun Pang- 
hiun said that the assassination of Prince 
Ito. although it occurred outside Kore^!, 
merely hastened the annexation of the 
country. The assassin was a man from 
North Pyongan-do. and the man who 
attacked Count Yi. the ex-Korean Pre 
mier. came from the same province, and 
it was for this reason that the authori- 
ties came to pay considerable attention 
to the doings of the people in that 
quarter. The reason that Count Yi was 
stabbed was because he was regarded by 
the people as one of the " Five Traitors " 
and the " Seven Betrayers," but even a 
little child knows that the murder of 
Prince Ito was a grievous crime which did 
no good to Korea. 

" The charge in the present case is de- 
scribed as premeditated but unconsuni- 
mated assassination, or rather, to give the 
legal phrase, imbo (conspiracy), mean- 
ing a secret plot against the sovereignty. 
But there was no occasion for hundreds 
of men to unite together to kill a singl« 
man in the person of the Governor- 
General. Moreover, the alleged conspira- 
tors are nearly all young men, with 
whom it is quite improbable that a man 
like Baron Yun would be mixed up in a 
plot. Then there is the allegation that 
the consi)irators went to the railway 
stations with the object of assassinating 
the Governor-General. If they did, surely 
their object would have been detected 
when they were subjected to bodily search 
before being allowed upon the platform ? 
It does not sound feasible that a whole 

L 122 ] 

company of men should have gone to i he contended that they were not liable 
the railway station just to kill one man. ' for punishment of any sort whatever. 

Mr. Tai Miung-sik spoke in much the 
The Fk.\r of Officials. same strain in defence of Lyu Tong-sol, 

'• That the Koreans generally are afraid ^^°^e social position alone, he said, was 
of Government officials is well known, sufficient to demonstrate the impro- 
and in Kamgyong do this is especially the ^'ability of his being connected with such 
rase, owing to the unusually severe offl- ! ^ conspiracy At the conclusion of coun- 
cial tyranny to which the people there sel's speech the proceedings were ad- 
had been subjected before the peninsula journed. 

was annexed by Japan. The people 

there fear the officials more than [ 
they do tigers, a tact which 


a fact which may 
he seen from the official records. 
There may be a few among the ac- 
cused who realised what being kept in 
custody really meant, but I think the 
great majority have no idea of the lega' 
limitation of the powers of the police and 

the gendarmerie. Such men when ar- , ,„ , , ,_. , . „,. ^ 

rested would naturally be seized w'th fear ^t^^^''^}}'- counsel for Chang Eung-ch,n 


Seoul, Aug. 28. 
The most interesting part of to day's 
proceedings was the speech made by Mr 

Chang Won-pyon, Yi Chong-sun, and four 

others. Counsel first reviewed the case 

' generally, which he said had attracted 

more serious attention throughout the 

world than the attack upon the Tsarevich 

(the present Tsar) at Otsu some thirty 

, . . u .V. . • u .1. i years ago. Having traced the history 

less IS shown by the manner in which the , , ,. . ,. i . „/■ 

, . « ,> , , ,-,, 'of Japanese policy in Korea, and teferre<l 

confessions of Pak and Chang were re- . ,. , , , , , , j , v -^a 

and anxiety as to their fate, and upon 
being subjected to some form of torture 
— such as being suspended head down- 
wards — would have quickly confessed to 
things they did not mean. That the con- 
fessions which were obtained were worth- 


jected by the authorities, and I urge the 
Court to pronounce the accused not 

Mr. Kwan Hyuk-chai, another Korean 

to the intriguer, which used to bo carried 
on in the Korean capital, counsel said 
that the Japanese idea was finally to put 
a stop to the plotting and unrest which 
resulted from the old administration, and 

barrister, also contended that the con- : p^Qgggjjgj. 

fpssions of the accused were worthless. ■■ But what of the feelings of the Korean-; 
He said that the Koreans were naturally when they saw the Han dynasty, which 
afraid of the officials owing to their being { had been in existence for about 500 years, 
subjected for years to oppression in offi- overthrown by the annexation of the 
cial quarters, and in order to escape from country by Japan ? What must they havo 
their attentions would say anything. In • thought when they realised that this 
his opinion the accused in the present 1 meant their disappearance as an Indepen- 
case must have admitted statements dent nation ? Let us be synipathollc with 
which they knew to be false merely be- them: let us be generous enough to shed 

cause they wished to escape oppression, 
and to have said " yes, yes " to any ques- 
tions which were put to them, in the be- 
lief that the men who had been examined 
before them had confegsed to these things. 

sympathetic tears when we think of their 
fate as a nation. I say we should do this 
when we think of the Koreans as indivi 
duals, and consider what their feelings 
must have been. But looking at the 

That the so-called confessions were mere q<">stlon from the purely Ja- ano-.," stanfl- 
fabrications was to be seen from the fact ; I'"'"*'. ^'^ ""»* recognise that the an- 
that a number of the accused had ad- ' "•'^'^"°" °' *»^« peninsula was most es- 
„,... , , , , ,..,•. jsential for preserving peace in (he Far 

nutted having gone from / hyongju to | p,^^, This was recognised bv the Rm- 
Syen Chuen in a party of about 30 men; , ^^^^^ „, ,^^^g„ himself, who accordinclv 
no men with any sense, bent upon such ^on-^gnted to transfer his rights to the 
a plot as these men are alleged to have Kn,ppror of Japan. In spite of this peace- 
been Implicated in. would have gone about f„, amalgamation of the two countries, 
their plans in such a conspicuous manner. \i [^ only natural that the Korean.-? should 
In short, there was no conclusive evi- ' have felt siid and depressed at the chang' 
dence whatever against the accused, and brought about In their position, and that 

[ 12:5 ] 

some of them should have thought ahout 
schemes for restoring their lost indepen- 
dence. This position, however, the Ja 
panese people do not seem able to under- 
stand; let me then try to show what the 
position really is. 

Ci\7L V. MiLiT.\RY Administration. 

"The Korean people are now iapaneso 
subjects, and there is a certain class of 
people in .Tapan who urge that in govern- 
ing the peninsula a combined policy of 
friendly .Taponisation and of opiiression 
should be adopted. This was particularly 
urged at the time Japan held Korea as a 
Protectorate. Now, what was the policy 
of Prince Ito as Resident-General ? It 
•was admitted by the .Japanese that Ito 
tried to treat the Koreans on exactly ths 
same footing as the .Japanese. There were 
some people who alleged that he showed 
more partialitv for his own countrymen, 
but I think there were large numbers of 
Koreans who held the opposite view. 
Prince Ito. as Resident-Gen°ra! wore a 
sword. This sword was merely displayed 
as a badge of authority, as an Indication 
of the force which could be exercised if 
occasion arose. Prince Ito's sword was 
quite a different weapon from that wielde.i 
by Count Terauchi; Prince Ito was a civ'l 
official, while Count Terauchi is a mili- 
tary man. It is therefore clear Ihat the 
swords woTn by these two men are verv 
different weapooe. for although there is 
no difference in the two weapons insofa' 
as they represent Japan's authority in the 
administration of the peninsula, yet the 
Koreans themselves and the world in 
general realise that there is a diffeience.' 

A Judicial Warning. 

At this point the Presiding Judge re- 
marked: — "There is not much d'fference 
between the two swords, and it is quite 
sufficient that you should have mentioned 
that there is a difference." Counsel, how- 
ever, took no notice of this judicial re- 
minder — as it seemed to be — that he was 
treading on dangerous ground, and pro- 
ceeded: — 

" Count Terauchi is said to be carrying 
out his administrative policy by force and 
pressure. When he took over the charge 
of Korean affairs the police sysiem was 
changed. The police and gendarmes alike 
■were entrusted with judicial pow rs, and 
every Korean whose opinions were at 
all opposed to Japanese administration 
was unable to escape from surveil- 

lance. This increased the sense of 
uneasiness existing among the Koreans, 
and, further, some of them were so 
overwhelmed with the idea of havin.? 
lost their independence that they resolved 
to start a movement to re establish their 
position. It was not only the Koicans In 
the peninsula who had these ideas. 
Their fellow-countrymen residing abroad 
had the same ideas, and there is no 
foreigner who has become friendly with 
the Korean people who does not share 
their bitter thoughts against Japan. If 
the official records in this case are to 
be credited, the well-known scholar 
Bishop Harris, a man of gentle disposi- 
tion, has actually attended meetings of 
the conspirators in Seoul! It this be 
true, no one can tell where anti-Japan- 
ese sentiment may not be hidden. The 
very idea is itself startling. We are now 
given to understand that Japanese ad- 
ministration in the peninsula is chang- 
ing for the better, and even those Ko- 
reans who used to hold anti-Japanese 
views are gradually becoming convinced 
of the benevolent motives of the Em- 
peror of Japan. Systematic education 
is being welcomed by the Koreans and 
they are also starting industries and 
carrying them on by up-to-date methods. 
The difference between the swords of 
Prince Ito and Count Terauchi is now 
becoming only a memory, though it l3 
evident that the sword of the Governor- 
General is mightier than that of the 
Resident-General was. 

" Turning to a review of the general 
aspect of this case, I would like to recall 
the words of the Procurator, who said 
that the Koreans were a people who 
imitated others. He said that if the ac- 
cused had been examined in open Court 
singly, as they were at the preliminary 
examination, instead of all together they 
would not have denied their con- 
fessions. I agree with him on this point. 
The Procurator also said that the 
Koreans are a people with a fondness 
for show, and their defiant attitude In 
Court was merely with the object of 
making themselves out to be brave men. 
Here again I agree with the Procurator. 
But I am of opinion that if these men 
had been examined singly in open Court 
they would have admitted anything — 
even things much more serious than 
those they have already admitted. I fur- 
ther admit that the records of the ex- 
amination of the accused were net mado 
by the officials from a preconceived idea 

L 124 ] 

of tliis case, but I think they must have 
been woven together by the authorities 
in order to make a connected story; 1 
certainly do not believe that these con- 
fessions are verbatim reports of tiie state- 
ments actually made by the accused. 1 
believe that some of them made state- 
ments which inciiminated many others, 
but these statements were made as the 
result of certain circumstances which 
were irresistible. 

Unbeuable Confessions. 

" It is quite likely that among the ac- 
cused there are men who at the time of 
the annexation greatly admired An 
Chung-keun, the assassin of Prince Ito. 
It is quite likely that some of them may 
have unthinkingly given vent to opinions 
which have led to the establishment of 
this present charge of premeditated as- 
sassination of Count Terauchi, but I 
contend that they have made statements 
which are untrue. The fact that Pak and 
Chang made statements to the effect that 
they took part in the plot, and yet were 
released, shows that even in the eyes of 
the Procurator their evidence was con- 
sidered unreliable, .^galn, there are two 
police inspectors who are implicated by 
the confessions of the accused, but these 
two men were not arrested, and they are 
still in the service. The confpss'ons ot 
the accused may have been voluntary, 
but they are no more reliable than the 
statements of a di-eamer. 

" And now I come to another point 
Are there, amonr the 123 Koreans ac- 
cused In this case, any men Inferior to 
An Chung-keun. the assassin of Prince 
Ito, and Yi Chal-myong. who made the 
attack upon the ex-Korean Premier? I 
ask the Court to lake special note of this 
point. There Is no doubt that every one 
of the men now in Court on this charge 
is of a superior character to these two 
men, whc carried out their plans single- 
handed. Yet the C^urt is asked to be- 
lieve that these 123 men, all of them 
superior to Yi and An, had not the 
courage to carry out the plan they are 
said to have formed, despite the fact that 
they were together in such large num- 
bers. Here again I declare my opinion 
that the confessions of the accused In 
regard to the conspiracy may be authen- 
tic, but their statements are like those 
of men talking in their dream. 

" Procurator Sakai has said that the 
fact that the New People's Society was 
an organisation for spreading anti-Japan- 

ese ideas was evident from a perusal of 
the composition papers written by stu- 
dents at schools like the Taisong 
school, Pyongyaiig. In making such a 
statement as this, the Procurator shows 
how he looks at things through coloured 
spectacles. The topics for composition 
lessons are generally selected from all 
sorts of subjects, and in writing upon 
a subject connected with Japan, it is 
only natural that the students should 
have put down whatever impressions 
were in their minds at the time. 

" The other barristers who have ad- 
dressed the Court have dwelt upon the 
application of the law in this case, but 
I would urge that the present case can 
be decided by applying the ordinary rules 
of common seuse. 1 should like lo know 
if the Court thinks it necessary to apply 
the law to a case which is based upon 
nothing more substantial than a lol 
of talk such as is spoken in dreams. But 
even assuming that the charge is well 
founded, let us see how the case should 
be dealt with. When the annexation was 
declared, the peninsula came under the 
same laws as those observed in Japan 
Proper. Owing to the great differcnca 
between Japanese and Korean customs, 
however, a few Articles in the old Korean 
Code were preserved, although a new Ko- 
rean Code had been promulgated. The 
punishment of criminals by whipping, 
for example, is retained; Now, I have 
had a conversation with the accused 
Chang Eung-chin in prison, and what 
he told nie I think is worth mentioning 
now as proof of my contention that 
this case should be decided in accordance 
with the dictates of common sense. 
Chang said it was a fact that a certain 
class of Koreans had feelings of enmity 
towards Japan, and he believed that from 
Japan's point of view it was necessary 
to sweep all such Koreans out of exis- 
tence in order to guarantee her adminis- 
tration of the peninsula. At the police 
headquarters, Chang went on to tell me, 
he was questioned about things of which 
he knew absolutely nothing. He made 
a statement know Ing that It was untrue, 
but he thought that the time had come 
when Japan had decided to clear out all 
those Koreans who were suspected of 
having views oppcsed to Japan. He 
thought that the result would probably 
be that those who fell under the sus- 
picion of the authorities would be ban- 
ished to some remote Islands. Now this 

[ 125 ] 

IS the view of the situation which wa- 
taken by Chang.— a man who has h;i 
a Japanese education, who has such i 
excellent knowledge of the language 
that he can compose verses, and a niai 
who thoroughly understands the genera i 
trend of the worlds affairs. When this 
man was first examined he never tboughi 
that he would be put upon his trial on ; 
charge of premeditated but unconsum- 
mated murder. Later on he toVov 
the words of the crazy Kim simply be 
cause he wanted to make up fomethin^ 
big for the preliminary examination. 
How, in such circumstances as these, 
can the old Code be applied in deciding 
the case against this man? 


" When I was young I took an activ 
part in political movements, particularly 
at the time when the struggle was goin? 
on between the Liberals and the Pro- 
gressives. The official surveillance kept 
upon us young men who acted as can- 
vassers was very strict. Among thos'^ 
who were with mo was Mr. Kawakami 
(the late actor) and Mr. Fukui Mohei 
(a well-known member of Mr. Kawaka 
mi's company). We could not deliver 
strong political speeches, so these two and 
some others hit upon another idea for 
lawakening the Japanese people from 
their slumbers. Mr. Kawakami appeared 
at the yose, where he sang a song which 
became very popular. The words were 
something like this: — 'While burning 
moxa on the eyes of a frog, ye Go 
shout at the top of your voicer, " Do 
jump further on, if you can ! " ' (Laugh, 
ter in Court.) The allusion in this 
oong was to the extreme and unneces- 
sary strictness of the official surveillance 
which was kept upon political worki'rs 
at this time. But merely being strict 
is not the whole secret of good admir' 
stration, and a car.e such as that which 
is now before the Court can be decided 
by appealing so'ely to common sense, 
for the law need not be applied to a 
case which consists of nothing more than 
dream-talking. This case, however, has 
attracted great attention; a large num- 
ber of foreigners have been • present at 
every hearing, and even the famous Miller 
murder case at Yokohama did not attract 
so much attention as this has done 
There is in my opinion no evidence to 
prove the guilt of the accused, and they 
should therefore be declared innocent." 


In opening his speech today in defence 
of Lyu Tong-sol, Mr. Okubo said that al- 
though this case had been desciibed by 
the Japanese authorities as a very grave 
one, and it had attracted a grdat deal 
of public attention, yet it struck him as 
being rather more of a coniedv anv- 
thing else. The police, however, re- 
garded it very seriously; they arrested 
VA:', men ar,d closely examined them. Th'- 
official records of these examiiiations, 
however, were full of mistakes, but it 
was essential lo know whether the con- 
fessions of the aLtused were based upon 
fact or not. Counsel proceeded: — 

" Perusal of these records suggests 
that they are detaUed confessions by the 
accused men of Mie facts of the case, but 
in open Court these same men declared 
that their statements were false, and 
that their statements had been wrun^ 
from them by torture. We barristers for 
the defence are not bound to believe 
these statement,'-, nor do we hastily ac- 
cept the allegations of torture, but we 
feel that there iaust be some particular 
reason for the men's withdrawal rf their 
former statements. 

" The accused have said that they were 
tortured, but ihey have not said how 
they were tortured, a fact wh)ch may 
have suggested to the Court that their 
statements were not to be believed. In 
regard to the evidence given by Kim II- 
choni. that he wished to assassinate a 
number of high officials in Seoul and 
Tokyo, and also wished to dispose of 
the President of the Hague Court, I can- 
not believe that his statement is true. 
He is merely a madman whose ravings 
are pure hyperbole, and his confession 
cannot be accepted as a statement of 

" The Procurator has said that he 
could not believe the allegations of tor- 
ture, as a bodily examination of each 
of the accused had failed to show any 
signs of ill-treatment. But I have been 
told that the accused, when they were 
examined at the police headquarters, were 
taken into a nicely-furnished room, an 
arrangement which I suppose was meant 
to reassure the accused that they would 
not be ill-treated at the hands of the 
mucb-dreaded police. But this unusual 
treatment may have had the effect of 
inspiring further terror and fear oi 
what might come later. I do not think 
that the accused were actually tortured. 

[ l-'iti ] 

but I do think that they had reasons 
for saying anyOiing which they though^ 
would satisfy llieir questioners in order 
to get out of the liands of the police as 
soon as possibif. It is a very easy nis<t 
ter to make up records. One of ISe au 
cused might have said by chance some- 
thing which just happened to fit in with 
what tbu' questioner had in mind. Based 
on the statement made by this individual, 
the poli';e may have put further ques- 
tions to others of the accused, and in 
this way the ofTicial records could b- 
compiled. The record of Yi Chaug-ho s 
statement says that he w-as not subjected 
to torture, yet he attempted to commit 
suicide. This, I take it, was due to his 
terror of what might happen to him, au'l 
others of the accused seem to have been 
seized w^th the same feelings of dread. 
The police regarded the confessions of 
the accused as being absolute evidence 
of their guilt, but they put too much 
reliance upon these statements, for they 
were made by tbe men simply with the 
object of getting out of the hands of th' 
police as soon as possible. No doubl 
they had the idea of denying these state- 
ments when bro-ight up for public trial, 
but their action has resulted in their be- 
ing bound by their own cords, as the 
Japanese proverb goes. Certainly they 
must have belicvea that their couiessions 
were not the only evidence the authorities 
had against them. 

" We see too from the records that the 
authorities produced two men whos; 
houses it was alleged had b«n brokei. 
into with the object of burglary, and 

Having referred to the unreasunable- 
ness of the Procurator's story of the men 
having travelled about between Chyong- 
ju and Syeu Chuen in large parties, and 
to the unreliahle evidence given by 
Chang and Pak counsel proceeded: — 

" It seems to me that this case has 
arisen out of an over-valuation by the 
polite of the importance of the confes- 
sions of the accused, who on their side 
under-estimated the importance which 
was being attached to their statements. 
The allegation in this case is that these 
men are guilty ol uuconsummateu assas- 
sination—that they went to certain rail- 
way stations in large numbers to execute 
a plot, but failed to carry out their plans. 
This fact alone seems to me to show that 
they had no int-r.tion of carrying out their 
alleged design. The Koreans are a peo- 
ple who have scarcely ever produced a 
patriot in the true sense of the word. Tl 
Chai-myong was not a patriot, but a 
vainglorious mnn, while Kim 11-chom is 
simply a madman. It is said that this 
plot was formed as part of the scheme 
for restoring the lost national indepen- 
dence, but bearing in mind the past his- 
tory of the poople, I very much doubt 
this. The alleged fact that these men 
proc<'cdPd to the railway station to kill 
the Governor-General, but made no at- 
tempt to do so, seems to me to show 
very clearly that they never had any 
definite Idea of killing that official." 

Counsel then went on to argue that 
even it the case as stated by the Pro- 
curator was established, the accused 

asked a number of the accused if they could not be punished since the crime 
had broken into the houses of these two had been suspended. It did not mat- 
men, but they did not ask these men if ter whether the suspension was volun- 
they could identify the alleged burglars, tary or was due to preventive circuiu- 
To me this method of conducting an ex- stances; all that the Court had to take 
amination is most improper; the men into consideration was that the crime 
whose houses it is said were burgled had been suspended. In rcga'f; to Yi 
should have been examined. Again, Kim Seung-lHin, counsel said that he had pro- 
Ok-hyon and three others are quoted In dueed several exhibits to prove that be 
the records as having said that they i,ad not- gone down to Nap Chyongjon? 
took a number of revolvers and buried Xrom Pyong-yang, and then proceeded to 
them on a hill, but when the police went ppeak in defence of Lyu Tong-sol, whom 
there and searched for the weapons, they ^e said was dragged Into the case by 
•could not find them, which shows that j,^^ authorities. Having denied that the 
the aroused merely Invented the story. .,(.p„g,>(] was connected with tnc con- 
In regard to Baron Yun, for tour days ^piracy, and referred to the alibi which 
he denied the police allegations against ^^^^ ijgp„ pf^^ ^^^ counsel procwded: — 
him. Then It was suggested to him that •■ Co.ns>m«.^tok" and Cou.nt 

It would be to his advantage If he coj- *- -"i-nAncni 

fcssed, and thinking that there was i xi.>iauk. . 

possibility of -..Is being released if he, "Moreover, there is a reason why 
did so he assented to all the questions, Lyu could not and would not take part 
which 'were put to him." ' In a conspiracy against Coupt Terauchl. 

[ 1^7 ] 

About 15 years ago Lyu went over to 
Japan with the object of studying in thr: 
Jlilitary Cadets' School. He tirst wanted 
to make his preparatory studies iu thf; 
Seijo school. Lyu was one of seven Ko- 
rean students wno went over to Japan 
at their own expense to study ; two 
others w-ere to Ktudy military science a*. 
the expense of the Government. At this 
time it was the rule that foreigners 
could only enter the Japanese military 
colleges by arrangement between the 
foreign Governr.ient concerned and tha 
Japanese authorities, and Lyu, not being 
a Government student, was not allowed 
to enter the prer.aratory school. Count 
Terauchi, learning the circumstances of 
the case, used his influence and got Lyu 
into the college. About nine years ago, 
iwhen a new Korean Minister was sent to 
Tokyo, he tried to send back all the Ko- 
rean students owing to the shortness ot 
funds in the Korean exchequer. Lyu 
was also to be seat back, although he was 
not a Governnient student, but again 
Count Terauchi interceded on his behalf, 
and on behalf of the other students. Thf^ 
Count, who was at that time Minister oi 
War, provided out of his own pocKet all 
the expenses tor the Korean students. 
Lyu subsequently passed from the pre- 
paratory school into the Cadets' School, 
and later on was attached to the Imperial 
Bodyguard. When the Russo-Japanese 
war broke out, Lyu was attached to the 
Japanese army, and fought for Japan at 
the head of a company of troops, and 
later on an Order of Merit was coaferred 
upon him in recognition of his services 
in the field. Lyu also became acquainted 
through Count Terauchi with General 
Hasegawa, then In command of the 
Japanese forces m tlie peninsula. It will 
thiis be seen that Lyu was under many 
obligations to Count Terauchi, whom he 
regards as his benefactor with the re- 
spect shown by a son to his father. Now, 
when Lyu went travelling through the 
country canvassing for support for a com- 
pany which he was starting, and for 
which he had Count Terauchi's approval. 
Lyu's efforts to find supporters for his 
industrial scheme have been repre- 
sented by the Procurator to have been 
efforts to get people to take part i;'; 
a plot against tne life of the man who 
had more than once proved his bene- 
factor. It has bten said that Lyu made 
Eome very strong speeches against Japan 
prior to the annexation, but that is all 
past and don-j with, and has nothing to 

do with the present serious charge which 
has been brought against him. As a 
private individual Lyu is a man ol gooa 
character, and it he wants to oppose 
Japan, be would have done so openly." 

Counsel then went to deal with some 
general aspects of the case. He com- 
plained that when evidence was brought 
disproving the Procurator's stalemeuc 
I hat the accused men had gone down by 
train in large parties from Nap Chyong- 
joug to Syen Chuen, the Procurator tooii 
refuge in the plea that the men must 
have gone down in small parties on 
loot. It was alleged that it was at Nap 
Chyongjong where some of the accused 
had committed burglaries to obtain 
funds for the conspiracy, but counsel 
doubted the authenticity of the records, 
and suspected that the conspiracy cass 
had been built up by the authoftties on 
these charges of mere burglary. But 
even if the charge was fully substantiat- 
ed, there was the question of punish- 
ment to be considered. The annexation 
had been effected without a single drop 
of blood being shed, a fact almost un- 
precedented in history, and even such 
an affair as the present case was alleged 
to be must be considered a cheap price 
to pay. If the authorities became tco 
nervous over the matter, it was out uf 
the question to expect any brilliant ex- 
ample of administrative policy in the 
new territory. After all, any attempt on 
the part of the Koreans to resist Japan- 
ese authority would be like pelting a 
rock with an egg, and counsel therefore 
urged that the Court should treat the ac- 
cused with magnanimity and generosity. 
All the accused were men of refinement, 
and it would be a terrible thing for them 
to be branded for the rest of their lives as 
ex-convicts, and it would certainly not 
be the v/ay to treat the men whose in- 
fluence is depended upon so much tor 
improving the existing conditions iu tho 
peninsula. Counsel proceeded: — 
The Position of the Foreign 


" The end of Korea's existence as an 
independent country was hastened by the 
Koreans themselves when they decided 
to appeal to the Hague Tribunal. If the 
allegations against the foreign mis- 
sionaries which have been mentioned in 
this case should unfortunately prove 
well-founded, it might be found that 
they were connected only so far as urging' 
the Koreans to make this appeal. Ac- 
cording to the records, however, it seems 

[ 1^8 ] 

that the missionaries actually instigated 
the conspirators, and did not merely sug- 
gest various st»ps with the object of 
gaining their goodwill. If the foreigners 
are really implicated to this extent, why 
have not the authorities taken proceed- 
ings against the Piissionaries? It seems 
to me that the whole of this case has 
bofn wrongly managed; the principal 
points have beej pushed into the back- 
ground, while '.he minor details have 
been kept to the front. It is probable 
that the result of this case will be that 
the Korean people will form the impres- 
sion that because the United States is 
stronger than Japan, the Japanese autho. 
Titles do not dare to take action agalusr 
the American missionaries even if they 
actually admitted their connection with 
the affajr. If the Korean people do get 
this idea, they may be led to further 
action. It is necessary, if the authoritltis 
believe that there is a conspiracy, to go 
to the very root of the matter, and if it 
is decided to punish the accused for their 
part in thi; affair as shown by the re- 
cords, then it is only proper that the 
missionaries — who from the same re- 
cords are shown to have actually in- 
stigated and assisted the plot — should 
also be punished severely." Counsel cou- 
cludt-d his speech by remarking that th-; 
protest by the barristers for the defenc! 
and tneir demand for the case to be re- 
heard before other Judges had been dis 
missed, but h'^ did not think it necessary 
now to go into the question of the Court's 
alleged partiality; personally, he believed 
tluit the Court was impartial. 


The next counsel to address the Court 
was Mr. Tak Shung-;>in, who made an able 
speech in Japanese. Counsel said tha' 
though it was rot an uncommon thing 
for prisoners to deny their totmtr con- 
fessions, yet it was remarkable that 122 
men out of 12'' should have withdrawn 
their former statements. Two other 
men, Fak and Chang, had also confessed, 
but their statei'ionts being found to ne 
false, they were discharged, but the au- 
thorities had never explained In what 
circumstances these men had made stat'' 
ments incriminating themselves. The 
Procurator said that the other prisoners' 
denials in open Court were due to their 
obstinacy. Counsel said that he saw 
the assassin ol Prince Ilo when he was 

being tried, and he also saw the trial ot 
the man who u;ade an attack upon the 
ex-Korean Premier; these men were ar- 
rogant in their demeanour and apparent- 
ly indifferent as to their fate, but the 
men accused lu the present case wer? 
all respectful ana behaved quite pro- 
perly, with the exception of Kim Il-chom. 
Counsel went on trace the growth ot 
ant i- Japanese feeling in Korea and the 
reason therefor, and said that it was 
only natural for people to try to carry 
out plans which they considered would 
benefit their country. Some Koreans 
wjere anxious lO do something to re- 
establish the independence of their coun- 
try, and this was quite a natural ambi- 

Proceeding to the case against Baron 
Yun, counsel said that the Baron had the 
advantage of a foreign education, and 
he returned to Korea when that country 
was experiencing dark days. Formerly 
a dependency o^ China, Korea — after the 
Sino-Japanese war — began to be inde- 
pendent in name and in fact. Then, 
about two years later, the country came 
under Russian influence, and Baron Yun 
was one of the leading anti-Russian lea- 
d^-rs. When Russia appointed 40 of her 
officials as Korean Government advisers. 
Baron Yun protested strongly. Counsel 
said he referred to these matters to show 
that anti-Japanese movements, like anti- 
Russian movements, are the product of 
the times, and are unavoidable. After 
the Russo-Japanese war Korea Iwcame a 
dependency of Japan, and this led to the 
expression of feelings of enmity towards 
Japan by some Koreans, but this was not 
to be taken as marking an active policy 
of opposition. Baron Yun had himself 
said in Court that though he remonstrat- 
ed at the annexation of his country by 
Japan, he realised that there was no help 
for it. It was not reasonable to expect 
Baron Yun to be as faithful to Japan 
after the annexation as he was to Korea 
before the charge, and counsel urced 
that on this ground, if on no other, the 
Court should siiow a generous altittide 
in dealing with the Baron and the other 


The next counsel for the defence was 
Mr. Chang Dow, who first dealt with 
the question of the confessions. He 
said: — 

" The Chief Procurator, I understand, 
has said that the accused all confessed 

[ 129 ] 

to the facts of this conspiracy when at 
the police headquarters and at the Pro- 
curator's Office, intending to withdraw 
them later in open Court. Now, I may 
say that even the Koreans do not thlnK 
it right to say one thing in one place, 
and something else in another. I under- 
stand that the examination of the ac- 
cused at the police headquarters was at 
tended by Major-General Akashi, the 
Chief of Police, and Commander of the 
Gendarmerie in Korea, and by Police 
Inspectors Kuuitomo and WatanaDc. 
From the fact that most of the accused 
have complained of the torture to which 
they were subjected, we must assume 
that their charges are not mere fabrica- 
tions, and I think that some sort of tor 
tur« must have been resorted to by the 
police when they examined these men. 
Nineteen days afior his arrest Baron Yun 
denied the charges made against him. 
but on the tweutieth day, when he was 
told by his examiners that they were 
about to bring in some instruments oi' 
torture, the Baron concluded — so I am 
told — that he had been dragged into th*- 
case by other men, and he feared that he 
might be forced to say something moro 
incriminating while under the pain oJ 
torture, so he admitted the statements 
which are set torth in the records. 1 
believe that torture was resorted to to 
some extent in examining the accused 
men, but owing to the Baron's social 
position it may be that this was not re- 
sorted to in his case.",. 

Counsel then briefly referred to the 
evidence of Kim Il-chom, which he said 
could not be believed, as it was too 
absurd and unconvincing. In reply to 
the Procurator's statement that the total 
membership of the New People's Society 
was about 1,200,000, counsel said that the 
Koreans as a -jLtion rather despised the 
creed of Bushido, and it was extremely 
doubtful if there was a murderous party 
among them of such enormous dimen- 
sions. Counsel then proceeded to deal 
with the charges contained in the records 
against the missionaries. 

The Relations between the " Con- 
SPIB.\T0RS " a:;d the Missionakies. 

" The relations which are said to hav.5 
existed between the accused and the for- 
eign missionaries is to me one of the 
most unsatisfactory points in connection 
with this case. Of the foreigners who 
have been mentioned, Mr. McCune is the 
prime mover. It is this man — accordlne 

to the records— who distributed revolvers 
among the accused and who addressed 
meetings of cou.spirators at the Taikeut 
bookstore. If thU was so, Mr. JlcCune 
should be already standing among the 
accused. It is impossible that one fact 
stated in the records can be true ana 
another false. This case has bee.a 
brought up for public trial solely upon 
the strength o? evidence given ny one 
man against another, yet this same evi- 
dence has not been accepted where it ap- 
plies to the foreign missionaries. I can- 
not understand how it is that if the 
authorities accept the statements of the 
accused made against each other, why 
they should allow the missionaries to 
escape the clutches of the law. But I 
do understand that this case is an ex- 
tremely grave one, on the result of which 
depends the good name of the Japanese 

Counsel then went on to argue that 
it was impossible that men like Baron 
Yun, Yi Chi-keung, and Heui-won could 
connected with any such plot as that 
which was said to exist. Yi was a man 
of splendid personal character, and al- 
though there were several records suppos- 
ed to be confessions made by him, coun- 
sel contended that the confessions must 
have been made In " some unavoidable 
circumstances." Heui-won, a man ex- 
tremely wealthy and advanced in age, 
was not likely to get mixed up in any 
such scheme as alleged, and counsel ar- 
gued that if there had been any idea of 
assassinating the Governor-General, two 
or three men at the most would have been 
sufficient to carry out the plot, instead of 
over a hundred men marching down to 
the railway stations day after day. 
Counsel proceeded: — • 

■Why the Students 'Went to the 
Railway Station. 
" A Korean can understand the Korean 
national mind better than any other man. 
Now, in my opinion, if a teacher of a 
school told his pupils that they were to 
take revolvers and go down to a railway 
station and murder someone, it is certain 
that those students would never go near 
that school again. No! There cannot be 
one such a fool as to go back to a school 
conducted by such a dangerous teacher 
As to the statement about these students 
carrying revolvers when they went down 
to Syen Chuen station to meet Count 
Terauchi, let me point out that the school 
was asked to send the students down to 

[ '30 ] 

ecoivfi the Governor-General. If the au- 
horities had not acceded to this request, 
he school would be regarded as being 
pposed to the authorities, and so the 
tudents were obliged to go down to th.> 
tation, led by Sin Hyo-pyom, the gymnas- 
ic instructor. Both the teachers and 
tudents were closely searched on being 
idm'tted to the platform, but no one was 
ound to carry a revolver. The allegation 
hat these men and students went to the 
tation all armed is based on the false 
onfessions of the men concerned. In 
hort, the story of the whole conspiracy 
eems to me to have been founded upon 
he statements of one or two men which 
lave reached the ears of the police, and 
las gradually assumed its present pro- 
lortions and become a grave evepl. The 
voreans are a happy-go-lucky people, and 
annot be regarded as a dangerous nation. 
" Now, in regard to the argument that 
his case should be dealt with as a sus- 
)ended offence. About six years ago there 
vas a case heard in Seoul in which a man 
vas charged with incendiarism. He set 
Ire to a neighbour's house, but almost 
mmediately repented, and set to work to 
extinguish the flames, which he did before 
iny serious damage was done. The Court 
Iccided that this was a suspended offence. 
\gain. in 189.i, soon after the Five Ar- 
iole Treaty was signed, a number of 
•oung Koreans formed a scheme for as- 
;assinating certain Ministers of State, but 
he plot was detected just in time. Kor.'a 
,vas then going through a period when 
[orce and pressure were being resorted to, 
uul .\rticle 86 of the old Korean Code was 
ipplied to the case. The result of this 
rial, in which I was concerned as Public 
[Voeurator, was that the men were seu- 
lenced to imprisonment for terms ranging 
ti-oni one to two years. In the 
■ase, if the accused are found guilty, they 
rannot be sentenced to less than five years' 
mprisonment if the Article mentioned by 
he Procurator is applied to the case. Now, 
considering that at a time when the 
Korean people wore subjected to force and 
Drcssure the men I have just mentioned 
were sentenced to terms far less than 
five years, is It not too severe to 
think of punishing men whose crime 
Is not aubstantiated to terms of 
Imprisonment of far more than five 
years ? The confessions of the ac- 
rused cannot be accepted, especlallT 
lho.^i> affecting the students. Even the 
labourers from Japan Proper do not 
regard the Koreans as being men of 

their own level, nor do foreigners re- 
gard the people as being the same as 
their own countrymen. It is improbable, 
even from this point alone, that the for- 
eign missionaries in the peninsula would 
have instigated the youths whom they 
were bringing up to assassinate the great 
representative of Japan in Korea. In con- 
clusion, let me urge the Court to show all 
possible lenience to the men accused of 
taking part in this affair." 

Complaints of Tortube. 

On the conclusion of Mr. Tak Sung-pin's 
speech, four of the accused who were un- 
defended were allowed to speak for them- 
selves. All of them complained of tor- 
ture, and one of them — Sob Heui-poong — 
said that he was " teased " — as the Court 
interpreter put it — for four days in suc- 
cession at the police headquarters. Ac- 
cused said: — "I was told by one of the 
officials that one man had been killed as 
a result of torture, and I was threatened 
that if 1 did not stick to the statements 
I had made, I should meet the same fate." 

Yi Keui-tang, who during hii public 
examination was reported to have saii 
that he had not been tortured, but that he 
confessed to the facts recorded tecauae 
he felt bad in the head, next rose to ad- 
dress the Court. Permission being given. 
Yi started upon a voluble statement but 
was shortly pulled up by the Judge, who 
said:—" Here. Yi, I remember you; you 
have got a wrong head, and T thi':k it is 
better that you apeak as shortly as pos- 
sible." Accused replied: — "I must say 
what I think, as I feel great resentment at 
my treatment by the police." To this 
the Judge retorted:— " Did you not say 
before that you were not tortured ? You 
i cannot retract your own words I Stop 
addressing the Court ! It is rather 
too late for that now." Yi, hrwever. 
pleaded to be allowed to finish his re- 
marks, and eventually the Court allowed 
him to proceed. He said: — 

" I wish to say a few words abr.ut the 
remark of the Procurator who said that 
I tacitly admitted that my alleged confes- 
sion was correct. I cannot un''(rstand 
how the Procurator got that idea. I never 
said that I was not tortured, but that 1 
was not badly tortured. I can give the 
Court my reasons for this. \Vhen I was 
brought to Seoul from New Wijii I wis 
left in the custody of the gendarmerie. 
At the police headquarters I was given 
rice mixed with malt for my food. Why 

[ 131 ] 

I was given such bad food I do not know. 
I denied all knowledge of the plot, bu" 
after spending three days in prison living 
on this wretched food my head was badly 
affected, and I decided to get out of my 
position by saying what I thought would 
please the authorities. It was in this way 
that my confession was obtained." 

With the close of Yi's statement, the 
Court adjourned. 




SEorr., Aug. 29. 

The revolver, pistol, pocket electric 
lamps, the couple of swords, and 
other similar exhibits, which for 
some days had not been in Court, 
were on view again to-day toge 
ther wifn the two boxes in w'uich it is 
alleged revolvers were originally kept 
As Dr. Vzawa, the Tokyo barrister, had 
not completed his investigation into the 
circumstances of the case, he was not 
ready to make his speech for the defence, 
so the Court allowed some of the accused 
who were not represented to make state- 
ments on their own behalf. 

The first man to speak was Paik Yong- 
sok, a teacher, who denied that he or his 
school were in any way connected with 
the New People's Society. He complained 
that as a result of the Court refusing to 
allow him to produce certain documents 
from his school, he had been unable to 
prove his innocence. He proceeded: - 
" It is %-ery strange that Chang and Pak 
have both been acquitted of this charge 
on the strength of the dirty evidence that 
they were in custody for another offence, 
while my application for the production 
of clean evidence — the examination of a 
teacher as a witness and the production 
of certain documents from the school — 
is rejected. The authorities seem to think 
that North Pyongan-do is the head- 
quarters of the New People's Society, but 
this is wrong; the p-eople in this province 
are very much afraid of the Government 
officials, and it is impossible that they 
should even attempt to take such action 
as has been alleged. I only ask the 
Court to give me the same generous treat 
Kent as was extended to Chang and Pak." 

The next prisoner. Pak Chion-hyong. 
protested against the dismissal of his 
application for evidence to be called in his 

defence. He said he had been a Christian 
for ten years, and would not think of kill- 
ing anyone. The present case, he thought, 
must have been based upon the statements 
of certain foolish men. At the same time, 
he realised that no protestations of ir- 
nocenc" on his part would be accepted 
by the Court, so he would not make any. 
He merely expressed the hope that the 
Court would deal with him as leniently 
as possible, as the lives of his family of 
six persons depended upon him. 

Im Chi-chyong referred to the fact that 
the New People's Society was formed in 
I Hawaii about nine years ago with tlio 
I object of encouraging Koreans to .emi- 
grate to the islands. A similar Society 
wa= formed in Pan Francisco, long be- 
fore the change in the relations between 
.Japan and Korea, so that it was wrong to 
■say that the Society was formed to as- 
sassinate high off cials. Accused went oa 
to refer to the evidence given bv Chan;^ 
and Pak. and said that the decision of 
such a case should not rest entirely upon 
I the evidence of witnesses. He nientioned 
: the case of a Korean policeman who 
' some years ago was sentenced to death 
for the murder of a man on the sirength 
of evidence given by witnesses. T/ate:* 
on the man who was believed to have been 
murdered re-appeared, and the policeman 
was released. Accused concluded his 
speech by expressing his regret at being 
in such a position while he was an in- 
nocent man. 

The Peksecution of Y.\ng Ki-t.\k. 

Yang Ki-tak, regarded as one of the 
ringleaders, and who is serving a sentence 
in connection with another political 
" offence," was the next to speak. He 
said that it was quite evident, from the 
statements which had been made by the 
accused in open Court, that they had been 
tortured in order to get their confessions. 
" As for myself," he went on, " I was 
dragged into this affair by the evidence 
given by Baron Yun, but as it has been, 
shown by the exhibits produced that 
Baron Yun was in Kaisong on the days 
I am alleged to have discussed the con- 
spiracy with him in Seoul, I should be ac- 
quitted of this charge. I was examined 
twice in connection with the charge 
against the assassin of Prince Ito, and 
twice in connection with the case against 
the man who made an attack upon Count 
Yi, but in each case I was acquitted. I am 
not very much concerned as to what hap- 
pens to me now, but I do protest against 

[ '32 ] 

being punished on a charge of which I 
am innocent." 

Ok Kwan-pin said that he, too. was on2 
of those who had been dragged into the 
case by other peoi)le. The confession of 
the man Kim was utterly unreliable, as he 
■was a madman. Accused went on to com 
plain thai the red convict garb which he 
now wore was the result of anothei man'? 
evidence given against him in connection 
with a charge of violation of the Peace 
Preservation Law. Now he had to face 
another charge in similar circumstances, 
but he could do nothing more than plead 
his innocence. 



To-day the long-expected speech by Dr. 
t'zawa was made. The celebrated Tokyo 
barrister was defending Kil Chin-hyong 
and some twenty others directly, while he 
defended all the accused indirectb. Dr. 
Uzawa spoke for about three hours, and a 
report of his speech would fill many 
columns of this paper. The apeech, how 
ever, contained references to many points 
which had been dealt with by one or other 
of the counsel who had already sitokei 
for the defence, and these parts of Dr. 
IJzawa's speech it is unnecessary to ref>r 
to at any length. His addreas, like those 
of most of the other counsel, may not 
seem to be as vigorous as might be ex 
pected. but in reading the reports of all 
these addresses it must be remembered 
that .Tapanese legal etiquette is peculiar. 
For example, the Public Procurator hav- 
ing flatly denied that torture was resorted 
to by the authorities in conducting the 
examination of the accused, counsel are 
apparently compelled to accept that de- 
nial, and generally are not disposed to 
take up an attitude strongly opposed to 
that taken by the Procurator. Whether 
this is due altogether to legal etiquette, 
or to counsel's disinclination to appear as 
sympathisers with a " grave conspiracy " 
Is more than your correspondent can say. 
Below 'will be found a summary of Dr. 
I'zawa's address which gives an idea of 
the line of argument followed: — 

" This case has attracted mort atten- 
tion, and Is being more closily followed 
abroad than In .Tapan. There Is however 
some misunderstanding on the part of 
some foreigners In connection with this 
case, due either to their ignorance of .Ta 
panese legal procedure, or to the great 

difference between Japanese practice and 
that followed in the countries of which 
these foreigners are nationals. In deal- 
ing with this case, there are two points 
to which I shall pay special attention. 
One of these points is the question of 
torture. Now the use of torture is not to 
be thought of in connection with the ire- 
sent administration, and as the Procura- 
tor himself has assured us that torturs 
was not resorted to, I am forced to accepc 
his statement and to avoid raising this 
point. But I should like to call the at- 
tention of the Procurator to this fact— 
that most of the accused whom 1 am t.) 
defend, not to speak of many of the- others, 
are Christian converts of from 5 to 20 
years' standing, some of whom are tea- 
chers and elders. Their favourite studies 
are chemistry, astronomy, algebra, ma- 
thematics, geography, and such things, 
— all sciences which have no connec- 
tion whatever with polities. I have 
been told that Count Otani, the Abbot 
of the N'ishi Hongwanji in Kyoto, 
devotes much of his time to the study 
of astronomy and mathematic;-.. par- 
ticularly because these sciences are 
based upon fact and demonstrable truth. 
N'ow 1 find it impossible to understam". 
how men who are converts to a leligion, 
and who find pleasure in such studies as 
I have mentioned, find themselves accused 
of the serious charge which has been made 
against these men. 

" This case has been dealt with in twj 
different ways. The official records upoii 
which the examination of the accused In 
open Court was based were prepared be- 
fore the new Korean Criminal Code was 
compiled and promulgated, so that we 
find these records, prepared under the old 
Law, are now being dealt with under the 
new Law. I have read these records, and 
I think those who are not acquainted with 
.Japanese law may feel somewhat dubious 
as to the real nature of the case after 
perusing these records. If Is quite na- 
tural, foo. that outsiders should have th« 
opinion that the Court was wrong in not 
granting the applications which werg 
made for calling witnesses. Anyhow, the 
statements contained In the official re- 
cords were denied by the accused, and the 
essential point to be decided Is whether 
those confessions were true or not That 
mere confessions by accused persons are 
not necessarily true may be seen from the 
so-called ynki-uchi affair (when the police- 
boxes In Tokyo were attacked by the mob 
and set on fire as a mark of popular dis- 

[ '33 ] 

approval of the conclusion of peace be- 
tween Japan and Russia). A great num- 
ber of people were arrested, and from 
the confession of one of the accused 
named Yoshizawa it seemed evident that 
all the men arrested were actually guilty 
of the charge which was brought against 
them. Further investi.gation. however, 
disclosed the fact that this man's confes- 
sion was false, and the men whom he ha'l 
implicated in the affair were released. 
The present conspiracy case sacms to 
be based upon the evidence of certain 
men who made statements incriminating 
others, not caring whether such state 
ments were founded on fact or net. The 
mere fact that the accused are members 
of the New People's Society — the object 
of which is alleged to be the killing of 
high officials — must not be the sole test 
of their guilt. Their individual charac- 
ters and social standing must also be 
taken into consideration. 

" In examining the records T found 
that the feelings of the accused in re- 
gard to the annexation of their country 
were very different. Some were repre- 
sented to have been greativ urset. ottier'' 
were not particularly interested, and 
others again had no feelings at all 
about the matter. There may have been 
some men, ignorant of the trend of world 
politics, who went so far as t^' start 
making plans for restoring the lost in- 
dependence of their country, but none 
of the men whom I am now appearing 
for were responsible for such an action. 
Kwak Tai-chong, on whose beha'f I am 
appearing, is described in the records as 
having joined the New People's Society 
knowing that the object of that Society 
was to restore the independence of 
Korea. Now, this is not the statement 
of Kwak himself, but is based upon the 
statements of others. Kwak is a man 
of education, and a religious man, and 
he and others have been praying for a 
good administration of Korea, and had 
not the least idea of joining a conspiracy 
against the new administrators. 

" They were men who were absolutelv 
resolved to observe the Ten Command- 
ments, and moreover they expressed feel- 
ings of deep regret at hearing of the 
murder of Prince Ito. In saying this 
I may lay myself open to the charge 
of having unhesitatingly placed full 
credence in the statements of the prison- 
ers, but I wish to say that their words 
have impressed me as being absolutely 
sincere, and coming straight from the 

heart. These men for whom I speak 
have been converted to Christianity for 
a period of from five to twenty years, 
while their professions were those of 
teachers, pastors etc. None of them were 
acquainted with political affairs, and 
therefore they were not the sort of men 
likely to become accomplices in a con- 
spiracy such as is alleged. What prob- 
ably happened was that they were reck- 
lessly named by some one of the me^i 
who were first examined in connection 
with the affair, just in the same way 
that innocent men were implicated in 
the yaki uchi affair to which I have al- 
ready referred. 

The Official Attitude Towards 

" There is still another important ques- 
tion to consider, — that is, the rumour 
which has been afloat that this case 
shows the intention of the authorities 
to drive Christianity out of Korea. 
Whether this allegation has any justifi- 
cation or not may be discussed when 
judgement in this case has been deliver- 
ed. Meanwhile, I should like to meu- 
tion the words of a foreign writer, 
Signor Luzzati, an Italian statesman and 
a celebrated scholar, who in his worK 
" Confessions of Conscience and Know- 
ledge " says that Japan, by an order of 
the Dajo Kwan (the former Privy Coun- 
cil), recognised the liberty of religious 
and political opinion in 1875, and later 
on guaranteed that same freedom in the 
Constitution. This freedom of SDCcch 
and opinion exists even in Japan's new 
territory, and it is quite clear that no 
change has taken place in this connec- 
tion in the administration. The accused 
for whom I speak are Christians work- 
ing for the cause of their Saviour. They 
believed that the annexation of Korea 
was the will of God. It has been said 
by some of the accused, according to 
the records, that Christianity tends to 
destroy one's national feelings and 
loyaltv. and that these men were raeroh' 
nominally converted. There may be 
such men, of course, but the decision of 
this case should distinguish the true 
believers from the unfaithful converts, 
though in doing so I hope the Court will 
not depend to any great extent upon the 
so-called confessions." 

Dr. Uzawa then went on to review 
the case as against each one of the ac- 
cused for whom he was appearing, and 
said that they were in no way con- 

[ 134 ] 

'cted with the alleged conspiracy, and 
otested that they had been dragged 
to the affair on the unsupported state- 
ent of a certain man, Counsel also 
pnt on to deal with the application oC 
le law to this case, and said that if the 
stimony in the records could be accepted 
icy would certainly be guilty of pre- 
editated but unconsumniated murder. 
It the Court must remember that a'l 
lese statements in the records were de- 
ed by the accused. Counsel said thai 
1 his opinion tne reason the plot wag 
3t carried out was not because of th" 
rict guard which was kept of the Go" 
■nor-General, but because the men had 
ever decided to execute such a plot; 
lerefore the Article mentioned by the 
rocurator as applying to this case did 
ot apply. Dr. Uzawa concluded his 
jeech by pointing out that even if the 
?cused were guilty, the terms of im- 
risonnient suggested by the Procurator 
ere too long, and he prayed that the 
ourt would give an impartial judge- 

Mr. Sakai, the Associate Procurator, 
lade a short speech dealing with the 
rgunienls put forward by counsel, which 
e said could not be accepted. 


An Tai-kuk then addressed the Court 
1 his own defence. He declared that 
e was Innocent of the charge, and tha^ 
e was also innocent of the charge for 
hich he had been previously sentencei 
nd was now wearing the convict garb 
)r. He denied being connected with 
ie scheme for settling Koreans at 
hiontao and working to brins about 
lie independence of Korea, but he was 
flvls'il by the officials to confess that 
e was connected with the scheme, as they 
lid him that Yang Ki-tak had already 
dm it led the fact. 

Yl Chaiyun, who next spoke, declared 
hat he was kept under torture for a 
lonth. A man. named Kim died as a 
(•suit of the torture to which he had 
een subjected, while another man had 
ne of his arms broken. Accused said 
e was threatened by the Procurator, 
uring the preliminary examination, that 
e would be sent back to the poli'-c head 
uarters if he did not confess. Prisoner 
dded tha It was because Pak and 
•hang had been tortured that thoy made 
ho false conlesslons about which so 
[inch had been heard. In conclusion, 
reused complained that the foreigners 

who were alleged to be the principal 
figures in the affair had escaped thi- 
clutches of the law, while he and his 
fellows, who were comparatively sub- 
ordinates, according to the prosecution, 
were in their present position. 

Choi Syong niin, the next man to 
speak in his own defence, burst Into 
tears when he rose to address the Court. 
He protested his innocence, and declared 
that he was hung up at the police head- 
quarters and beaten. He proceeded: — 
" One of the ofDcors told me that one 
man had died as a result of the torture 
to which he had been put. I then asked 
what it was they wanted me to say, 
whereupon they put the same questions 
to me as had been put to the other men, 
asking me if I did not do this and that. 
I simply replied ' yes, yes ' under the 
torture. In the Procurator's office I was 
given tobacco to smoke, and was told 
that if I repeated what I had said at 
the police headquarters I should be re- 
leased. Xow I find myself in Court, anJ 
recommended by the Procurator to Im- 
prisonment for six years. I have been 
cheated by the authorities, and demand 
to be released." 

Choi Che-kin also began to weep bitterly 
when he stood up in his place to address 
the Court. He spoke at considerable 
length, but the interpreter's version ot 
his remarks was very short, and was 
to the following effect: — 

" I was hung up by my hands and sub- 
jected to rough treatment. I was given 
a cup of water, which I thought was the 
cup of death (meaning a drink given to 
a dying man). I thought I was going to 
die. I was told that one day I should 
be released, and taken to where the re- 
volvers were supposed to have been 
buried, but nothing ever came of this, 
because my story about the burle.l revol- 
vers was a mere fabrication. I have 
been kept in custrdy all the time, al- 
though I was told 1 would be released, 
and I have thus been cheated by the 
authorities. I demand to be released." 

Prisoners Offkk to Show Marks of 

The next man, Kim Syonghaing, said" 
—■'I was bound up for about a month, 
and subjected to torture. I have still 
marks of it upon my body." The ac- 
cused .^skcd permission to show the 
marks, but the Court sternly refused to 
allow this to be don«. 

L 135 ] 

Cha Heui-syon next rose and also con- 
tradicted the Procurator's statement that 
none of the accused had any marks of 
torture upon their bodies. Accused said 
that he had niarlis of torture upon his 
body now, and repeated the statemenl 
that a man named Kim had died under 

The Crazy " Conspirator." 
After three or four other men had com- 
plained about the torture to which they 
were subjected, Kim II chom rose to 
make a statement. His first remarks 
evidently puzzled the Court interpreter, 
and the Judge remarked that he (ac- 
cused) need not trouble about going on 
with any crazy talk. Eventually the 
interpreter rendered Kim's remarks to 
this effect: — 

" The prevailing principle of the Japan- 
ese administration In Korea is the as- 

similation of the Korean people by the 
Japanese. The speeches which have 
been made by the Procurator are like 
so many lessons for us on morality. If 
conditions in the country are as stated 
by the officials, none of the 20 million 
people in Korea can be innocent of pre- 
meditated but unconsummated murder, 
and they are thus liable to imprison- 
ment. It would be an unhappy thing for 
them if they were all acquitted of the 

With this extraordinary rhodomontada 
from a crazy man, the only one out 
of the 123 accused of the crime who 
has admitted in open Court that he was 
connected with the alleged conspiracy, 
the public hearing of this extraordinary 
case came to an end, and the Presiding 
Judge announced that judgement would 
be reserved. 


Seoul, Sept. 28. 
The trial of the 123 men charged with conspiracy and with a plot to as- 
sassinate Count Terauchi, the Governor-General of Korea, came to an end to-day 
with the conviction of the accused and the passing of heavy sentences upon the 
great majority of the prisoners. 

In the course of an elaborate judgement the Court reviewed the case at great 
length, but ignored the complaints of torture and made no m'ention of the mis- 
sionaries.* The sentences were as folIowB: — 
Ten Years Penal SER^^T^JDE: — 

Yun Chi-ho, Yang Ki-tak, Im Chi-chung, Yi Seung-hun, An Tai-kuk, Lyu 

Seven Years Penal Sebvittjde: — 

Ok Kwan-pin, Chang Eung-chin, Chai Li-sik, La Il-pong, Pyen Ik-syo, Choi 
Chun-hang, Yang Chom-miung, Kim Il-chom, Syong Oo-hyok, Kwok Tai-chong, 
Choi Tok-yun, Yi Yong-wha, Kim Eung-nok, Choi Syong-chu, Hong Song-in, 
O Heui-won, Yi Keui-tang, Song Cha-hyong. 

Six Years Penal Servitude: — 

Yi Tok-whan, Yi Choon-ha, Kim Tong-won, Kim Tu-wha, Yun Sycng-un, 
Chyong Ik-no, An Kyong-nok, Sin Sang-ho, Sin Hyo-pyom, Chang Si-ook, Hong 
Song-ik, Cha Kiun-sul, Yi Yong-hyok, Kang Keui-chan, Yang Chon-paik, Yi 
Pyong che. No Hyo-ook, Kim Chang-whan, No Chung-heun, An Chun, Chyon 

[* At the time of printing, no copy of the text of judgement is available.] 

[ '36 ] 

Hlun-chik, Kim Ik-kyom. Yi Chang-slk, Yi Tai-kyong, Chai Chu-sik, Kim Chan- 
o, Cho Tok-chan. Yi Myong-yong, Im Do-mj'ong. Paik Mong-kiu. YI Keun-taik. O 
Hak-su, Chi Sang-chu, Kim Si-cham, Cliang Won-pyom, Lyu Hak-rium, Chang 
Kwan-sun, Kim Choon-keun, Paik Yong-sok. 

Five Years Penal Sebvitude: — 

O Tai-yung, Ok Song-pin, Kim Eung-cho, Yun Won-sam, Soh Heui-poong, 
An Sei-whan, Chong Chu-hiun, Yang Cliun-hoi. Son Chong-ook, Chong Tok-yuu', 
Yi Yong-wha, Kim Hyon-sik, Cha Heui-sj'on, Yi Chong-sun, La Pong-kyu, Paik 
Il-chin, Hong Kyu-mun, Cha Yung-chun, Kil Chin-hyong, Cho Yung-chun. Kang 
Pong-oo, Paik Nam-chun, O Taik-eui, Pyen-Kong-yul, La Seung-kiu, An Syong- 
che. Kim Syong-haing, Kim Yong-wha, Choi Cho-kiu. Choi Syong-mln. Yi Chai- 
yun, Yi Chi-won, Pak Sang-hun, Im Pyong-haing, Pak, Chon-hyong, Yi Pyong- 
che, Kim Pong-su, Kim Yong-o, La Eui-su, Kim Eung-pong, An Kwong-ho. 

Discharged: — 

Yi Chang-suk, Kim Chang-whan, Yi Kiu-yop, Yi Sun-ku, Kim Sun-do, Choi 
Syo-chan, Kim Song-pong, Kim Tai-hyon, Paik Mong-yong, Yi Chai-heuL Kim 
Yong-syong, Syon Oo-hun, Kim Soon-do, Yi Chalyun, Tak Chang-ho, Yi Cho-yong. 
Kim Ok-hyon. 


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